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1.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617629

RESUMO

In 2017, the Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) of the World Health Organization confirmed that measles elimination was sustained in Montenegro, and the previous endemic transmission remained interrupted. However, the RVC was extremely concerned over the continuing low vaccination coverage reported for this country. In this study, we describe the most recent measles epidemic in Montenegro using the epidemiological data collected from January 1 to July 31, 2018. The outbreak is largely attributable to a dangerous accumulation of susceptible subjects across the country and represents a high-risk factor for re-establishing endemic transmission in the Balkan area. This study showed how a vaccine-preventable communicable disease outbreak can have a dramatic impact and severe consequences on regional public health system performance in terms of the sanitary spending point of view. A detailed update is provided on the epidemiological situation in this Central European area, not available until now.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. METHODS: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. RESULTS: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients' survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Gasometria , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Heparina , Humanos , Hipóxia , Itália , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335624

RESUMO

Microbial translocation (MT) and intestinal damage (ID) are poorly explored in COVID-19. Aims were to assess whether alteration of gut permeability and cell integrity characterize COVID-19 patients, whether it is more pronounced in severe infections and whether it influences the development of subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI). Furthermore, we looked at the potential predictive role of TM and ID markers on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality. Over March-July 2020, 45 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Markers of MT [LPB (Lipopolysacharide Binding Protein) and EndoCab IgM] and ID [I-FABP (Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein)] were evaluated at COVID-19 diagnosis and after 7 days. As a control group, age- and gender-matched healthy donors (HDs) enrolled during the same study period were included. Median age was 66 (56-71) years. Twenty-one (46.6%) were admitted to ICU and mortality was 22% (10/45). Compared to HD, a high degree of MT and ID was observed. ICU patients had higher levels of MT, but not of ID, than non-ICU ones. Likewise, patients with BSI had lower EndoCab IgM than non-BSI. Interestingly, patients with high degree of MT and low ID were likely to be admitted to ICU (AUC 0.822). Patients with COVID-19 exhibited high level of MT, especially subjects admitted to ICU. COVID-19 is associated with gut permeability.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia
7.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 252-258, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061791

RESUMO

Measles is a preventable disease still responsible for a number of outbreaks worldwide. Although most adults with measles recover uneventfully, measles-related complications may occur. However, as to whether every complicated case requires hospital management is still a point of debate. In this study we described the rate, clinical features and severity of measles complications in patients admitted to the ED of a tertiary-care teaching hospital during the outbreak that took place in 2017. Some insights into the impact on the health care system are reported as well. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Medical records of adults discharged from January to December 2017 with diagnosis of "measles" were collected and analyzed. Out of 58,579 of ED admissions, 162 measles cases were enrolled. Acute measles infection was laboratory confirmed in 71.6% and deemed as possible/probable in 24.0% of cases. Three percent of patients were immunocompromised while 1.2% of cases occurred in pregnant women. Of all complications reported (37%), hepatitis was the most frequent (29%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%), keratitis (3.8%), thrombocytopenia (3.8%) and otitis media (0.6%). No significant clinical and laboratory difference emerged between complicated and non-complicated cases besides antibiotic prescription (80.0% vs 66.3%; p=0.039). The course of the disease was mild, and no life-threatening measles-related complications or critical care support were reported. One out of three measles cases may experience at least one measles-related complication. However, the course of the disease seems to be rather benign in young adults, and the widespread use of the ED and hospitalization observed seem an inappropriate approach to the issue.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Sarampo , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
8.
Infection ; 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Superinfections in patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) are an important and challenging complication, also in COVID-19. However, no definitive data are available about the role of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) in COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study including patients with MDR-AB infections admitted to ICU with or without COVID-19, between January 2019 and January 2021. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate risk factor for MDR-AB infections in ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 or other etiology. The secondary endpoints were 30-days mortality in all study population and risk factors associated with development of bloodstream infection (BSI). RESULTS: During the study period 32 adults with COVID-19 were enrolled and compared with 115 patients admitted in the same ICU for other reasons. We observed a total of 114 deaths, with a survival rate of 29.3%: 18.8% in COVID-19 and 32.2% in control group. Relative risk for MDR-AB infection in COVID-19 showed that serum lactate levels mmol/l > 2, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, BSI and steroid therapy were observed more frequently in COVID-19 patients. Cox regression analysis showed that serum lactate levels > 2 mmol/l, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, BSI, and steroid therapy were associated with 30-days mortality. Finally, patients with COVID-19, white blood cells count > 11,000 mm3, serum lactate levels > 2 mmol/l, infections at time of ICU admission, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, and steroid therapy were independently associated with development of BSI. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the impact of BSI on outcome, the role of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and the use of steroids on the risk to develop MDR-AB infections also during COVID-19.

