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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(17): 170603, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412269

RESUMO

We investigate the statistics of the work performed during a quench across a quantum phase transition using the adiabatic perturbation theory when the system is characterized by independent quasiparticles and the "single-excitation" approximation is assumed. It is shown that all the cumulants of work exhibit universal scaling behavior analogous to the Kibble-Zurek scaling for the average density of defects. Two kinds of transformations are considered: quenches between two gapped phases in which a critical point is traversed, and quenches that end near the critical point. In contrast to the scaling behavior of the density of defects, the scaling behavior of the cumulants of work are shown to be qualitatively different for these two kinds of quenches. However, in both cases the corresponding exponents are fully determined by the dimension of the system and the critical exponents of the transition, as in the traditional Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Thus, our study deepens our understanding about the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum phase transition by revealing the imprint of the KZM on the work statistics.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(15): 150604, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050528

RESUMO

We experimentally realize protocols that allow us to extract work beyond the free energy difference from a single-electron transistor at the single thermodynamic trajectory level. With two carefully designed out-of-equilibrium driving cycles featuring kicks of the control parameter, we demonstrate work extraction up to large fractions of k_{B}T or with probabilities substantially greater than 1/2, despite the zero free energy difference over the cycle. Our results are explained in the framework of nonequilibrium fluctuation relations. We thus show that irreversibility can be used as a resource for optimal work extraction even in the absence of feedback from an external operator.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(16): 160602, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387653

RESUMO

The Clausius inequality has deep implications for reversibility and the arrow of time. Quantum theory is able to extend this result for closed systems by inspecting the trajectory of the density matrix on its manifold. Here we show that this approach can provide an upper and lower bound to the irreversible entropy production for open quantum systems as well. These provide insights on how the information on the initial state is forgotten through a thermalization process. Limits of the applicability of our bounds are discussed and demonstrated in a quantum photonic simulator.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(5): 050601, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949759

RESUMO

We develop a perturbation theory of quantum (and classical) master equations with slowly varying parameters, applicable to systems which are externally controlled on a time scale much longer than their characteristic relaxation time. We apply this technique to the analysis of finite-time isothermal processes in which, differently from quasistatic transformations, the state of the system is not able to continuously relax to the equilibrium ensemble. Our approach allows one to formally evaluate perturbations up to arbitrary order to the work and heat exchange associated with an arbitrary process. Within first order in the perturbation expansion, we identify a general formula for the efficiency at maximum power of a finite-time Carnot engine. We also clarify under which assumptions and in which limit one can recover previous phenomenological results as, for example, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency.

5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29282, 2016 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377557

RESUMO

According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench.

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