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1.
Int J Drug Policy ; 72: 189-194, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prisoners and other high-risk patients who show a sustained virological response (SVR) after treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can become reinfected. We aimed to calculate the rate of HCV reinfection in a large cohort of inmates with SVR and to determine factors that predict reinfection. METHODS: We included all inmates treated for hepatitis C in Catalonia (Spain) from January 2002 to December 2016 who achieved SVR and in whom viral load was subsequently determined. The incidence rate was calculated per 100 person-years (100 py) of follow up. Risk factors associated with reinfection were evaluated by bivariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression. Hazard ratio (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: 602 patients were included, with a mean age of 37.9 years: 95% were men, 74.1% had a history of intravenous drug use (IDU) and 28.7% were HIV-infected. Patients were followed for a total of 2154.9 years (average 3.58 ± 3.1 years). 63 (10.5%) had HCV reinfection. 41 (65.1%) presented different genotype/subgenotype, 8 the initial genotype/subgenotype, and in 14 (22.2%) the genotype could not be determined. Of the 21 reinfected patients who were interviewed, 20 (95.2%) reported IDU after antiviral treatment, and 7 (33.3%) during treatment. The overall incidence of reinfection was 2.9 cases per 100 py. All reinfections occurred in patients with IDU history. At multivariate level, HIV infection was associated with reinfection (HR = 3.03; CI:1.82-5.04). CONCLUSION: In HIV-infected inmates with IDU history, the rate of reinfection of HCV post-SVR is very high. Prisons play a key role in the detection and treatment of infection and reinfection by HCV and in the post-treatment monitoring in these patients, which should be combined with counseling and the optimization of the harm reduction programs. Effective control of these vulnerable groups favours the elimination of the HCV infection.

2.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171411

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Well-coordinated multidisciplinary teams are essential for better tuberculosis (TB) control. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of Spanish Society of Pneumology (SEPAR) accreditation of TB Units (TBU) and to determine differences between the accredited and non-accredited centers. DESIGN: Observational descriptive study based on a self-administered survey from October 2014 to February 2018 completed by 139 heads of respiratory medicine departments collected by SEPAR, before and after TBU accreditation. VARIABLES: demographic, epidemiological and contact tracing (CT) variables, among others. ANALYSIS: basic descriptive analysis, and calculation of medians for continuous variables and proportions for categorical variables. The variables were compared using the Chi-squared test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The response rate was 54.7% and 43.2% in the pre- and post-TBU accreditation period, respectively. No differences were observed in the care and coordination variables between the pre- and post-accreditation survey, nor in the organization when only accredited centers were analyzed. When we compared the accredited and non-accredited centers, significant differences were detected in the collection of the final conclusion, management of resistance, coordination with other departments, contact tracing, and directly observed treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The approach of different professionals with regard to TB has been addressed. Positive aspects and areas for improvement have been detected, and better results were observed in the accredited versus non-accredited centers. A closer supervision of TBUs is necessary to improve their effectiveness.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215322, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contacts of people with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) have a high risk of becoming infected and developing tuberculosis (TB). Our aim was to determine the incidence of TB and its risk factors in a cohort of contacts with latent TB infection (LTBI) detected through contact tracing of smear-positive PTB cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study including contacts that had LTBI, and were contacts of people with PTB who started treatment between 2008 and 2014. We followed up contacts until they developed TB or until the end date for follow-up (31st December 2016). We used Kaplan-Meier curves to compute incidence at 2 and 5 years, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analyzed 3097 close contacts of 565 PTB cases. After exclusion of 81 co-prevalent TB cases, 953 contacts had LTBI, of which 14 developed TB. Their risk of developing TB after two and five years was 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.6) and 1.8% (CI: 1.1-3.1) respectively. Contacts who had not been referred for LTBI treatment had a 1.0% (CI: 0.2-4.0) risk at 5 years. Risk of developing TB at 5 years was 1.2% (CI: 0.5-3.0) among people who completed treatment, and 11.1% (CI: 5.1-23.3) for those who did not. Risk factors for TB were not completing LTBI treatment (HR 9.4, CI: 2.9-30.8) and being female (HR 3.5, CI: 1.1-11-3). CONCLUSIONS: LTBI treatment plays a fundamental role in decreasing the risk of developing TB. It is necessary to achieve a maximum contact tracing coverage and the highest possible compliance with LTBI treatment.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 144, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last few years, pertussis has re-emerged worldwide. The aim of this article is to study how the incidence of the disease has evolved in Barcelona city over a 16-year period, and determine which factors are associated with the evolution of the disease. We discuss the causes of the observed changes considering different possibilities such as vaccination coverage, vaccine effectiveness, increased surveillance or the effect of the current economic recession. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, observational, population-based descriptive study using data for the 2000-2015 period from the notifiable diseases register maintained by Barcelona Public Health Agency. We used Poisson regression to compute adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 1791 cases were registered. The incidence of the disease increased throughout the city from 2011 onwards. While children under 1 year of age had the highest-incidence and were the most at risk (aOR = 27.18, CI:23.51-31.44), we found that the age of affected children was higher in the last years. Incidence proportion (PRR) was lower among foreign-born children than native children (PRR = 0.43 CI:0.32-0.58). In the whole-cell vaccine period (2000-2004), the percentage of cases under 1 year of age who received the vaccine was lower than in 2005-2015 when the acellular vaccine was used (p = 0.01), suggesting a lower efficacy of the acellular vaccine. However, vaccination coverage in children under 6 years remained high (~ 90%), and there were no significant year-to-year variations (p = 0.757). Moreover, there did not appear to be any significant restrictions in medical care. According to the index of disposable household income (DHI), pertussis incidence increased from 2011 onwards in all neighbourhoods and remained higher in those with lower DHI. CONCLUSIONS: The noteworthy increase in pertussis incidence does not seem to be due to the economic recession, but to other factors here described.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Vigilância da População , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Coqueluche/imunologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
7.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A huge outbreak in the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) has hit Europe during the years 2016-2018. Outbreak control has been hampered by vaccine shortages in many countries, and to minimize their impact, reduction of antigen doses has been implemented. However, these measures may have consequences on the evolution of hepatitis A virus (HAV), leading to the emergence of antigenic variants. Cases in vaccinated MSM patients have been detected in Barcelona, opening the possibility to study HAV evolution under immune pressure. METHODS: We performed deep-sequencing analysis of ten overlapping fragments covering the complete capsid coding region of HAV. A total of 14578255 reads were obtained and used for the analysis of virus evolution in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated patients. We estimated maximum and minimum mutation frequencies, and Shannon entropy in the quasispecies of each patient. Non-synonymous (NSyn) mutations affecting residues exposed in the capsid surface were located, with respect to epitopes, using the recently described crystal structure of HAV, as an indication of its potential role in escaping to the effect of vaccines. FINDINGS: HAV evolution at the quasispecies level, in non-vaccinated and vaccinated patients, revealed higher diversity in epitope-coding regions of the vaccinated group. Although amino acid replacements occurring in and around the epitopes were observed in both groups, their abundance was significantly higher in the quasispecies of vaccinated patients, indicating ongoing processes of fixation. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest positive selection of antigenic variants in some vaccinated patients, raising concerns for new vaccination polices directed to the MSM group.

