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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771483

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been considered for a long time exclusively driven by critical mutations in hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, the contribution of further players, such as stromal and immune bone marrow (BM) microenvironment components, to AML onset and progression has been pointed out. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) steadily remodel the leukemic niche, not only favoring leukemic cell growth and development but also tuning their responsiveness to treatments. The list of mechanisms driven by MSCs to promote a leukemia drug-resistant phenotype has progressively expanded. Moreover, the relative proportion and the activation status of immune cells in the BM leukemic microenvironment may vary by influencing their reactivity against leukemic cells. In that, the capacity of the stroma to re-program immune cells, thus promoting and/or hampering therapeutic efficacy, is emerging as a crucial aspect in AML biology, adding an extra layer of complexity. Current treatments for AML have mainly focused on eradicating leukemia cells, with little consideration for the leukemia-damaged BM niche. Increasing evidence on the contribution of stromal and immune cells in response to therapy underscores the need to hold the mutual interplay, which takes place in the BM. A careful dissection of these interactions will help provide novel applications for drugs already under experimentation and open a wide array of opportunities for new drug discovery.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bortezomib-based induction followed by high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (MEL200-ASCT) and maintenance treatment with lenalidomide alone is the current standard of care for young and fit patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different carfilzomib-based induction and consolidation approaches with or without transplantation and of maintenance treatment with carfilzomib plus lenalidomide versus lenalidomide alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. METHODS: UNITO-MM-01/FORTE was a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial done in 42 Italian academic and community practice centres. We enrolled transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma aged 65 years or younger with a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60% or higher. Patients were stratified according to International Staging System stage (I vs II/III) and age (<60 years vs 60-65 years) and randomly assigned (1:1:1) to KRd plus ASCT (four 28-day induction cycles with carfilzomib plus lenalidomide plus dexamethasone [KRd], melphalan at 200 mg/m2 and autologous stem-cell transplantation [MEL200-ASCT], followed by four 28-day KRd consolidation cycles), KRd12 (12 28-day KRd cycles), or KCd plus ASCT (four 28-day induction cycles with carfilzomib plus cyclophosphamide plus dexamethasone [KCd], MEL200-ASCT, and four 28-day KCd consolidation cycles). Carfilzomib 36 mg/m2 was administered intravenously on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16; lenalidomide 25 mg administered orally on days 1-21; cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 administered orally on days 1, 8, and 15; and dexamethasone 20 mg administered orally or intravenously on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, and 23. Thereafter, patients were stratified according to induction-consolidation treatment and randomly assigned (1:1) to maintenance treatment with carfilzomib plus lenalidomide or lenalidomide alone. Carfilzomib 36 mg/m2 was administered intravenously on days 1-2 and 15-16 every 28 days for up to 2 years; lenalidomide 10 mg was administered orally on days 1-21 every 28 days until progression or intolerance in both groups. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with at least a very good partial response after induction with KRd versus KCd and progression-free survival with carfilzomib plus lenalidomide versus lenalidomide alone as maintenance treatment, both assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02203643. Study recruitment is complete, and all patients are in the follow-up or maintenance phases. FINDINGS: Between Feb 23, 2015, and April 5, 2017, 474 patients were randomly assigned to one of the induction-intensification-consolidation groups (158 to KRd plus ASCT, 157 to KRd12, and 159 to KCd plus ASCT). The median duration of follow-up was 50·9 months (IQR 45·7-55·3) from the first randomisation. 222 (70%) of 315 patients in the KRd group and 84 (53%) of 159 patients in the KCd group had at least a very good partial response after induction (OR 2·14, 95% CI 1·44-3·19, p=0·0002). 356 patients were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment with carfilzomib plus lenalidomide (n=178) or lenalidomide alone (n=178). The median duration of follow-up was 37·3 months (IQR 32·9-41·9) from the second randomisation. 3-year progression-free survival was 75% (95% CI 68-82) with carfilzomib plus lenalidomide versus 65% (58-72) with lenalidomide alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0·64 [95% CI 0·44-0·94], p=0·023). During induction and consolidation, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (21 [13%] of 158 patients in the KRd plus ASCT group vs 15 [10%] of 156 in the KRd12 group vs 18 [11%] of 159 in the KCd plus ASCT group); dermatological toxicity (nine [6%] vs 12 [8%] vs one [1%]); and hepatic toxicity (13 [8%] vs 12 [8%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in 18 (11%) of 158 patients in the KRd-ASCT group, 29 (19%) of 156 in the KRd12 group, and 17 (11%) of 159 in the KCd plus ASCT group; the most common serious adverse event was pneumonia, in seven (4%) of 158, four (3%) of 156, and five (3%) of 159 patients. Treatment-emergent deaths were reported in two (1%) of 158 patients in the KRd plus ASCT group, two (1%) of 156 in the KRd12 group, and three (2%) of 159 in the KCd plus ASCT group. During maintenance, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (35 [20%] of 173 patients on carfilzomib plus lenalidomide vs 41 [23%] of 177 patients on lenalidomide alone); infections (eight [5%] vs 13 [7%]); and vascular events (12 [7%] vs one [1%]). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in 24 (14%) of 173 patients on carfilzomib plus lenalidomide versus 15 (8%) of 177 on lenalidomide alone; the most common serious adverse event was pneumonia, in six (3%) of 173 versus five (3%) of 177 patients. One patient died of a treatment-emergent adverse event in the carfilzomib plus lenalidomide group. INTERPRETATION: Our data show that KRd plus ASCT showed superiority in terms of improved responses compared with the other two treatment approaches and support the prospective randomised evaluation of KRd plus ASCT versus standards of care (eg, daratumumab plus bortezomib plus thalidomide plus dexamethasone plus ASCT) in transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib plus lenalidomide as maintenance therapy also improved progression-free survival compared with the standard-of-care lenalidomide alone. FUNDING: Amgen, Celgene/Bristol Myers Squibb. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
Blood ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727187

