Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 13 de 13
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ecology ; 100(12): e02861, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380568

RESUMO

Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non-standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale-dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation on species' assemblages, it is necessary to have the underlying data on species abundances and sampling intensity, so that standardization can be achieved. To accomplish this, we systematically searched the literature for studies where abundances of species in assemblages (of any taxa) were sampled from many habitat patches that varied in size. From these, we extracted data from several studies, and contacted authors of studies where appropriate data were collected but not published, giving us 117 studies that compared species assemblages among habitat fragments that varied in area. Less than one-half (41) of studies came from tropical forests of Central and South America, but there were many studies from temperate forests and grasslands from all continents except Antarctica. Fifty-four of the studies were on invertebrates (mostly insects), but there were several studies on plants (15), birds (16), mammals (19), and reptiles and amphibians (13). We also collected qualitative information on the length of time since fragmentation. With data on total and relative abundances (and identities) of species, sampling effort, and affiliated meta-data about the study sites, these data can be used to more definitively test hypotheses about the role of habitat fragmentation in altering patterns of biodiversity. There are no copyright restrictions. Please cite this data paper and the associated Dryad data set if the data are used in publications.

2.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(12): 1906-1917, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455437

RESUMO

Plant functional traits directly affect ecosystem functions. At the species level, trait combinations depend on trade-offs representing different ecological strategies, but at the community level trait combinations are expected to be decoupled from these trade-offs because different strategies can facilitate co-existence within communities. A key question is to what extent community-level trait composition is globally filtered and how well it is related to global versus local environmental drivers. Here, we perform a global, plot-level analysis of trait-environment relationships, using a database with more than 1.1 million vegetation plots and 26,632 plant species with trait information. Although we found a strong filtering of 17 functional traits, similar climate and soil conditions support communities differing greatly in mean trait values. The two main community trait axes that capture half of the global trait variation (plant stature and resource acquisitiveness) reflect the trade-offs at the species level but are weakly associated with climate and soil conditions at the global scale. Similarly, within-plot trait variation does not vary systematically with macro-environment. Our results indicate that, at fine spatial grain, macro-environmental drivers are much less important for functional trait composition than has been assumed from floristic analyses restricted to co-occurrence in large grid cells. Instead, trait combinations seem to be predominantly filtered by local-scale factors such as disturbance, fine-scale soil conditions, niche partitioning and biotic interactions.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantas , Florestas , Pradaria
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(33): E7863-E7870, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072434

RESUMO

The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win-win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win-win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia
4.
Crit Care Med ; 46(6): 892-899, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Overall mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a composite endpoint because it includes death from multiple causes. In most acute respiratory distress syndrome trials, it is unknown whether reported deaths are due to acute respiratory distress syndrome or the underlying disease, unrelated to the specific intervention tested. We investigated the causes of death after contracting acute respiratory distress syndrome in a large cohort. DESIGN: A secondary analysis from three prospective, multicenter, observational studies. SETTING: A network of multidisciplinary ICUs. PATIENTS: We studied 778 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with lung-protective ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We examined death in the ICU from individual causes. Overall ICU mortality was 38.8% (95% CI, 35.4-42.3). Causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome modified the risk of death. Twenty-three percent of deaths occurred from refractory hypoxemia due to nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome. Most patients died from causes unrelated to acute respiratory distress syndrome: 48.7% of nonsurvivors died from multisystem organ failure, and cancer or brain injury was involved in 37.1% of deaths. When quantifying the true burden of acute respiratory distress syndrome outcome, we identified 506 patients (65.0%) with one or more exclusion criteria for enrollment into current interventional trials. Overall ICU mortality of the "trial cohort" (21.3%) was markedly lower than the parent cohort (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43-0.70; p < 0.000001). CONCLUSIONS: Most deaths in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients are not directly related to lung damage but to extrapulmonary multisystem organ failure. It would be challenging to prove that specific lung-directed therapies have an effect on overall survival.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia
5.
Science ; 358(6364)2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123035

RESUMO

The study by Bastin et al (Reports, 12 May 2017, p. 635) is based on an incomplete delimitation of dry forest distribution and on an old and incorrect definition of drylands. Its sampling design includes many plots located in humid ecosystems and ignores critical areas for the conservation of dry forests. Therefore, its results and conclusions may be unreliable.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0180702, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877166

