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1.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724032

RESUMO

Although Spain is a developed country, Tuberculosis (TB) was for years a disease with high incidence rates compared to other European countries, a situation that worsened with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and with the increase of immigration. The Spanish Respiratory Society (SEPAR) created in 2004 the Integrated Research Programs (PII) on respiratory diseases, including TB (PII-TB) which has carried out studies related to the five lines of research that it maintains: clinical / epidemiological, microbiological, technological/clinical management, evaluative, and international cooperation. Following the recommendations on the necessity to evaluate health programs made by international organizations, the evaluation of PII-TB was recently carried out, revealing the situation of the main variables of the disease and their evolution over the time that the program has been working. PII-TB has generated abundant data on the situation of this disease in our country in years when this information has been limited. The fact that the results of the studies have been widely disseminated makes it easier for all professionals involved in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB to implement and/or to improve activities that, finally, will contribute to the control of this disease.

2.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since there are active drugs against tuberculosis (TB), the most effective control measures are to assure treatment adherence and to perform contact tracing. Given the long treatment duration and characteristics of some TB patients, threats that put at risk treatment adherence may appear. Identify and address them is essential to achieve the objectives of disease control. OBJECTIVES: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of TB patients and the incidents and threats occurring during treatment, to describe the interventions performed to enhance treatment adherence and to determine if there are differences among native and foreign-born patients in the TB clinical unit of a referral hospital in the inner city of Barcelona. METHODS: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was performed. We recorded information on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, incidents and interventions during treatment in all patients with TB diagnosed between September 2013 and August 2016. RESULTS: 172 patients were included, 62.2% were foreign-born. The most common incidents and threats were medication-related complications (43.0%), missed follow-up visits (34.3%), communication problems (25.6%), comorbidities complications (23.8%), trips (19.2%), fear of social rejection (16.9%) and change of address (14.5%). The adherence-promoting interventions were: follow-up calls, directly observed treatment, medical and humanitarian reports, extra visits and cultural mediation. Incidents and interventions were more frequent in foreign-born patients, however there were no differences in treatment success among Spanish and foreign-born. CONCLUSION: In this inner city several incidents occurred during TB treatment that can threaten adherence and are more common among foreign-born patients. Coordination among professionals from different healthcare settings was able to overcome obstacles in most cases and achieve TB treatment completion.

3.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 56(8): 514-521, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446667

RESUMO

New evidence and knowledge about the clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the last 3 years, makes it necessary to update the recent guideline published by SEPAR in 2017, mainly in relation to new diagnostic methods, drug classification, and regimens of treatment recommended to treat patients with isoniazid-resistance TB, rifampicin resistance TB and multidrug-resistant TB. With respect to tuberculosis diagnosis, we recommend the use of rapid molecular assays that also help to detect mutations associated with resistance. In relation to the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB we prioritize effective all-oral shorter treatment regimens including bedaquiline, a fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin or moxifloxacin), bedaquiline and linezolid, instead of the previously recommended short-course treatment with aminoglycosides and other less effective and more toxic drugs. The design of these regimens (initial schedule and changes in the regimen if necessary) should be made in accordance with drug-resistant TB experts; the treatment should be the responsibility of personnel with experience in the treatment of TB and in TB units guaranteeing the follow-up of the treatment and the management of drugs adverse effects.

4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e14568, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social and sexual interrelationships, thanks to the websites and apps created to this end. However, these resources can also encourage sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures in relation to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). How can users be helped to benefit from the advantages of these apps while keeping in mind those preventive measures? OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to prevent STIs by helping users to remember preventive measures in the risky situations. METHODS: We have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a software system. This system has two parts: an Android operating system app with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and gamification as well as a server with a webpage. First, a functional test with 5 men who have sex with men (MSM) allowed us to test the app with end users. In addition, a feasibility test with 4 MSM for a month allowed us to try the UBESAFE system with all its functionalities. RESULTS: The main output is a system called UBESAFE that is addressed to MSM. The system has two main parts: (1) an app that sends preventive contextualized messages to users when they use a contact app or when they are near a point where sexual contacts are likely and (2) a server part that was managed by the public health agency of Barcelona (ASPB), which preserves the quality and pertinence of messages and places and offers instant help to users. To increase users' adherence, UBESAFE uses a gamified system to engage users in the creation of preventive messages. Users increased the initial pool of messages by more than 100% (34/30) and created more than 56% (9/16) of places (named hot zones). CONCLUSIONS: The system helped MSM who used it to become conscious about HIV and other STIs. The system also helped the ASPB to stay in contact with MSM and to detect behaviors that could benefit from preventive measures. All functions were performed in a nonintrusive manner because users used the app privately. Furthermore, the system has shown how important it is to make users a part of the creation process as well as to develop apps that work by themselves and thus become useful to the users.