RESUMO

Survival of multiple myeloma (MM) has significantly improved over the last decade; however, a composed group of patients (15-20%), named high-risk (HR) MM, still experience reduced survival. Both tumor biology and suboptimal/absent responses to therapy may underlie HR definition and a clear uniform identification of risk factors is crucial for a proper management of these patients. In biologic-HRMM, MRD negativity attainment and sustain, inside and outside BM, should be the primary goal and therapy should be adapted in patients with frailty to reduce toxicity and improve quality of life. MM treatment has traditionally been tailored on age and more recently frailty or comorbidities, but very rarely on the biology of the disease, mainly because of the lack of a clear benefit derived from a specific drug/combination, inhomogeneity in HR definition and lack of data coming from prospective, properly designed clinical trials. Some attempts have been successfully made recently in this direction. In this review, we are discussing the current different definitions of HR and the need for a consensus, the results of available trials in HR patients and the way through risk-adapted treatment strategies. For this purpose, we are proposing several clinical cases of difficult-to-treat patients throughout different treatment phases.

4.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(12): e934-e946, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756169

RESUMO

Patients with multiple myeloma frequently present with substantial immune impairment and an increased risk for infections and infection-related mortality. The risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus and resulting mortality is also increased, emphasising the importance of protecting patients by vaccination. Available data in patients with multiple myeloma suggest a suboptimal anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response, meaning a proportion of patients are unprotected. Factors associated with poor response are uncontrolled disease, immunosuppression, concomitant therapy, more lines of therapy, and CD38 antibody-directed and B-cell maturation antigen-directed therapy. These facts suggest that monitoring the immune response to vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma might provide guidance for clinical management, such as administration of additional doses of the same or another vaccine, or even temporary treatment discontinuation, if possible. In those who do not exhibit a good response, prophylactic treatment with neutralising monoclonal antibody cocktails might be considered. In patients deficient of a SARS-CoV-2 immune response, adherence to measures for infection risk reduction is particularly recommended. This consensus was generated by members of the European Multiple Myeloma Network and some external experts. The panel members convened in virtual meetings and conducted an extensive literature research and evaluated recently published data and work presented at meetings, as well as findings from their own studies. The outcome of the discussions on establishing consensus recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma was condensed into this Review.