10.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(6): 547-562, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849359

RESUMO

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has pushed the scientific community to undertake intense research efforts. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 biology is necessary to discover therapeutic or preventive strategies capable of containing the pandemic. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of the virus genome and proteins is essential to find targets for therapies and immunological interventions.Areas covered: This review covers different areas of expertise, genomic analysis of circulating strains, structural biology, viral mutations, molecular diagnostics, disease, and vaccines. In particular, the review is focused on the molecular approaches and modern clinical strategies used in these fields.Expert opinion: Molecular approaches to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have been critical to shorten time for new diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention strategies. In this perspective, the entire scientific community is moving in the same direction. Vaccines, together with the development of new drugs to treat the disease, represent the most important strategy to protect human from viral disease and prevent further spread. In this regard, new molecular technologies have been successfully implemented. The use of a novel strategy of communication is suggested for a better diffusion to the broader public of new data and results.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/etiologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 4930-4938, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913525

RESUMO

Given human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients have alterations in the type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway and are also at elevated risk of atherosclerosis, we evaluated IFN-I response and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) association in HIV-1-infected patients. Transcript levels of IFN-α/ß and IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56) were evaluated by RT/real-time PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from asymptomatic HIV-1-positive male patients at high risk of developing CVD (n = 34) and healthy subjects (n = 21). Stenosis degree (≥ or <50%), calcium volume score, calcium Agatston score, and myocardial extracellular volume were examined by coronary computerized tomography scan. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), Framingham risk score, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score, and risk score developed by data collection on adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs (D:A:D) were also measured. Increased IFN-α, IFN-ß, and ISG56 levels were observed in all HIV-1-infected males compared to healthy controls (p < .001 for all genes analyzed). HIV-1-infected patients with a stenosis degree ≥50% showed a higher Framingham risk score (p = .019), which was correlated with IFN-ß and ISG56 levels. HIV-1-infected males with enhanced IFN-I levels and stenosis displayed a higher ASCVD calculated risk (p = .011) and D:A:D score (p = .004). Also, there was a trend toward higher IFN-α and ISG56 mRNA levels in HIV-1-positive patients with an increased cIMT (p > .05). Dysregulation of IFN-I response might participate in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated CVD.

12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 489, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883675

RESUMO

We investigated SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Italy, one of the countries hit hardest by the pandemic, using phylodynamic analysis of viral genetic and epidemiological data. We observed the co-circulation of multiple SARS-CoV-2 lineages over time, which were linked to multiple importations and characterized by large transmission clusters concomitant with a high number of infections. Subsequent implementation of a three-phase nationwide lockdown strategy greatly reduced infection numbers and hospitalizations. Yet we present evidence of sustained viral spread among sporadic clusters acting as "hidden reservoirs" during summer 2020. Mathematical modelling shows that increased mobility among residents eventually catalyzed the coalescence of such clusters, thus driving up the number of infections and initiating a new epidemic wave. Our results suggest that the efficacy of public health interventions is, ultimately, limited by the size and structure of epidemic reservoirs, which may warrant prioritization during vaccine deployment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Genoma Viral/genética , Mutação , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Geografia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Saúde Pública/tendências , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800296

