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Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 9: 1964-1976, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116688


Background: Electrically controlled optical metal antennas are an emerging class of nanodevices enabling a bilateral transduction between electrons and photons. At the heart of the device is a tunnel junction that may either emit light upon injection of electrons or generate an electrical current when excited by a light wave. The current study explores a technological route for producing these functional units based upon the electromigration of metal constrictions. Results: We combine multiple nanofabrication steps to realize in-plane tunneling junctions made of two gold electrodes, separated by a sub-nanometer gap acting as the feedgap of an optical antenna. We electrically characterize the transport properties of the junctions in the light of the Fowler-Nordheim representation and the Simmons model for electron tunneling. We demonstrate light emission from the feedgap upon electron injection and show examples of how this nanoscale light source can be coupled to waveguiding structures. Conclusion: Electromigrated in-plane tunneling optical antennas feature interesting properties with their unique functionality enabling interfacing electrons and photons at the atomic scale and with the same device. This technology may open new routes for device-to-device communication and for interconnecting an electronic control layer to a photonic architecture.

Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1992, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777104


Initiated as a cable-replacement solution, short-range wireless power transfer has rapidly become ubiquitous in the development of modern high-data throughput networking in centimeter to meter accessibility range. Wireless technology is now penetrating a higher level of system integration for chip-to-chip and on-chip radiofrequency interconnects. However, standard CMOS integrated millimeter-wave antennas have typical size commensurable with the operating wavelength, and are thus an unrealistic solution for downsizing transmitters and receivers to the micrometer and nanometer scale. Herein, we demonstrate a light-in and electrical signal-out, on-chip wireless near-infrared link between a 220 nm optical antenna and a sub-nanometer rectifying antenna converting the transmitted optical energy into direct electrical current. The co-integration of subwavelength optical functional devices with electronic transduction offers a disruptive solution to interface photons and electrons at the nanoscale for on-chip wireless optical interconnects.

Nano Lett ; 15(9): 5811-8, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26214575


Nanoscale electronics and photonics are among the most promising research areas providing functional nanocomponents for data transfer and signal processing. By adopting metal-based optical antennas as a disruptive technological vehicle, we demonstrate that these two device-generating technologies can be interfaced to create an electronically driven self-emitting unit. This nanoscale plasmonic transmitter operates by injecting electrons in a contacted tunneling antenna feedgap. Under certain operating conditions, we show that the antenna enters a highly nonlinear regime in which the energy of the emitted photons exceeds the quantum limit imposed by the applied bias. We propose a model based upon the spontaneous emission of hot electrons that correctly reproduces the experimental findings. The electron-fed optical antennas described here are critical devices for interfacing electrons and photons, enabling thus the development of optical transceivers for on-chip wireless broadcasting of information at the nanoscale.

Opt Express ; 21(11): 13626-38, 2013 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23736615


We show that self-induced oscillations at frequencies above GHz and with a high spectral purity can be obtained in a silicon photonic crystal nanocavity under optical pumping. This self-pulsing results from the interplay between the nonlinear response of the cavity and the photon cavity lifetime. We provide a model to analyze the mechanisms governing the onset of self-pulsing, the amplitudes of both fundamental and harmonic oscillations and their dependences versus input power and oscillation frequency. Theoretically, oscillations at frequencies higher than 50 GHz could be achieved in this system.

Opt Express ; 21(8): 10324-34, 2013 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23609742


Collection of free carriers is a key issue in silicon photonics devices. We show that a lateral metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky junction is an efficient and simple way of dealing with that issue in a photonic crystal microcavity. Using a simple electrode design, and taking into account the optical mode profile, the resulting carrier distribution in the structure is calculated. We show that the corresponding effective free carrier lifetime can be reduced by 50 times when the bias is tuned. This allows one to maintain a high cavity quality factor under strong optical injection. In the fabricated structures, carrier depletion is correlated with transmission spectra and directly visualized by Electron Beam Induced Current pictures. These measurements demonstrate the validity of this carrier extraction principle. The design can still be optimized in order to obtain full carrier depletion at a smaller energy cost.

Semicondutores , Silício/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Miniaturização , Fótons
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 37(11): 1923-9, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21963039


We investigated the properties of ultrasonic waves in bovine bone marrow. Six bone marrow samples were obtained from different parts (proximal, middle and distal) of the shafts of two bovine femora without destruction. The measured frequency range was 3 to 10 MHz, and the temperature range was 15 to 40°C. Both wave velocity and attenuation coefficient in bone marrow always decreased as temperature increased. The velocity ranged from 1400 to 1610 m/s and attenuation coefficient ranged from 4 to 16 dB/cm. Wave velocities in bone marrow were similar to those in water, whereas the temperature dependences were different, and the wave attenuation coefficients were much higher than those in water. The dependence of velocity on temperature changed slightly around 23-24°C, where a transition from soft gel to oily liquid occurred. The transition temperature was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Below this transition temperature, positive velocity dispersion was observed.

Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Bovinos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Fêmur , Temperatura , Ultrassonografia