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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104834, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739221

RESUMO

The core of the French equine traceability system is the census database (SIRE) managed by the French horse and riding institute (IFCE). Following the death of an equine, owners are legally obliged to take charge of cadaver removal by contacting a rendering company directly or after registration on the national ATM-équidés ANGEE association (ATM) website, which proposes negotiated prices for removal and recording of the death in the SIRE database. Despite these offers, ATM notes few users. Owners are also legally obliged to return the equine's passport to the IFCE, but only 30-40 % of owners comply with the regulation. Rendering companies register data on equine mortality in the fallen stock data interchange database (FSDI), but it is difficult to cross-reference these data with SIRE data. Consequently, the death of equines is not well registered in the SIRE database. The objective of the present study was to identify levers that could be used to improve dead equine traceability by i) investigating the level of satisfaction of equine owners with ATM and rendering company services; and ii) investigating the drawbacks of owners having to return the passport to the IFCE. An online survey was designed and distributed by email to the 5 158 owners who used ATM services between April 2017 and April 2018. The response rate was 16.4 %. Most owners were satisfied by ATM and rendering company services. The lack of simple and quick removal procedures and the lack of any connection between ATM and the rendering companies were among the main drawbacks identified. Regarding the return of the passport to the IFCE, most responding owners returned it through the rendering company (65 %) or directly (2 %). The passport was returned significantly more frequently when requested by the renderers. The main reason for not providing the passport was the owner wanted to keep it as a souvenir. These results suggest that ATM and the rendering companies are key players in dead equine traceability. ATM services should be developed through the establishment of a direct connection with rendering companies to accelerate the cadaver removal request and to allow the cross-referencing of data between the ATM, FSDI and SIRE databases for a better dead equine traceability. Rendering companies need regulatory support to help them ask owners for the equine's passport, formalizing their contribution to equine traceability. Finally, effective communication has to be established to inform owners about the removal procedures and the regulations.

2.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 112-119, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Horses are one of the potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants that could be transferred to human subjects. OBJECTIVE: To describe the AMR patterns of major bacteria isolated from diseased horses in France. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by RESAPATH, the French national surveillance network for AMR, were analysed. Only antimicrobials relevant in veterinary and human medicine for the isolated bacteria were considered. Mono- and multidrug resistance were calculated. The resistance proportions of major equine diseases were assessed and compared. Where data permitted, resistance trends were investigated using nonlinear analysis (generalised additive models). RESULTS: A total of 12,695 antibiograms were analysed. The five most frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pantoea spp. and Klebsiella spp. The highest proportions of resistance to gentamicin were found for S. aureus (22.1%) and Pseudomonas spp. (26.9%). Klebsiella spp. and E. coli had the highest proportions of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.5 and 26.2%, respectively). Proportions of resistance to tetracycline were among the highest for all the bacteria considered. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was below 10% for all Enterobacteriaceae. The highest proportions of multidrug resistance (22.5%) were found among S. aureus isolates, which is worrying given their zoonotic potential. From 2012 to 2016, resistance proportions decreased in Pseudomonas spp. isolates, but remained the same for S. aureus. For Streptococcus spp. and E. coli, resistance proportions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Since antibiograms are not systematic analyses, any selection bias could impact the results. CONCLUSIONS: Such studies are essential to estimate the magnitude of the potential threat of AMR to public health, to design efficient control strategies and to measure their effectiveness. These findings may also guide the initial empirical treatment of horse diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e121, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868979

RESUMO

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in dogs can be transmitted to humans and close contact between dogs and people might foster dissemination of resistance determinants. The aim of our study was to describe the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of the major causative agents of canine otitis - one of the most common diseases in dogs - isolated in France. Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by the French national surveillance network for AMR, referred to as RESAPATH, were analysed. Resistance trends were investigated using non-linear analysis (generalised additive models). A total of 7021 antibiograms were analysed. The four major causative agents of canine otitis in France were coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and streptococci. Since 2013, resistance to fluoroquinolones has been on the decrease in both P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. For P. aeruginosa, 19.4% of isolates were resistant to both enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The levels of multidrug resistance (acquired resistance to at least one antibiotic in three or more antibiotic classes) ranged between 11.9% for P. mirabilis and 16.0% for S. pseudintermedius. These results are essential to guide prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. They will also help in designing efficient control strategies and in measuring their effectiveness.