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) represent important cause of severe infections in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, showing also in-vitro antibacterial activity. Aim was to evaluate the effect on 30-day mortality of the addition of intravenous NAC to antibiotics in ICU patients with CR-Kp or CR-Ab septic shock. A retrospective, observational case:control study (1:2) in patients with septic shock caused by CR-Kp or CR-Ab hospitalized in two different ICUs was conducted. Cases included patients receiving NAC plus antimicrobials, controls included patients not receiving NAC. Cases and controls were matched for age, SAPS II, causative agent and source of infection. No differences in age, sex, SAPS II score or time to initiate definitive therapy were observed between cases and controls. Pneumonia and bacteremia were the leading infections. Overall, mortality was 48.9% (33.3% vs. 56.7% in cases and controls, p = 0.05). Independent risk factors for mortality were not receiving NAC (p = 0.002) and CR-Ab (p = 0.034) whereas therapy with two in-vitro active antibiotics (p = 0.014) and time to initial definite therapy (p = 0.026) were protective. NAC plus antibiotics might reduce the 30-day mortality rate in ICU patients with CR-Kp and CR-Ab septic shock.

14.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited and wide-ranging data are available on the recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) incidence rate. METHODS: We performed a cohort study with the aim to assess the incidence of and risk factors for rCDI. Adult patients with a first CDI, hospitalized in 15 Italian hospitals, were prospectively included and followed-up for 30 d after the end of antimicrobial treatment for their first CDI. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors associated with 30-day onset rCDI. RESULTS: Three hundred nine patients with a first CDI were included in the study; 32% of the CDI episodes (99/309) were severe/complicated; complete follow-up was available for 288 patients (19 died during the first CDI episode, and 2 were lost during follow-up). At the end of the study, the crude all-cause mortality rate was 10.7% (33 deaths/309 patients). Two hundred seventy-one patients completed the follow-up; rCDI occurred in 21% of patients (56/271) with an incidence rate of 72/10,000 patient-days. Logistic regression analysis identified exposure to cephalosporin as an independent risk factor associated with rCDI (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.7, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the relevance of rCDI in terms of morbidity and mortality and provides a reliable estimation of its incidence.

15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804087

RESUMO

Epidemiological research has demonstrated direct relationships between antibiotic consumption and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this nested case-control study, we assessed whether prior exposure to antibiotic therapy and its duration affect the onset of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) sustained by MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-Kp) in intensive care unit patients. Cases were defined as patients who developed an MDR-Kp HAI. Controls matched on sex and the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay were randomly selected from the at-risk population. Any antibiotic agent received in systemic administration before the onset of infection was considered as antibiotic exposure. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of prior exposure to each antibiotic class (Model 1) or its duration (Model 2) on the onset of HAIs sustained by MDR-Kp. Overall, 87 cases and 261 gender-matched controls were compared. In Model 1, aminoglycosides and linezolid independently increased the likelihood of developing an MDR-Kp HAI, whereas exposure to both linezolid and penicillins reduced the effect of linezolid alone. In Model 2, cumulative exposure to aminoglycosides increased the likelihood of the outcome, as well as cumulative exposures to penicillins and colistin, while a previous exposure to both penicillins and colistin reduced the influence of the two antibiotic classes alone. Our study confirms that aminoglycosides, penicillins, linezolid, and colistin may play a role in favoring the infections sustained by MDR-Kp. However, several double exposures in the time window before HAI onset seemed to hinder the selective pressure exerted by individual agents.

16.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4319-4325, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675235

RESUMO

Teicoplanin has a potential antiviral activity expressed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was suggested as a complementary option to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In this multicentric, retrospective, observational research the aim was to evaluate the impact of teicoplanin on the course of COVID-19 in critically ill patients. Fifty-five patients with severe COVID-19, hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICUs) and treated with best available therapy were retrospectively analysed. Among them 34 patients were also treated with teicoplanin (Tei-COVID group), while 21 without teicoplanin (control group). Crude in-hospital Day-30 mortality was lower in Tei-COVID group (35.2%) than in control group (42.8%), however not reaching statistical significance (p = .654). No statistically significant differences in length of stay in the ICU were observed between Tei-COVID group and control group (p = .248). On Day 14 from the ICU hospitalization, viral clearance was achieved in 64.7% patients of Tei-COVID group and 57.1% of control group, without statistical difference. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly reduced in Tei-COVID group compared to control group, but not other biochemical parameters. Finally, Gram-positive were the causative pathogens for 25% of BSIs in Tei-COVID group and for 70.6% in controls. No side effects related to teicoplanin use were observed. Despite several limitations require further research, in this study the use of teicoplanin is not associated with a significant improvement in outcomes analysed. The antiviral activity of teicoplanin against SARS-CoV-2, previously documented, is probably more effective at early clinical stages.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4399-4404, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783850