5.
Eur J Public Health ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044956

RESUMO

In 2012, the Spanish government enforced a healthcare exclusion policy against undocumented immigrants. The newly elected government has recently derogated this policy. To analyze how this decree could have affected population health, we looked at primary health patients who would have been excluded and compared with a matched sample of non-excluded patients. Potentially excluded patients had decreased odds of: depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyslipidaemia, heart failure and hypertension while diabetes mellitus rates were similar to non-excluded. Infectious diseases were more frequent in potentially excluded population (HIV, tuberculosis and syphilis). The exclusion of patients impedes the control of infectious diseases at a community level.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with a history of tuberculosis (TB) have a high probability of recurrence because long-term cure is not always maintained in successfully treated patients. The aim of this study was to identify the probability of TB recurrence and its predictive factors in a cohort of socially vulnerable patients who completed treatment in the TB referral center in Catalonia, which acts as the center for patients with social and health problems. METHODS: This retrospective open cohort study included all patients diagnosed with TB who were admitted and successfully treated in Serveis Clínics between 2000 and 2016 and who remained disease-free for a minimum of 1 year after treatment completion. We calculated the incidence density of TB recurrences per person-years of follow-up. We also estimated the cumulative incidence of TB recurrence at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years of follow-up. Bivariate analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: There were 839 patients and 24 recurrences (2.9%), representing 0.49 per 100 person-years. The probability of a recurrence was 0.63% at 1 year of follow-up, 1.35% at 2 years, and 3.69% at 5 years. The multivariate analysis showed that the predictive factors of recurrence were age older than 34 years (aHR = 3.90; CI = 1.06-14.34 at age 35-45 years and aHR = 3.88; CI = 1.02-14.80 at age >45 years) and resistance to at least one anti-TB drug (aHR = 2.91; CI = 1.11-7.65). CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be paid to socially vulnerable persons older than 34 years with a previous episode of resistant TB. Surveillance resources should be directed toward adequately treated patients who nevertheless have a high risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(4): 647-656, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797155

RESUMO

There is conflicting evidence about factors associated with failure to complete treatment (FCT) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We aim to identify the geographic, sociodemographic, and medical factors associated with FCT in Portugal, highlighting the two main metropolitan areas of Porto and Lisbon. We performed a retrospective cohort study including LTBI patients that started treatment in Portugal between 2013 and 2017. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using multivariable logistic regression to identify geographic, sociodemographic, and medical factors associated with FCT. Data on completion of treatment were available for 15,478 of 17,144 patients (90.3%). Of those, 2132 (13.8%) failed to complete treatment. Factors associated with FCT were being older than 15 years (aOR, 1.65 (95% CI = 1.34-2.05) for those aged 16 to 29), being born abroad (aOR, 2.04 (95% CI = 1.19-3.50) for Asia; aOR, 1.57 (95% CI = 1.24-1.98) for Africa), having a chronic disease (aOR, 1.29 (95% CI = 1.04-1.60)), alcohol abuse (aOR, 2.24 (95% CI = 1.73-2.90)), and being intravenous drug user (aOR, 1.68 (95% CI = 1.05-2.68)). Three-month course treatment with isoniazid plus rifampicin was associated with decreased FCT when compared with 6- or 9-month courses of isoniazid-only (aOR, 0.59 (95% CI = 0.45-0.77)). In Lisbon metropolitan area, being born in Africa, and in Porto metropolitan area, alcohol abusing and being intravenous drug user were distinctive factors associated with FCT. Sociodemographic and medical factors associated with FCT may vary by geographical area and should be taken into account when planning interventions to improve LTBI treatment outcomes. This study reinforces that shorter course treatment for LTBI might reduce FCT.