5.
Expert Rev Hematol ; : 1-14, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Availability of new classes of novel agents has led to a radical switch in treatment paradigms for newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma (NDTIMM) patients, providing an opportunity to significantly enhance the depth of response and extend survival outcomes. AREAS COVERED: Treatment regimens including proteasome inhibitors (PIs), immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and/or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have achieved recent regulatory approval for NDTIMM, while novel combinations and newer agents are currently being explored. This review discusses the current landscape and possible treatment development of NDTIMM. EXPERT OPINION: Bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (VRd), daratumumab-bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (DaraVMP) and daratumumab-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (DaraRd) represent new standard of care (SOC) treatments for NDTIMM patients, based on phase III trials showing their superior efficacy as compared with previous SOCs. The possibility of improving results by incorporating second generation PIs or using quadruple regimens has also been explored and different trials are still ongoing. Newer agents and innovative immunotherapies targeting B-cell maturation antigen have the potential to change the therapeutic landscape in coming years. Personalized approaches based on frailty-adapted, risk-based and minimal residual disease driven paradigms are under investigation.

6.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649276

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have improved survival for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, prognosis for old or unfit patients remains poor. In the INCB84344-201 (formerly GIMEMA LAL 1811) prospective, multicenter, phase 2 trial, we tested the efficacy and safety of ponatinib plus prednisone in newly diagnosed patients with Ph+ ALL aged ≥60 years, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Forty-four patients received oral ponatinib 45 mg/day for 48 weeks (core phase), with prednisone tapered to 60 mg/m2/day from days -14 to 29. Prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy was administered monthly. Median age was 66.5 years (range, 26-85). The primary endpoint (complete hematologic response [CHR] at 24 weeks) was reached in 38/44 patients (86.4%); complete molecular response (CMR) was reached in 18/44 patients (40.9%) at 24 weeks. 61.4% of patients completed the core phase. As of April 24, 2020, median event-free survival was 14.31 months (95% CI 9.30, 22.31). Median overall survival and duration of CHR were not reached; median duration of CMR was 11.6 months. Most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were rash (36.4%), asthenia (22.7%), alanine transaminase increased (15.9%), erythema (15.9%), and gamma-glutamyltransferase increased (15.9%). Cardiac and vascular TEAEs occurred in 29.5% (grade ≥3, 18.2%) and 27.3% (grade ≥3, 15.9%) of patients, respectively. Dose reductions/interruptions/discontinuations due to TEAEs occurred in 43.2%/43.2%/27.3% of patients; 5 patients had fatal TEAEs. Ponatinib and prednisone had efficacy in unfit patients with Ph+ ALL; however, a lower ponatinib dose may be more appropriate in this population. (This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01641107).

7.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644385

RESUMO

Lymphoma represents a heterogeneous hematological malignancy (HM), which is characterized by severe immunosuppression. Patients diagnosed of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the course of HM have been described to have poor outcome, with only few reports specifically addressing lymphoma patients. Here, we investigated the clinical behaviour and clinical parameters of a large multicenter cohort of adult patients with different lymphoma subtypes, with the aim of identifying predictors of death. The study included 856 patients, of whom 619 were enrolled prospectively in a 1-year frame and were followed-up for a median of 66 days (range 1-395). Patients were managed as outpatient (not admitted cohort, n=388), or required hospitalization (n=468), and median age was 63 years (range 19-94). Overall, the 30- and 100-days mortality was 13% (95%CI 11-15%) and 23% (95%CI 20-27%), respectively. Anti-lymphoma treatment, including anti-CD20 containing regimens, did not impact on survival. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma had the more favourable survival, but this was partly related to significantly younger age. The time interval between lymphoma diagnosis and COVID-19 was inversely related to mortality. Multivariable analysis recognized 4 easy-to-use factors (age, gender, lymphocyte, and platelet count) that were associated with risk of death, both in the admitted and in the not-admitted cohort (HR 3.79 and 8.85 for the intermediate and high-risk group, respectively). Overall, our study shows that patients should not be deprived of the best available treatment for their underlying disease, and indicates which patients are at higher risk of death. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 728613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660293