8.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 151(10): 390-396, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174026

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: El objetivo es conocer la evolución de la enfermedad meningocócica en la ciudad de Barcelona entre 1988 y 2015 y evaluar el impacto de la vacuna contra el serogrupo C. Materiales y métodos: Se analizó la evolución de casos de enfermedad meningocócica y por serogrupo a partir del registro de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria. Se comparó la incidencia de todos los serogrupos antes y después de la introducción de la vacunación contra el serogrupo C en el año 2000. Se analizó la cobertura vacunal entre los casos, el serogrupo entre casos vacunados y la tasa de mortalidad y letalidad. Resultados: La enfermedad meningocócica ha pasado de una incidencia en menores de un año de 63,09 casos por 100.000 en 1997-2000 a 15,44 en 2001-2015. Todos los serogrupos han disminuido su incidencia tras la implementación vacunal, especialmente en niños de uno a 4 años para el C. A partir del 2000 la cobertura vacunal en los casos por este serogrupo era del 7,6% y en los afectos por el B era del 35,0% (p<0,01). De los vacunados, el 66,4% de los casos fue serogrupo B y un 5,2% fue C (p<0,01). La tasa global de letalidad y de mortalidad fue del 7,7% y del 0,19/100.000 respectivamente, sin cambios significativos en el tiempo en cuanto a la letalidad. Conclusiones: La incidencia por serogrupo C y también por B ha disminuido tras la vacunación sistemática contra el serogrupo C. La vacunación contra el serogrupo B podría reducir aún más esta grave enfermedad con una letalidad importante que no ha disminuido en todo el periodo