8.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 56(2): 90-98, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171411

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Well-coordinated multidisciplinary teams are essential for better tuberculosis (TB) control. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of Spanish Society of Pneumology (SEPAR) accreditation of TB Units (TBU) and to determine differences between the accredited and non-accredited centers. DESIGN: Observational descriptive study based on a self-administered survey from October 2014 to February 2018 completed by 139 heads of respiratory medicine departments collected by SEPAR, before and after TBU accreditation. VARIABLES: demographic, epidemiological and contact tracing (CT) variables, among others. ANALYSIS: basic descriptive analysis, and calculation of medians for continuous variables and proportions for categorical variables. The variables were compared using the Chi-squared test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The response rate was 54.7% and 43.2% in the pre- and post-TBU accreditation period, respectively. No differences were observed in the care and coordination variables between the pre- and post-accreditation survey, nor in the organization when only accredited centers were analyzed. When we compared the accredited and non-accredited centers, significant differences were detected in the collection of the final conclusion, management of resistance, coordination with other departments, contact tracing, and directly observed treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The approach of different professionals with regard to TB has been addressed. Positive aspects and areas for improvement have been detected, and better results were observed in the accredited versus non-accredited centers. A closer supervision of TBUs is necessary to improve their effectiveness.

9.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-5854

RESUMO

Con el objetivo de favorecer la rápida identificación de los contactos de pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 y por tanto el control de la pandemia, se revisaron diferentes metodologías y recomendaciones sobre estudio de contactos (EECC) aplicables a la Atención Primaria (AP) y a la Salud Pública (SP): artículos en Pubmed sobre COVID-19 y EECC, definiciones de contacto en documentos oficiales, el sistema clásico de EECC en tuberculosis (TB), informaciones sobre apps para EECC y el papel de las pruebas diagnósticas. Para establecer medidas de prevención y control eficientes, se precisa actuar siempre bajo sospecha clínica, diagnóstico y aislamiento precoz de los casos y de los contactos y su seguimiento. El modelo clásico de EECC en TB es aplicable a esta nueva infección pero acelerando el proceso dado su carácter agudo y su potencial gravedad. Es imprescindible una buena coordinación entre AP y SP y disponer de recursos suficientes


The aim of this study was to promote the rapid identification of the contacts of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and therefore the control of the pandemic. Different methodologies and recommendations on contact tracing for Primary Health Care (PHC) and Public Health Services (PHS), like articles in Pubmed about COVID-19 and contact tracing, official contact definitions, the classic contact tracing model in tuberculosis (TB), information about apps for contact tracing and the role of the diagnostic tests, were reviewed. To establish efficient prevention and control measures, it is always necessary to implement contact tracing based on clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and isolation of cases and contacts and their follow-up. The classic contact tracing model in TB can be applied to this new infection, but accelerating the process given its acute nature and its potential severity. Good coordination between PHC and PHS and having sufficient resources is essential

10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4707-4716, dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1055739

RESUMO

Resumen Esta etnografía se realizó en Barcelona, ciudad que ofrece diferentes recursos de ocio homosexual, como las saunas gay. El objetivo fue analizar desde los estudios sobre género y masculinidades, cómo se articula la sexualidad, la percepción sobre la infección por VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), y las medidas preventivas en trabajadores sexuales masculinos (TSM) usuarios de saunas gay. Se realizaron 10 entrevistas en profundidad y observación entre 2012 y 2016. Las prácticas de sexo seguro son más frecuentes con clientes, mientras que las de riesgo se realizan más con parejas no comerciales. La orientación sexual juega un rol relevante, los homosexuales asumen más prácticas de riesgo en el trabajo sexual que los heterosexuales. Consumo de drogas o la escasez de redes de apoyo se relacionaron con mayor vulnerabilidad social y conductas de riesgo. Contraer el VIH aún genera miedo, mientras que tener otras ITS se percibe como parte de la vida sexual de un hombre. El TSM afianza una masculinidad con múltiples parejas sexuales, breadwinner y por otra parte, cuestiona un modelo heteronormativo. Las intervenciones para la prevención del VIH e ITS en este colectivo, deberían considerar los determinantes sociales como las precarias alternativas laborales y el ofrecer mayor soporte social.