RESUMO

The role of viruses in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been largely underestimated in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 age. However, during flu seasonal early identification of viral infection in CAP is crucial to guide treatment and in-hospital management. Though recommended, the routine use of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) to detect viral infection has been poorly scaled-up, especially in the emergency department (ED). This study sought to assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of viral infections in patients with CAP during peak flu season. In this retrospective, observational study adults presenting at the ED of our hospital (Rome, Italy) with CAP from January 15th to February 22th, 2019 were enrolled. Each patient was tested on admission with Influenza rapid test and real time multiplex assay. Seventy five consecutive patients were enrolled. 30.7% (n = 23) tested positive for viral infection. Of these, 52.1% (n = 12) were H1N1/FluA. 10 patients had multiple virus co-infections. CAP with viral infection did not differ for any demographic, clinic and laboratory features by the exception of CCI and CURB-65. All intra-ED deaths and mechanical ventilations were recorded among CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with CURB-65 score ≥2, 10 out of 12 cases of H1N1/FluA would have been detected saving up to 40% tests. Viral infection occurred in one-third of CAP during flu seasonal peak 2019. Since not otherwise distinguishable, NPS is so far the only reliable mean to identify CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with moderate/severe CAP significantly minimize the number of tests.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 280-288, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salivirus (SalV) represents an emerging problem in public health especially during the recent years. In this study, the Bayesian evolutionary history and the spread of the virus through the different countries have been reported. METHODOLOGY: a database of 81 sequences of SalV structural VP1 fragment were downloaded from GenBank, aligned and manually edited by Bioedit Software. ModelTest v. 3.7 software was used to estimate the simplest evolutionary model fitting the sequence dataset. A Maximum-Likelihood tree has been generated using MEGA-X to test the "clockliness" signal using TempEst 1.5.1. The Bayesian phylogenetic tree was built by BEAST. Homology modelling was performed by SWISS-Model and protein variability evaluated by ConSurf server. RESULTS: the phylogenetic tree showed a clade of SalV A2 and three main clades of SalV A1, revealing several infections in humans in South Korea, India, Tunisia, China, Nigeria, Ethiopia and USA. The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor dated back the root of the tree to the year 1788 with the probable origin in USA. Selective pressure analysis revealed two positive selection sites, His at 100th and Leu at 116th positions that at the homology modelling resulted important to guarantee protein stability and variability. This could contribute to the development of new mutations modifying the clinical features of this evolving virus. CONCLUSIONS: Bayesian phylogenetic and phylodynamic represented a useful tool to follow the transmission dynamic of SalV and to prevent new epidemics worldwide.

19.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 3-7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019 has rapidly widespread worldwide, becoming one of the major global public health issues of the last centuries. Key Messages: Over the course of the pandemic, due to the advanced whole-genome sequencing technologies, an unprecedented amount of genomes have been generated, providing invaluable insights into the ongoing evolution and epidemiology of the virus during the pandemic. Therefore, this large amount of data played an important role in the SARS-CoV-2 mitigation and control strategies. Key Messages: The active monitoring and characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating worldwide is useful for a more specific diagnosis, better care, and timely treatment. In this review, a concise characterization of all the lineages and sub-lineages circulating and co-circulating across the world has been presented in order to determine the magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 threat and to better understand the virus genetic diversity and its dispersion dynamics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genoma Viral , Saúde Global , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
20.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 24-32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756475

RESUMO

Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant clinical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Infecting intestinal epithelial cells, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may impact on host's microbiota and gut inflammation. It is well established that an imbalanced intestinal microbiome can affect pulmonary function, modulating the host immune response ("gut-lung axis"). While effective vaccines and targeted drugs are being tested, alternative pathophysiology-based options to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection must be considered on top of the limited evidence-based therapy currently available. Addressing intestinal dysbiosis with a probiotic supplement may, therefore, be a sensible option to be evaluated, in addition to current best available medical treatments. Herein, we summed up pathophysiologic assumptions and current evidence regarding bacteriotherapy administration in preventing and treating COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disbiose/terapia , Disbiose/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
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