Introduction and objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of meningococcal disease (MD) in the city of Barcelona between 1988 and 2015 and to assess the impact of the vaccine against serogroup C. Materials and methodology: The evolution of MD and by serogroup was analysed using the information included in the mandatory notification diseases registry. Incidences of all serogroups between the periods of before and after the implementation of the serogroup C vaccine in 2000 were compared. Vaccination coverage among cases, serogroup among vaccinated cases and mortality and case fatality rates were analysed. Results: MD has evolved from an incidence rate in children aged under 1 of 63.09 cases per 100,000 in 1997-2000 to 15.44 per 100,000 in 2001-2015. All MD serogroups incidences decreased after the implementation of the vaccine, especially for serogroup C among children aged between 1 and 4. Since 2000 vaccine coverage in MD cases by this serogroup was 7.6% while in those affected by serogroup B it was 35.0% (p<.01). Among those vaccinated, 66.4% of cases were serogroup B and 5.2% were C (p<.01). Mortality and case fatality rates were 7.7% and 0.19/100,000 respectively, without significant changes in time regarding case fatality. Conclusions: Incidence caused by serogroups B and C has decreased after the systematic vaccination against serogroup C. Vaccination against serogroup B could further reduce the impact of this lethal disease which has not decreased during this period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/uso terapêutico , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C , Mortalidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/mortalidade , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Incidência , Notificação de Doenças , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudo Observacional , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
9.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(supl.1): 3-9, sept. 2018. graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177030

RESUMO

En España, los esfuerzos realizados en la prevención del VIH han sido insuficientes y, desde el año 2000, su incidencia permanece estable, por encima de la media europea. Se estima que en España viven entre 130.000 y 160.000 personas con VIH; de ellas, el 18% desconoce estar infectado y la mitad recibe el diagnóstico de forma tardía, lo que conlleva peor evolución, menor esperanza y calidad de vida, y mayores costes. El retraso diagnóstico es mayor en heterosexuales, usuarios de drogas inyectadas, mayores de 50 años e inmigrantes, mientras que los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres son el único grupo donde aumentan los nuevos diagnósticos. Se estima que hasta el 34% de las personas con VIH presentan carga viral detecta-ble, principalmente debido a barreras que dificultan su diagnóstico, como el insuficiente acceso a la prueba y la baja percepción del riesgo tanto por personas que desconocen estar infectadas como por los profesionales


In Spain, HIV incidence has remained stable and higher than the European average since 2000 due to insuf-ficient prevention measures. An estimated 130,000-160,000 people are believed to be living with HIV in Spain, including 18% who do not know they are infected, and half are late diagnoses, with a poorer clinical course, lower quality of life and life expectancy, as well as higher costs. Late diagnosis is more common in heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, people over 50 years of age and immigrants, whereas men who have sex with men are the only group where the rate of new diagnoses is increasing. An estimated 34% of people with HIV have a detectable viral load, mainly due to barriers that hinder diagnosis such as insufficient testing availability and the low risk perception of undiagnosed individuals and healthcare professionals


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Grupos de Risco , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Incidência
10.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36 Suppl 1: 3-9, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115405

RESUMO

In Spain, HIV incidence has remained stable and higher than the European average since 2000 due to insuf-ficient prevention measures. An estimated 130,000-160,000 people are believed to be living with HIV in Spain, including 18% who do not know they are infected, and half are late diagnoses, with a poorer clinical course, lower quality of life and life expectancy, as well as higher costs. Late diagnosis is more common in heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, people over 50 years of age and immigrants, whereas men who have sex with men are the only group where the rate of new diagnoses is increasing. An estimated 34% of people with HIV have a detectable viral load, mainly due to barriers that hinder diagnosis such as insufficient testing availability and the low risk perception of undiagnosed individuals and healthcare professionals.

12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 47(7): 2027-2034, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014338

RESUMO

This study explored the role of circuit parties on the incidence of gonorrhea among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Barcelona (Spain). Specifically, it aimed to detect cyclic peaks in the number of reported diagnoses of gonorrhea after gay circuit parties. We analyzed monthly cases of gonorrhea reported from January 2007 through December 2016 after the main annual gay circuit parties in Barcelona. We used the integer autoregressive model for time series with discrete values. The performance of the model was tested in heterosexual men and women, in whom the circuit parties could be expected to have no impact. A sensitivity analysis was conducted, changing post-event diagnosis windows to 1 week later/1 week before. In the study period, a total of 4182 of gonorrhea cases were detected, of which 74.8% (n = 2181) occurred in men who identified themselves as MSM. The average annual increase in gonorrhea cases reported among MSM was 32.57%. In an independent analysis of each gay circuit party, cases increased significantly in two of them. The results were also similar for same-sex practices among men only. On controlling for the increasing trend over the study period and the seasonal effect, an average of 1.16 gonorrhea cases in MSM (95% CI: 0.68, 1.64) were attributable to the celebration of one of the gay circuit parties considered. During the expected outbreak, an average of 13 gonorrhea cases were detected and between 5 and 13% were attributable to one of the circuit parties. In view of these findings, participants should consider seeking advice from their healthcare provider and practice safer sex using condoms to prevent sexually transmitted infections. Local public health services should be reinforced to ensure care for participants during and after gay circuit parties. More research is needed to design and implement preventive programs.