Abstract This ethnography was conducted in Barcelona, a city that provides different gay leisure resources, such as gay saunas. We aimed to analyze from studies on gender and masculinities, how sexuality, perception of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preventive measures are articulated in gay sauna male sex workers (MSW). Ten in-depth interviews and observation were conducted between 2012 and 2016. Safe sex practices are more frequent with clients, while risk practices are carried out more with non-commercial partners. Sexual orientation plays an important role. Homosexuals assume riskier practices in sex work than heterosexuals. Drug use or lack of support networks were associated with higher social vulnerability and risk behaviors. Contracting HIV still creates fear, while having other STIs is perceived as part of a man's sexual life. The MSW affirms masculinity with concurrent sexual partners, breadwinner, and on the other hand, questions a heteronormative model. Interventions for the prevention of HIV and STIs in this group should consider social determinants such as inferior work alternatives and the provision of more significant social support.

11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4707-4716, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778520

RESUMO

This ethnography was conducted in Barcelona, a city that provides different gay leisure resources, such as gay saunas. We aimed to analyze from studies on gender and masculinities, how sexuality, perception of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preventive measures are articulated in gay sauna male sex workers (MSW). Ten in-depth interviews and observation were conducted between 2012 and 2016. Safe sex practices are more frequent with clients, while risk practices are carried out more with non-commercial partners. Sexual orientation plays an important role. Homosexuals assume riskier practices in sex work than heterosexuals. Drug use or lack of support networks were associated with higher social vulnerability and risk behaviors. Contracting HIV still creates fear, while having other STIs is perceived as part of a man's sexual life. The MSW affirms masculinity with concurrent sexual partners, breadwinner, and on the other hand, questions a heteronormative model. Interventions for the prevention of HIV and STIs in this group should consider social determinants such as inferior work alternatives and the provision of more significant social support.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Banho a Vapor , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Apoio Social , Espanha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the trend of variables related to tuberculosis (TB) from the Integrated Tuberculosis Research Program (PII-TB) registry of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR), and to evaluate the PII-TB according to indicators related to its scientific objectives. METHOD: Cross-sectional, population-based, multicenter study of new TB cases prospectively registered in the PII-TB between 2006 and 2016. The time trend of quantitative variables was calculated using a lineal regression model, and qualitative variables using the χy test for lineal trend. RESULTS: A total of 6,892 cases with an annual median of 531 were analyzed. Overall, a significant downward trend was observed in women, immigrants, prisoners, and patients initially treated with 3 drugs. Significant upward trends were observed in patients aged 40-50 and > 50 years, first visit conducted by a specialist, hospitalization, diagnostic delay, disseminated disease and single extrapulmonary location, culture(+), sensitivity testing performed, drug resistance, directly observed treatment, prolonged treatment, and death from another cause. The scientific objectives of the PII-TB that showed a significant upward trend were publications, which reached a maximum of 8 in 2016 with a total impact factor of 49,664, numbers of projects initiated annually, presentations at conferences, and theses. CONCLUSIONS: PII-TB provides relevant information on TB and its associated factors in Spain. A large team of researchers has been created; some scientific aspects of the registry were positive, while others could have been improved.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245340