RESUMO

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is among the most common driver genes recurrently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), accounting for approximately 30% of cases. Activating mutations of the FLT3 receptor include internal tandem duplications (ITD) that map to the auto-inhibitory juxtamembrane (JM) domain or point mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). Several FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed in the last few years, but midostaurin is currently the only one approved for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients harboring FLT3 mutations. Here we describe for the first time a novel in-frame deletion in exon 14 (JM domain) of the FLT3 gene, that we identified in a young woman with CBFb-MYH11-positive AML. We demonstrated that this novel FLT3 variant is pathogenic, since it is responsible for constitutive activation of FLT3 receptor. Finally, ex-vivo studies demonstrated that this novel mutation is sensitive to midostaurin.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638452

RESUMO

Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative neoplasm with increased risk of thrombosis and progression to myelofibrosis. However, no disease-specific risk factors have been identified so far. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mostly of megakaryocyte (MK-EVs) and platelet (PLT-EVs) origin and, along with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-EVs, play a role in cancer and thrombosis. Interestingly, circulating microbial components/microbes have been recently indicated as potential modifiers of inflammation and coagulation. Here, we investigated phenotype and microbial DNA cargo of EVs after isolation from the plasma of 38 patients with polycythemia vera. Increased proportion of MK-EVs and reduced proportion of PLT-EVs identify patients with thrombosis history. Interestingly, EVs from patients with thrombosis history were depleted in Staphylococcus DNA but enriched in DNA from Actinobacteria members as well as Anaerococcus. In addition, patients with thrombosis history had also lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-associated EVs. In regard to fibrosis, along with increased proportion of PE-EVs, the EVs of patients with marrow fibrosis were enriched in DNA from Collinsella and Flavobacterium. Here, we identified a polycythemia-vera-specific host/microbial EV-based signature associated to thrombosis history and marrow fibrosis. These data may contribute to refining PV prognosis and to identifying novel druggable targets.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671975

RESUMO

Relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) is known to have a high burden of disease and complications associated with refractoriness to prior lines of therapy. Severe pain and fatigue symptoms and impairments in physical and emotional functioning have been strongly linked to reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with RRMM. Assessment of patient reported-outcome measures from the pivotal, Phase II HORIZON study (OP-106; NCT02963493) in patients with RRMM (n = 64) demonstrated that melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) plus dexamethasone treatment preserved HRQoL. Patients had clinically meaningful improvements, even after eight treatment cycles, in relevant scales such as global health status/QoL, physical functioning, emotional functioning, pain, and fatigue. Patients with triple-class-refractory disease (n = 50) displayed similar improvements. Patient-reported outcome deterioration was delayed for a substantial amount of time in patients who experienced a response to melflufen plus dexamethasone treatment relative to patients who did not experience a response. These findings support the notion that treatment with melflufen plus dexamethasone may sustain or improve HRQoL over time in patients with RRMM, including in patients with triple-class-refractory disease for whom outcomes are generally worse. The clinical benefits observed in patients from the HORIZON trial are encouraging and supportive of translation into real-world practice.

11.
Eur J Haematol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716957

RESUMO

The lack of a randomized trial comparing carfilzomib (K) versus elotuzumab (Elo) associated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) prompted us to assess the relative usefulness of one triplet over the other. Five independent retrospective cohorts of 883 relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients, including 300 EloRd and 583 KRd cases, outside clinical trials, entered this non-randomized comparison. KRd cohort accounted for a higher incidence of younger patients, cases with ≥3 lines of therapy, already exposed to lenalidomide, International Staging System (ISS) stage III, and abnormal lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level compared with EloRd cohort. Moreover, cytogenetic risk categories, detected in roughly one-third of cases, were equally distributed between the two therapy arms. The probability of CR+VGPR response was significantly higher in KRd (n = 314, 53.9%) than in EloRd patients (n = 111, 37.0%). Likewise, the cumulative incidence function of CR+VGPR, taking into account the competitive risk of death, was significantly higher in KRd arm patients than those in the EloRd arm (p = .003). Moreover, KRd treatment significantly reduced the progression or death risk by 46% in an adjusted multivariate analysis (HR: 0.54, 95% CI 0.42-0.69, p < .0001). Finally, in an adjusted illness-progression/death model, the effect of KRd versus EloRd was of higher magnitude among those who achieved CR+VGPR (-39% hazard ratio reduction, p = .02) than among those who achieved < VGPR (-29% hazard ratio reduction, p = .007). With limitations characteristic to any retrospective analysis, this current clinical practice study's overall results demonstrated potential benefits of KRd therapy compared with EloRd. This observation may help the daily clinical practice.