13.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-20, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972098

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the methodological characteristics of publications on HIV and masculinity, to identify possible information gaps and determine the main thematic areas. A systematic review was conducted of gender, masculinity, HIV infection and other sexually-transmitted infections in original articles published between 1992 and 2015. Original studies published from Pubmed and Scopus were included. A total of 303 articles were identified, of which 187 were selected. Most of the studies were qualitative and the most widely used technique was the interview. Twenty-nine-point five percent of studies were performed in South Africa, 20.8% in the USA, and 3.2% in Europe. Fifteen percent of the studies were performed in heterosexuals, 12.8% in men who have sex with men, and 60% did not specify the sexual orientation of the population. Eight thematic areas were defined, the most frequent being sexuality and risk behaviours, defined by men's need to demonstrate they were sexually active and a breadwinner. Most studies on HIV and masculinity show a gender bias by not specifying the sexual identity of the population. Studies should consider diversity in sexual and cultural identity in different contexts, including in Europe, to carry out more effective HIV interventions from a masculinity perspective.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 94(6): 443-448, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a pilot intervention programme using gay geosocial mobile applications (apps) to offer rapid HIV and other STI tests to men who have sex with men (MSM) in Barcelona between December 2015 and March 2016. METHODOLOGY: We offered rapid HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C testing by sending private messages on apps for sexual and social encounters. Acceptance was defined as the proportion of users who favourably responded to the message and effectiveness was defined as the proportion of users who attended our facilities among those who were interested in attending. To identify variables associated with the response to the messages, multivariate logistic regression was used. Adjusted OR (ORa) and 95% CIs were calculated. We collected information on sociodemographics, sexual behaviours and app usage from the contacted user profiles and from users who attended our facilities. A descriptive analysis was carried out. RESULTS: 2656 individual messages were sent. Overall, a 38.4% response rate was obtained, 83.0% of them found it acceptable to receive the unsolicited message, and 73.2% effectiveness was obtained. Responders had higher odds of being 45 years or older (ORa=1.48; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.08), being connected at the moment the message was sent or during the previous hour (ORa=1.92; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.68), having a profile photo not exposing bare chest or abdomen (ORa=1.44; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.92) and using the Grindr app (ORa=1.39; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.73). Of those who were tested and took the survey (n=77), 45.5% had not taken an HIV test in over a year, 24.7% had had a previous STI diagnosis, 51.4% had reported anal sex without condom and 52% had consumed alcohol or drugs for sex. CONCLUSIONS: The response rate, acceptance and effectiveness observed in this study indicate that this strategy could be a useful tool for promoting STI testing among high-risk MSM population.

16.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 151(10): 390-396, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of meningococcal disease (MD) in the city of Barcelona between 1988 and 2015 and to assess the impact of the vaccine against serogroup C. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: The evolution of MD and by serogroup was analysed using the information included in the mandatory notification diseases registry. Incidences of all serogroups between the periods of before and after the implementation of the serogroup C vaccine in 2000 were compared. Vaccination coverage among cases, serogroup among vaccinated cases and mortality and case fatality rates were analysed. RESULTS: MD has evolved from an incidence rate in children aged under 1 of 63.09 cases per 100,000 in 1997-2000 to 15.44 per 100,000 in 2001-2015. All MD serogroups incidences decreased after the implementation of the vaccine, especially for serogroup C among children aged between 1 and 4. Since 2000 vaccine coverage in MD cases by this serogroup was 7.6% while in those affected by serogroup B it was 35.0% (p<.01). Among those vaccinated, 66.4% of cases were serogroup B and 5.2% were C (p<.01). Mortality and case fatality rates were 7.7% and 0.19/100,000 respectively, without significant changes in time regarding case fatality. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence caused by serogroups B and C has decreased after the systematic vaccination against serogroup C. Vaccination against serogroup B could further reduce the impact of this lethal disease which has not decreased during this period.