RESUMO

Introduction: Children younger than 2 years have an increased risk of complications associated with tuberculosis (TB) due to the immaturity of the innate and adaptive immune response. We aimed to identify TB clinical presentations and outcomes as well as risk factors for complications in this age group. Materials and Methods: Multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study of TB cases in children aged <2 years in Catalonia (2005-2013). Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from the hospital medical records. TB complications, sequelae included, were defined as any tissue damage generating functional or anatomical impairment after being diagnosed or after TB treatment being completed. Statistical analyses were based on bivariate chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, and it was carried out with Stata® version 13.1. Odds ratios (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated (CI). Results: A total of 134 patients were included, 50.7% were male, the median [IQR] age was 13[8-18] months, and 18.7% (25/134) showed TB-associated complications. Pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 94.0% (126/134) of children, and the most common complications were lobar collapse (6/126). TB meningitis was diagnosed in 14/134 (10.4%), and hydrocephalus and mental impairment occurred in 1 and 2 patients, respectively. Two patients with spinal TB developed vertebral destruction and paraplegia, respectively. Only one of the patients died. At multivariate level, tachypnea (OR = 4.24; 95% CI 1.17-15.35) and meningeal (OR = 52.21; 95% CI 10.05-271.2) or combined/extrapulmonary forms (OR = 11.3; 95% CI 2.85-45.1) were associated with the development of TB complications. Discussion: TB complications are common in children under 2 years old. Extrapulmonary TB forms in this pediatric age remain a challenge and require prompt diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent them. The presence of tachypnea at the time of TB diagnosis is an independent associated factor to the development of TB complications in infants. This clinical sign should be closely monitored in patients in this age group. It is necessary to perform further studies in this age group in a prospective design in order to understand whether there are other factors associated to TB complications.

14.
Int J Drug Policy ; 72: 189-194, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prisoners and other high-risk patients who show a sustained virological response (SVR) after treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can become reinfected. We aimed to calculate the rate of HCV reinfection in a large cohort of inmates with SVR and to determine factors that predict reinfection. METHODS: We included all inmates treated for hepatitis C in Catalonia (Spain) from January 2002 to December 2016 who achieved SVR and in whom viral load was subsequently determined. The incidence rate was calculated per 100 person-years (100 py) of follow up. Risk factors associated with reinfection were evaluated by bivariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression. Hazard ratio (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: 602 patients were included, with a mean age of 37.9 years: 95% were men, 74.1% had a history of intravenous drug use (IDU) and 28.7% were HIV-infected. Patients were followed for a total of 2154.9 years (average 3.58 ± 3.1 years). 63 (10.5%) had HCV reinfection. 41 (65.1%) presented different genotype/subgenotype, 8 the initial genotype/subgenotype, and in 14 (22.2%) the genotype could not be determined. Of the 21 reinfected patients who were interviewed, 20 (95.2%) reported IDU after antiviral treatment, and 7 (33.3%) during treatment. The overall incidence of reinfection was 2.9 cases per 100 py. All reinfections occurred in patients with IDU history. At multivariate level, HIV infection was associated with reinfection (HR = 3.03; CI:1.82-5.04). CONCLUSION: In HIV-infected inmates with IDU history, the rate of reinfection of HCV post-SVR is very high. Prisons play a key role in the detection and treatment of infection and reinfection by HCV and in the post-treatment monitoring in these patients, which should be combined with counseling and the optimization of the harm reduction programs. Effective control of these vulnerable groups favours the elimination of the HCV infection.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215322, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contacts of people with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) have a high risk of becoming infected and developing tuberculosis (TB). Our aim was to determine the incidence of TB and its risk factors in a cohort of contacts with latent TB infection (LTBI) detected through contact tracing of smear-positive PTB cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study including contacts that had LTBI, and were contacts of people with PTB who started treatment between 2008 and 2014. We followed up contacts until they developed TB or until the end date for follow-up (31st December 2016). We used Kaplan-Meier curves to compute incidence at 2 and 5 years, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analyzed 3097 close contacts of 565 PTB cases. After exclusion of 81 co-prevalent TB cases, 953 contacts had LTBI, of which 14 developed TB. Their risk of developing TB after two and five years was 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.6) and 1.8% (CI: 1.1-3.1) respectively. Contacts who had not been referred for LTBI treatment had a 1.0% (CI: 0.2-4.0) risk at 5 years. Risk of developing TB at 5 years was 1.2% (CI: 0.5-3.0) among people who completed treatment, and 11.1% (CI: 5.1-23.3) for those who did not. Risk factors for TB were not completing LTBI treatment (HR 9.4, CI: 2.9-30.8) and being female (HR 3.5, CI: 1.1-11-3). CONCLUSIONS: LTBI treatment plays a fundamental role in decreasing the risk of developing TB. It is necessary to achieve a maximum contact tracing coverage and the highest possible compliance with LTBI treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/mortalidade , Tuberculose Latente/transmissão , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 144, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last few years, pertussis has re-emerged worldwide. The aim of this article is to study how the incidence of the disease has evolved in Barcelona city over a 16-year period, and determine which factors are associated with the evolution of the disease. We discuss the causes of the observed changes considering different possibilities such as vaccination coverage, vaccine effectiveness, increased surveillance or the effect of the current economic recession. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, observational, population-based descriptive study using data for the 2000-2015 period from the notifiable diseases register maintained by Barcelona Public Health Agency. We used Poisson regression to compute adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 1791 cases were registered. The incidence of the disease increased throughout the city from 2011 onwards. While children under 1 year of age had the highest-incidence and were the most at risk (aOR = 27.18, CI:23.51-31.44), we found that the age of affected children was higher in the last years. Incidence proportion (PRR) was lower among foreign-born children than native children (PRR = 0.43 CI:0.32-0.58). In the whole-cell vaccine period (2000-2004), the percentage of cases under 1 year of age who received the vaccine was lower than in 2005-2015 when the acellular vaccine was used (p = 0.01), suggesting a lower efficacy of the acellular vaccine. However, vaccination coverage in children under 6 years remained high (~ 90%), and there were no significant year-to-year variations (p = 0.757). Moreover, there did not appear to be any significant restrictions in medical care. According to the index of disposable household income (DHI), pertussis incidence increased from 2011 onwards in all neighbourhoods and remained higher in those with lower DHI. CONCLUSIONS: The noteworthy increase in pertussis incidence does not seem to be due to the economic recession, but to other factors here described.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Vigilância da População , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Coqueluche/imunologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
17.
Glob Public Health ; 14(5): 601-620, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972098