RESUMO

Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves) were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016). At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated. Nesting of insectivorous birds, chiefly Great tit (Parus major), and sparrows (Passer domesticus and P. montanus) increased over time, averaging 60% per field site in the vineyard and fruit orchards by the fourth year. Use of nest boxes by sparrows and by Garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus) was high at the fruit orchards (70%) and the vineyard (30%), respectively. Micro-habitat characteristics (nest box level) and meso-habitat characteristics (patch level) strongly affected use of nest boxes and bird breeding (i.e. number of laid eggs and produced chicks) in different years. Distance to natural or semi-natural vegetation did not consistently affect bird breeding, nor did we see consistent evidence of competition between adjacent breeding birds. Predation rates of sentinel caterpillars were approximately one-third higher near boxes with nesting birds (31.51 ± 43.13%) than at paired distant areas without nest boxes (22.45% ± 38.58%). Food consumption by insectivorous birds per ha and breeding season were conservatively estimated to range from 0.02 kg in one fruit orchard to 0.15 kg in the vineyard. We conclude that installation of nest boxes in Mediterranean woody crops enhances populations of insectivorous birds that regulate pests, but that the effects are moderate and highly context-dependent.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Geografia , Larva/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Espanha
7.
Am J Bot ; 104(4): 608-615, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428197

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. METHODS: We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences. We experimentally increased the availability of resources for the inflorescences by removing half of the inflorescences per twig or reduced resource availability by removing leaves. We also removed the apical flower to test its inhibitory effect on subapical flowers. KEY RESULTS: The apical flower had the highest probability of being hermaphroditic. Further down, however, the probability of finding a hermaphroditic flower decreased from the base to the tip of the inflorescences. An experimental increase of resources increased the probability of finding hermaphroditic flowers at each position, and vice versa. Removal of the apical flower increased the probability of producing hermaphroditic flowers in proximal positions but not in subapical positions. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an interaction between resource competition and architectural constraints in influencing the arrangement of the hermaphroditic and male flowers within the inflorescences of the wild olive tree. Subapical flowers did not seem to be hormonally suppressed by apical flowers. The study of these unusual positional effects is needed for a general understanding about the functional implications of inflorescence architecture.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Olea/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Olea/anatomia & histologia , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia , Árvores/anatomia & histologia
8.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0171072, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301482

RESUMO

Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks. Our main objective is to describe the patterns of above ground biomass (AGB) stocks across major tropical forests across climatic gradients in Northwestern South America. We gathered data from 200 plots across the region, at elevations ranging between 0 to 3400 m. We estimated AGB based on allometric equations and values for stem density, basal area, and wood density weighted by basal area at the plot-level. We used two groups of climatic variables, namely mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration as surrogates of environmental energy, and annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, and water availability as surrogates of water availability. We found that AGB is more closely related to water availability variables than to energy variables. In northwest South America, water availability influences carbon stocks principally by determining stand structure, i.e. basal area. When water deficits increase in tropical forests we can expect negative impact on biomass and hence carbon storage.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Florestas , Temperatura Ambiente , Clima Tropical , Água , Modelos Teóricos , América do Sul
9.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0117265, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25646778

RESUMO

Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.


Assuntos
Olea/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Espanha , Tephritidae/fisiologia
10.
PeerJ ; 1: e116, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23904994

RESUMO

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

11.
PLoS One ; 7(8): e42309, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22905123

RESUMO

Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing deforestation and enhancing forest growth.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Geografia , México , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Environ Manage ; 48(5): 910-9, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21519875

RESUMO

Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wild cherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Frutas/fisiologia , Polinização , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espanha
13.
Ecol Appl ; 16(1): 202-12, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16705973

RESUMO

Bayesian methods incorporate prior knowledge into a statistical analysis. This prior knowledge is usually restricted to assumptions regarding the form of probability distributions of the parameters of interest, leaving their values to be determined mainly through the data. Here we show how a Bayesian approach can be applied to the problem of drawing inference regarding species abundance distributions and comparing diversity indices between sites. The classic log series and the lognormal models of relative- abundance distribution are apparently quite different in form. The first is a sampling distribution while the other is a model of abundance of the underlying population. Bayesian methods help unite these two models in a common framework. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation can be used to fit both distributions as small hierarchical models with shared common assumptions. Sampling error can be assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Species not found in a sample, but suspected to be present in the region or community of interest, can be given zero abundance. This not only simplifies the process of model fitting, but also provides a convenient way of calculating confidence intervals for diversity indices. The method is especially useful when a comparison of species diversity between sites with different sample sizes is the key motivation behind the research. We illustrate the potential of the approach using data on fruit-feeding butterflies in southern Mexico. We conclude that, once all assumptions have been made transparent, a single data set may provide support for the belief that diversity is negatively affected by anthropogenic forest disturbance. Bayesian methods help to apply theory regarding the distribution of abundance in ecological communities to applied conservation.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/fisiologia , Ecologia , Método de Monte Carlo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Simulação por Computador , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Biológicos , Distribuição de Poisson , Dinâmica Populacional
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA