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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5546, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545090


The mitigation of rapid mass movements involves a subtle interplay between field surveys, numerical modelling, and experience. Hazard engineers rely on a combination of best practices and, if available, historical facts as a vital prerequisite in establishing reproducible and accurate hazard zoning. Full-scale field tests have been performed to reinforce the physical understanding of debris flows and snow avalanches. Rockfall dynamics are - especially the quantification of energy dissipation during the complex rock-ground interaction - largely unknown. The awareness of rock shape dependence is growing, but presently, there exists little experimental basis on how rockfall hazard scales with rock mass, size, and shape. Here, we present a unique data set of induced single-block rockfall events comprising data from equant and wheel-shaped blocks with masses up to 2670 kg, quantifying the influence of rock shape and mass on lateral spreading and longitudinal runout and hence challenging common practices in rockfall hazard assessment.

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst ; 15(6): 1149-1160, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932486


Motor imagery (MI) brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) enable us to control machines by merely thinking of performing a motor action. Practical use cases require a wearable solution where the classification of the brain signals is done locally near the sensor using machine learning models embedded on energy-efficient microcontroller units (MCUs), for assured privacy, user comfort, and long-term usage. In this work, we provide practical insights on the accuracy-cost trade-off for embedded BMI solutions. Our multispectral Riemannian classifier reaches 75.1% accuracy on a 4-class MI task. The accuracy is further improved by tuning different types of classifiers to each subject, achieving 76.4%. We further scale down the model by quantizing it to mixed-precision representations with a minimal accuracy loss of 1% and 1.4%, respectively, which is still up to 4.1% more accurate than the state-of-the-art embedded convolutional neural network. We implement the model on a low-power MCU within an energy budget of merely 198 µJ and taking only 16.9 ms per classification. Classifying samples continuously, overlapping the 3.5 s samples by 50% to avoid missing user inputs allows for operation at just 85 µW. Compared to related works in embedded MI-BMIs, our solution sets the new state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy-energy trade-off for near-sensor classification.

Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Imaginação , Redes Neurais de Computação
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248091


We report on a self-sustainable, wireless accelerometer-based system for wear detection in a band saw blade. Due to the combination of low power hardware design, thermal energy harvesting with a small thermoelectric generator (TEG), an ultra-low power wake-up radio, power management and the low complexity algorithm implemented, our solution works perpetually while also achieving high accuracy. The onboard algorithm processes sensor data, extracts features, performs the classification needed for the blade's wear detection, and sends the report wirelessly. Experimental results in a real-world deployment scenario demonstrate that its accuracy is comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms executed on a PC and show the energy-neutrality of the solution using a small thermoelectric generator to harvest energy. The impact of various low-power techniques implemented on the node is analyzed, highlighting the benefits of onboard processing, the nano-power wake-up radio, and the combination of harvesting and low power design. Finally, accurate in-field energy intake measurements, coupled with simulations, demonstrate that the proposed approach is energy autonomous and can work perpetually.

Acelerometria , Algoritmos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Tecnologia sem Fio , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Probabilidade , Temperatura
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 27(1): 265-280, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976315


Spatio-temporal edge-aware (STEA) filtering methods have recently received increased attention due to their ability to efficiently solve or approximate important image-domain problems in a temporally consistent manner - which is a crucial property for video-processing applications. However, existing STEA methods are currently unsuited for real-time, embedded stream-processing settings due to their high processing latency, large memory, and bandwidth requirements, and the need for accurate optical flow to enable filtering along motion paths. To this end, we propose an efficient STEA filtering pipeline based on the recently proposed permeability filter (PF), which offers high quality and halo reduction capabilities. Using mathematical properties of the PF, we reformulate its temporal extension as a causal, non-linear infinite impulse response filter, which can be efficiently evaluated due to its incremental nature. We bootstrap our own accurate flow using the PF and its temporal extension by interpolating a quasi-dense nearest neighbour field obtained with an improved PatchMatch algorithm, which employs binarized octal orientation maps (BOOM) descriptors to find correspondences among subsequent frames. Our method is able to create temporally consistent results for a variety of applications such as optical flow estimation, sparse data upsampling, visual saliency computation and disparity estimation. We benchmark our optical flow estimation on the MPI Sintel dataset, where we currently achieve a Pareto optimal quality-efficiency tradeoff with an average endpoint error of 7.68 at 0.59 s single-core execution time on a recent desktop machine.