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the methodological characteristics of publications on HIV and masculinity, to identify possible information gaps and determine the main thematic areas. A systematic review was conducted of gender, masculinity, HIV infection and other sexually-transmitted infections in original articles published between 1992 and 2015. Original studies published from Pubmed and Scopus were included. A total of 303 articles were identified, of which 187 were selected. Most of the studies were qualitative and the most widely used technique was the interview. Twenty-nine-point five percent of studies were performed in South Africa, 20.8% in the USA, and 3.2% in Europe. Fifteen percent of the studies were performed in heterosexuals, 12.8% in men who have sex with men, and 60% did not specify the sexual orientation of the population. Eight thematic areas were defined, the most frequent being sexuality and risk behaviours, defined by men's need to demonstrate they were sexually active and a breadwinner. Most studies on HIV and masculinity show a gender bias by not specifying the sexual identity of the population. Studies should consider diversity in sexual and cultural identity in different contexts, including in Europe, to carry out more effective HIV interventions from a masculinity perspective.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Masculinidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
EBioMedicine ; 39: 348-357, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A huge outbreak in the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) has hit Europe during the years 2016-2018. Outbreak control has been hampered by vaccine shortages in many countries, and to minimize their impact, reduction of antigen doses has been implemented. However, these measures may have consequences on the evolution of hepatitis A virus (HAV), leading to the emergence of antigenic variants. Cases in vaccinated MSM patients have been detected in Barcelona, opening the possibility to study HAV evolution under immune pressure. METHODS: We performed deep-sequencing analysis of ten overlapping fragments covering the complete capsid coding region of HAV. A total of 14578255 reads were obtained and used for the analysis of virus evolution in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated patients. We estimated maximum and minimum mutation frequencies, and Shannon entropy in the quasispecies of each patient. Non-synonymous (NSyn) mutations affecting residues exposed in the capsid surface were located, with respect to epitopes, using the recently described crystal structure of HAV, as an indication of its potential role in escaping to the effect of vaccines. FINDINGS: HAV evolution at the quasispecies level, in non-vaccinated and vaccinated patients, revealed higher diversity in epitope-coding regions of the vaccinated group. Although amino acid replacements occurring in and around the epitopes were observed in both groups, their abundance was significantly higher in the quasispecies of vaccinated patients, indicating ongoing processes of fixation. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest positive selection of antigenic variants in some vaccinated patients, raising concerns for new vaccination polices directed to the MSM group.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Adulto , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Antígenos da Hepatite A/genética , Antígenos da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quase-Espécies , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Vacinação
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