12.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535017

RESUMO

The contribution of the bone marrow (BM) immune microenvironment (TME) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development is well-known, but its prognostic significance is still elusive. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which is negatively regulated by the BIN1 proto-oncogene, is an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible mediator of immune tolerance. With the aim to develop a prognostic IDO1-based immune gene signature, biological and clinical data of 732 patients with newly diagnosed, non-promyelocytic AML were retrieved from public datasets and analyzed using established computational pipelines. Targeted transcriptomic profiles of 24 diagnostic BM samples were analyzed using the NanoString's nCounter platform. BIN1 and IDO1 were inversely correlated and individually predicted overall survival. PLXNC1, a semaphorin receptor involved in inflammation and immune response, was the IDO1-interacting gene retaining the strongest prognostic value. The incorporation of PLXNC1 into the 2-gene IDO1-BIN1 score gave rise to a powerful immune gene signature predicting survival, especially in patients receiving chemotherapy. The top differentially expressed genes between IDO1low and IDO-1high and between PLXNC1low and PLXNC1 high cases further improved the prognostic value of IDO1 providing a 7 and 10-gene immune signature, highly predictive of survival and correlating with AML mutational status at diagnosis. Taken together, our data indicate that IDO1 is pivotal for the construction of an immune gene signature predictive of survival in AML patients. Given the emerging role of immunotherapies for AML, our findings support the incorporation of immune biomarkers into current AML classification and prognostication algorithms.

13.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571965

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) are acquired clonal disorders of the hematopoietic stem cells and include Essential Thrombocythemia, Polycythemia Vera and Myelofibrosis. MPN are characterized by mutations in three driver genes (JAK2, CALR and MPL) and by a state of chronic inflammation. Notably, MPN patients experience increased risk of thrombosis, disease progression, second neoplasia and evolution to acute leukemia. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous population of microparticles with a role in cell-cell communication. The EV-mediated cross-talk occurs via the trafficking of bioactive molecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites and lipids. Growing interest is focused on EVs and their potential impact on the regulation of blood cancers. Overall, EVs have been suggested to orchestrate the complex interplay between tumor cells and the microenvironment with a pivotal role in "education" and "crafting" of the microenvironment by regulating angiogenesis, coagulation, immune escape and drug resistance of tumors. This review is focused on the role of EVs in MPN. Specifically, we will provide an overview of recent findings on the involvement of EVs in MPN pathogenesis and discuss opportunities for their potential application as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/patologia , Policitemia Vera/genética , Policitemia Vera/imunologia , Policitemia Vera/metabolismo , Policitemia Vera/patologia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/imunologia , Mielofibrose Primária/metabolismo , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/imunologia , Trombocitemia Essencial/metabolismo , Trombocitemia Essencial/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(32): 3613-3622, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To address the role of consolidation treatment for newly diagnosed, transplant eligible patients with multiple myeloma in a controlled clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The EMN02/HOVON95 trial compared consolidation treatment with two cycles of bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) or no consolidation after induction and intensification therapy, followed by continuous lenalidomide maintenance. Primary study end point was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Eight hundred seventy-eight eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive VRD consolidation (451 patients) or no consolidation (427 patients). At a median follow-up of 74.8 months, median PFS with adjustment for pretreatment was prolonged in patients randomly assigned to VRD consolidation (59.3 v 42.9 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.96; P = .016). The PFS benefit was observed across most predefined subgroups, including revised International Staging System (ISS) stage, cytogenetics, and prior treatment. Revised ISS3 stage (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.86) and ampl1q (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.04) were significant adverse prognostic factors. The median duration of maintenance was 33 months (interquartile range 13-86 months). Response ≥ complete response (CR) after consolidation versus no consolidation before start of maintenance was 34% versus 18%, respectively (P < .001). Response ≥ CR on protocol including maintenance was 59% with consolidation and 46% without (P < .001). Minimal residual disease analysis by flow cytometry in a subgroup of 226 patients with CR or stringent complete response or very good partial response before start of maintenance demonstrated a 74% minimal residual disease-negativity rate in VRD-treated patients. Toxicity from VRD was acceptable and manageable. CONCLUSION: Consolidation treatment with VRD followed by lenalidomide maintenance improves PFS and depth of response in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma as compared to maintenance alone.