4.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(1): e86-e94, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110404

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively. Data collected between 2002 and 2015 by the French national surveillance network of AMR referred to as RESAPATH were analysed. Resistance trends were investigated using non-linear analysis (generalized additive models) applied to time-series stratified by livestock production and antibiotic. Irrespective of the species and the antibiotic considered, resistance signals over time showed no significant annual cycle. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins emerged during the period of the study, with a peak at 22% [20.5; 24.0] in poultry in 2010, decreasing afterwards, while it remained consistently below 10% for the other species. The proportion of resistance to fluoroquinolones was broadly similar between species and remained under 30%, with a slight decreasing trend after 2009. Resistances to tetracycline and amoxicillin remained high, between 90% and 40% over time in cattle and swine. After 2010, there was a decrease in resistance to these antibiotics for all species, especially to tetracycline for poultry with a drop from 84% in 2009 to 43% in 2015. These results contribute to risk assessment and constitute objective evidence on which to evaluate the efficacy of control measures implemented to limit AMR occurrence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Gado/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 144: 158-166, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716197

RESUMO

The development of antimicrobial resistance has made it necessary to measure antimicrobial usage in animal production sectors. France is a major European producer of white veal calves, but few data were previously available for that sector, even though these young animals are particularly susceptible to infection and considered as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 186 batches of French calves to estimate the exposure of white veal calves to antimicrobials and identify the potential risk factors related to antimicrobial usage. An indicator of calf exposure was calculated as a count of the number of antimicrobial treatments per calf. The indicator was based on veterinary prescriptions (products, quantity dispensed and dosage prescribed) and the estimated weight of calves at treatment, using the dates of treatment collected from farm registers. The study showed that calves were exposed to an average of 8.55 antimicrobial treatments (SD: 2.21, range: 2.75-15.86) over the five to six months of the fattening process. Group treatments were predominant (95.8%) and administered by the oral route. The "starting treatments", given during the first two weeks of the fattening period, were administered systematically (to all the calves in all the farms) and accounted for a third of all treatments. Tetracyclines, polypeptides and macrolides were the most widely used antimicrobials, with respectively 4.32, 1.59 and 1.01 treatments per calf. Only rare uses of 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, considered as critically important in human medicine, were reported. Despite low variability of exposure between farms, a linear mixed-effects model highlighted a higher variability between farmers (ICC=0.14) or veterinarians (ICC=0.12), than between integrators (ICC=0.06). The number of calves per pen, introduced as a fixed effect in the model, was also significant: calves housed in pens of 6-10 and fed in buckets had on average 2.55 more antimicrobial treatments per calf than calves housed in pairs with the same feeding system. The model also highlighted an increase of 1.48 treatments per calf for farms with more than five percent of mortality, versus those with two percent or less. The present study showed that antimicrobial treatments are numerous in veal calf fattening farms, particularly at the arrival of the animals. Taking into account the development of resistance to antimicrobials, the necessity and the effectiveness of some of these treatments should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , França
6.
Arch Virol ; 152(6): 1229-32, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17426916

RESUMO

A French sheep case control study has been organised to estimate the effects of the PrP haplotypes on resistance to atypical scrapie. The ALHQ and AFRQ haplotypes are significantly more susceptible than the others.


Assuntos
Príons/genética , Scrapie/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA/genética , França , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo Genético
7.
Vet Rec ; 158(20): 683-7, 2006 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16714431

RESUMO

An active surveillance programme for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSES) in sheep and goats was implemented in France in 2002 at abattoirs and rendering plants. The analysis of the results of this programme highlighted three biases: a potentially non-random sampling scheme in both rendering plants and abattoirs, a heterogeneous geographical sampling ratio, and the use of two diagnostic tests of unequal sensitivity. Simulations were run to estimate the prevalence of TSES by taking these biases into account. A comparison of the prevalence of TSES calculated from the raw data with the simulation results showed that the effects of non-random sampling were minor in comparison with the effects of the heterogeneous geographical sampling ratio and the use of two diagnostic tests.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças Priônicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Doenças Priônicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Priônicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Scrapie/diagnóstico , Scrapie/epidemiologia , Scrapie/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia
8.
Vet Rec ; 154(5): 133-6, 2004 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14979440

RESUMO

A mandatory reporting system (MRS) was set up in France in December 1990 to detect animals showing clinical signs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Since June 2000, four active surveillance programmes dedicated to fallen stock and slaughtered cattle have been implemented to reinforce the MRS. The clinical status of the cases detected through these programmes was investigated to understand why the MRS had failed to detect them. Up to September 1, 2002, 181 cases had been analysed (126 fallen stock and 55 slaughtered cattle). Almost all the fallen stock cases were animals which had been showing clinical signs, and two thirds of them had shown signs which should have led to a suspicion of BSE. No clinical signs had been reported for two thirds of the slaughtered cattle cases and 10 (8 per cent) of the fallen stock cases.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/etiologia , França/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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