18.
Ann Intern Med ; 167(10): 689-697, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114781

RESUMO

Background: Expanding latent tuberculosis treatment is important to decrease active disease globally. Once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 doses is effective but limited by requiring direct observation. Objective: To compare treatment completion and safety of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine by self-administration versus direct observation. Design: An open-label, phase 4 randomized clinical trial designed as a noninferiority study with a 15% margin. Seventy-five percent or more of study patients were enrolled from the United States for a prespecified subgroup analysis. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01582711). Setting: Outpatient tuberculosis clinics in the United States, Spain, Hong Kong, and South Africa. Participants: 1002 adults (aged ≥18 years) recommended for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Intervention: Participants received once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine by direct observation, self-administration with monthly monitoring, or self-administration with weekly text message reminders and monthly monitoring. Measurements: The primary outcome was treatment completion, defined as 11 or more doses within 16 weeks and measured using clinical documentation and pill counts for direct observation, and self-reports, pill counts, and medication event-monitoring devices for self-administration. The main secondary outcome was adverse events. Results: Median age was 36 years, 48% of participants were women, and 77% were enrolled at the U.S. sites. Treatment completion was 87.2% (95% CI, 83.1% to 90.5%) in the direct-observation group, 74.0% (CI, 68.9% to 78.6%) in the self-administration group, and 76.4% (CI, 71.3% to 80.8%) in the self-administration-with-reminders group. In the United States, treatment completion was 85.4% (CI, 80.4% to 89.4%), 77.9% (CI, 72.7% to 82.6%), and 76.7% (CI, 70.9% to 81.7%), respectively. Self-administered therapy without reminders was noninferior to direct observation in the United States; no other comparisons met noninferiority criteria. A few drug-related adverse events occurred and were similar across groups. Limitation: Persons with latent tuberculosis infection enrolled in South Africa would not routinely be treated programmatically. Conclusion: These results support using self-administered, once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine to treat latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, and such treatment could be considered in similar settings when direct observation is not feasible. Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação , Rifampina/análogos & derivados , Autoadministração , Adulto , Antibióticos Antituberculose/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antituberculose/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas de Alerta , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Mensagem de Texto
19.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187893, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135988

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections since 2004 and to determine its associated factors. Acute HCV infections diagnosed in Barcelona from 2004 to 2015 were included. Incidence ratios (IR) were then estimated for sex and age groups. Cases were grouped between 2004-2005, 2006-2011 and 2012-2015, and their incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated. In addition, risk factors for acute HCV infection were identified using multinomial logistic regression for complete, available and multiple imputed data. 204 new HCV cases were identified. Two peaks of higher IR of acute HCV infection in 2005 and 2013 were observed. Men and those aged 35-54 had higher IR. IRR for men was 2.9 times greater than in women (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.8 ‒ 4.7). Factors related to the period 2012-2015 (versus 2006-2011) were: a) sexual risk factor for transmission versus nosocomial (relative-risk ratio (RRR): 13.0; 95% CI: 2.3 ‒ 72.1), b) higher educated versus lower (RRR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.6 ‒ 18.7), and c) HIV co-infected versus not HIV-infected (RRR: 53.1; 95% CI: 5.7 ‒ 492.6). This is one of the few studies showing IR and RRRs of acute HCV infections and the first focused on a large city in Spain. Sexual risk for transmission between men, higher educational level and HIV co-infection are important factors for understanding current HCV epidemic. There has been a partial shift in the pattern of the risk factor for transmission from nosocomial to sexual.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
J Infect ; 75(5): 426-432, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the value of the clinical symptoms included in the case definition of pertussis in household contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases. METHODS: A prospective epidemiological study was made in two Spanish regions. Household contacts were identified for each confirmed case reported during 2012 and 2013. Two clinical samples were taken to determine the presence or absence of Bordetella pertussis by culture or real-time PCR. Clinical variables, age and vaccination status were recorded. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR, NLR) were estimated for each symptom. RESULTS: 2852 household contacts of 688 confirmed cases were reported. 178 household contacts with clinical symptoms were analyzed: 150 were laboratory confirmed and 28 were not. The clinical symptom with the highest PLR in comparison with the NLR was paroxysmal cough(PLR 4.76; 95% CI 1.91-11.87 and NLR 0.37; 95% CI 0.28-0.49). The contrast between the PLR and NLR was especially important for persons aged <18 years (PLR 7.08; 95% CI 1.10-45.74 and NLR 0.32; 95% CI 0.21-0.49). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical symptoms of pertussis are poor predictors of pertussis disease, independently of the vaccination status. Differences were observed between persons aged <18 years and adults. To adopt the appropriate treatment and control measures, rapid laboratory confirmation by PCR of all household contacts of confirmed cases who present any clinical symptoms compatible with pertussis should be recommended.


Assuntos
Coqueluche/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/diagnóstico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
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