15.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(11): 785-798, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 ALCYONE study, daratumumab plus bortezomib/melphalan/prednisone (D-VMP) versus bortezomib/melphalan/prednisone (VMP) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in transplant-ineligible, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. We present a subgroup analysis of ALCYONE by patient frailty status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Frailty assessment was performed retrospectively using age, Charlson comorbidity index, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score. Patients were classified as fit (0), intermediate (1), or frail (≥2); a nonfrail category combined fit and intermediate patients. RESULTS: Among randomized patients (D-VMP, n = 350; VMP, n = 356), 391 (55.4%) were nonfrail (D-VMP, 187 [53.4%]; VMP, 204 [57.3%]) and 315 (44.6%) were frail (163 [46.6%]; 152 [42.7%]). After 40.1-months median follow-up, nonfrail patients had longer PFS and OS than frail patients, but benefits of D-VMP versus VMP were maintained across subgroups: PFS nonfrail (median, 45.7 vs. 19.1 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; P < .0001), frail (32.9 vs. 19.5 months; HR, 0.51; P < .0001); OS nonfrail (36-month rate, 83.6% vs. 74.5%), frail (71.4% vs. 59.0%). Improved greater than or equal to complete response and minimal residual disease (10-5)-negativity rates were observed for D-VMP versus VMP across subgroups. The 2 most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (nonfrail: 39.2% [D-VMP] and 42.4% [VMP]; frail: 41.3% and 34.4%) and thrombocytopenia (nonfrail: 32.8% and 36.9%; frail: 36.9% and 39.1%). CONCLUSION: Our findings support the clinical benefit of D-VMP in transplant-ineligible NDMM patients enrolled in ALCYONE, regardless of frailty status.

16.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 13(1): e2021046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276915

RESUMO

Over the past decade, we have witnessed significant advances in the molecular characterization of systemic mastocytosis (SM). This has provided important information for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease but has also practically impacted the way we diagnose and manage it. Advances in molecular testing have run in parallel with advances in therapeutic targeting of constitutive active KIT, the major driver of the disease. Therefore, assessing the molecular landscape in each SM patient is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and therapeutic efficacy monitoring. This is facilitated by the routine availability of novel technologies like digital PCR and NGS. This review aims to summarize the pathogenesis of the disease, discuss the value of molecular diagnostic testing and how it should be performed, and provide an overview of present and future therapeutic concepts based on fine molecular characterization of SM patients.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202238

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy caused by a wide range of alterations responsible for a high grade of heterogeneity among patients. Several studies have demonstrated that the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) plays a crucial role in AML pathogenesis and therapy response. This review article summarizes the current literature regarding the effects of the dynamic crosstalk between leukemic stem cells (LSCs) and hypoxic BMM. The interaction between LSCs and hypoxic BMM regulates fundamental cell fate decisions, including survival, self-renewal, and proliferation capacity as a consequence of genetic, transcriptional, and metabolic adaptation of LSCs mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1α and some of their targets have been associated with poor prognosis in AML. It has been demonstrated that the hypoxic BMM creates a protective niche that mediates resistance to therapy. Therefore, we also highlight how hypoxia hallmarks might be targeted in the future to hit the leukemic population to improve AML patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reprogramação Celular , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Blood ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269818

RESUMO

In patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), daratumumab reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 44% in MAIA (daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone; D-Rd) and 58% in ALCYONE (daratumumab/bortezomib/melphalan/prednisone; D-VMP). Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a sensitive measure of disease and response to therapy. MRD-negativity status and durability were assessed in MAIA and ALCYONE. MRD assessments using next-generation sequencing (10-5) occurred for patients achieving complete response (CR) or better, and after ≥CR at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months from the first dose. Progression-free survival (PFS) by MRD status and sustained MRD negativity lasting ≥6 and ≥12 months were analyzed in the intent-to-treat population and among patients achieving ≥CR. In MAIA, (D-Rd, n=368; Rd, n=369), and ALCYONE (D-VMP, n=350; VMP, n=356), the median duration of follow-up was 36.4 months and 40.1 months, respectively. MRD-negative status and sustained MRD negativity lasting ≥6 and ≥12 months were associated with improved PFS, regardless of treatment group. However, daratumumab-based therapy improved rates of MRD negativity lasting ≥6 months (D-Rd, 14.9% vs Rd, 4.3%; D-VMP, 15.7% vs VMP, 4.5%) and ≥12 months (D-Rd, 10.9% vs Rd, 2.4%; D-VMP, 14.0% vs VMP, 2.8%), both of which translated to improved PFS versus control groups. In a pooled analysis, patients who were MRD negative had improved PFS versus patients who were MRD positive. Patients with NDMM who achieved MRD-negative status or sustained MRD negativity had deep remission and improved clinical outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02252172 (MAIA); NCT02195479 (ALCYONE).

19.
Blood ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289038

RESUMO

We explored minimal residual disease (MRD) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) and transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (TIE NDMM) using data from four phase 3 studies (POLLUX, CASTOR, ALCYONE, and MAIA). Each study previously demonstrated that daratumumab-based therapies improved MRD-negativity rates and reduced the risk of disease progression or death by approximately half versus standards of care. We conducted a large-scale pooled analysis for associations between patients achieving complete response (CR) or better with MRD-negative status, and progression-free survival (PFS). MRD was assessed via next-generation sequencing (10‒5 threshold). Patient-level data were pooled from all four studies, and for patients with TIE NDMM plus patients with RRMM who received ≤2 prior lines of therapy (≤2PL). PFS was evaluated by response and MRD status. Median follow-up (months) was: POLLUX, 54.8; CASTOR, 50.2; ALCYONE, 40.1; and MAIA, 36.4. Patients who achieved ≥CR and MRD negativity had improved PFS versus those who failed to reach CR or were MRD positive (TIE NDMM and RRMM hazard ratio [HR] 0.20, P < .0001; TIE NDMM and RRMM ≤2PL HR 0.20, P < .0001). This benefit occurred irrespective of therapy or disease setting. A time-varying Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that ≥CR with MRD negativity was associated with improved PFS. Daratumumab-based treatment was associated with more patients reaching ≥CR and MRD negativity. These findings represent the first large-scale analysis with robust methodology to support ≥CR with MRD negativity as a prognostic factor for PFS in RRMM and TIE NDMM. These trials were registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02076009/NCT02136134/NCT02195479/NCT02252172.

20.
Hematol Rep ; 13(2): 8814, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249291

RESUMO

Many diseases can induce splenomegaly, however, about 5% of splenomegalies are idiopathic. When there is no underlying treatable cause, and the splenomegaly significantly affects the quality of life, splenectomy is the best therapeutic choice. A 67-year-old woman had idiopathic and asymptomatic splenomegaly. The increase in splenomegaly resulted in hypersplenism with cytopenia and symptoms related to abdominal discomfort. The patient underwent splenectomy which led to clinical improvement. A histological examination showed the presence of hematopoietic tissue. Peripheral blood Next Generation Sequencing with the myeloid panel SOPHiA Genetics showed the following mutations: ASXL1, SRSF2, KRAS and TET2. Three out of these four mutations were also found in the splenic tissue. Next Generation Sequencing could be useful in the diagnosis of splenomegalies associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms otherwise defined as idiopathic, in order to address a therapeutic strategy.

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