Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 143
Filtrar
1.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop and validate an accurate risk prediction model for both mortality and a combined outcome of mortality and morbidity for maternal admissions to critical care. DESIGN: We used data from a high-quality prospectively collected national database, supported with literature review and expert opinion. We tested univariable associations between each risk factor and outcome. We then developed two separate multivariable logistic regression models for the outcomes of acute hospital mortality and death or prolonged ICU length of stay. We validated two parsimonious risk prediction models specific for a maternal population. SETTING: The Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre Case Mix Programme is the national clinical audit for adult critical care in the United Kingdom, Wales, and Northern Ireland. PATIENTS: All female admissions to adult general critical care units, for the period January 1, 2007-December 31, 2016, 16-50 years old, and admitted either while pregnant or within 42 days of delivery-a cohort of 15,480 women. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We aimed to develop and validate an accurate risk prediction model for both mortality and a combined outcome of mortality and morbidity for maternal admissions to critical care. For the primary outcome of acute hospital mortality, our parsimonious risk model consisting of eight variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.91-1.00); these variables are commonly available for all maternal admissions. For the secondary composite outcome of death or ICU length of stay greater than 48 hours, the risk model consisting of 17 variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.78-0.83). CONCLUSIONS: We developed risk prediction models specific to the maternal critical care population. The models compare favorably against general adult ICU risk prediction models in current use within this population.

2.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based clinical practice recommendations regarding transfusion practices in non-bleeding, critically ill adults. DESIGN: A task force involving 13 international experts and three methodologists used the GRADE approach for guideline development. METHODS: The task force identified four main topics: red blood cell transfusion thresholds, red blood cell transfusion avoidance strategies, platelet transfusion, and plasma transfusion. The panel developed structured guideline questions using population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) format. RESULTS: The task force generated 16 clinical practice recommendations (3 strong recommendations, 13 conditional recommendations), and identified five PICOs with insufficient evidence to make any recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations and identifies areas where further research is needed regarding transfusion practices and transfusion avoidance in non-bleeding, critically ill adults.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with septic shock mortality is high, and survivors experience long-term physical, mental and social impairments. The ongoing Conservative vs Liberal Approach to fluid therapy of Septic Shock in Intensive Care (CLASSIC) trial assesses the benefits and harms of a restrictive versus (vs) standard-care intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. The hypothesis is that IV fluid restriction improves patient-important long-term outcomes. AIM: To assess the predefined patient-important long-term outcomes in patients randomised into the CLASSIC trial. METHODS: In this pre-planned follow-up study of the CLASSIC trial, we will assess all-cause mortality, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and cognitive function one year after randomisation in the two intervention groups. The 1-year mortality will be collected from electronic patient records or central national registries in most participating countries. We will contact survivors and assess EuroQol 5-Dimension, -5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale and Montreal Cognitive Assessment 5-minute protocol score. We will analyse mortality by logistic regression and use general linear models to assess HRQoL and cognitive function. DISCUSSION: With this pre-planned follow-up study of the CLASSIC trial, we will provide patient-important data on long-term survival, HRQoL and cognitive function of restrictive vs standard-care IV fluid therapy in patients with septic shock.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Premorbid conditions affect prognosis of acutely-ill aged patients. Several lines of evidence suggest geriatric syndromes need to be assessed but little is known on their relative effect on the 30-day survival after ICU admission. The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of frailty, cognition decline and activity of daily life in addition to the presence of comorbidity and polypharmacy and to assess their influence on 30-day survival. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 242 ICUs from 22 countries. Patients 80 years or above acutely admitted over a six months period to an ICU between May 2018 and May 2019 were included. In addition to common patients' characteristics and disease severity, we collected information on specific geriatric syndromes as potential predictive factors for 30-day survival, frailty (Clinical Frailty scale) with a CFS > 4 defining frail patients, cognitive impairment (informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE) with IQCODE ≥ 3.5 defining cognitive decline, and disability (measured the activity of daily life with the Katz index) with ADL ≤ 4 defining disability. A Principal Component Analysis to identify co-linearity between geriatric syndromes was performed and from this a multivariable model was built with all geriatric information or only one: CFS, IQCODE or ADL. Akaike's information criterion across imputations was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of our models. RESULTS: We included 3920 patients with a median age of 84 years (IQR: 81-87), 53.3% males). 80% received at least one organ support. The median ICU length of stay was 3.88 days (IQR: 1.83-8). The ICU and 30-day survival were 72.5% and 61.2% respectively. The geriatric conditions were median (IQR): CFS: 4 (3-6); IQCODE: 3.19 (3-3.69); ADL: 6 (4-6); Comorbidity and Polypharmacy score (CPS): 10 (7-14). CFS, ADL and IQCODE were closely correlated. The multivariable analysis identified predictors of 1-month mortality (HR; 95% CI): Age (per 1 year increase): 1.02 (1.-1.03, p = 0.01), ICU admission diagnosis, sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) (per point): 1.15 (1.14-1.17, p < 0.0001) and CFS (per point): 1.1 (1.05-1.15, p < 0.001). CFS remained an independent factor after inclusion of life-sustaining treatment limitation in the model. CONCLUSION: We confirm that frailty assessment using the CFS is able to predict short-term mortality in elderly patients admitted to ICU. Other geriatric syndromes do not add improvement to the prediction model. Since CFS is easy to measure, it should be routinely collected for all elderly ICU patients in particular in connection to advance care plans, and should be used in decision making.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients in the prone position, the reliability of pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation (PPV and SVV) and the use of functional hemodynamic tests to predict fluid responsiveness have not previously been established. Perioperatively, in this setting, optimizing fluid management can be challenging, and fluid overload is associated with both intraoperative and postoperative complications. We designed this study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of baseline PPV and SVV, the tidal volume (VT) challenge (VTC) and the end-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) in predicting fluid responsiveness during elective spinal surgery. METHODS: The study protocol was started during a period of intraoperative hemodynamic stability after prone positioning and before the administration of any vasopressor: (1) at baseline, the controlled ventilation was set at 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) (T0); (2) patients underwent the first EEOT (EEOT6) by interrupting the mechanical ventilation for 30 seconds; (3) the ventilation was set again at 6 mL/kg PBW for 1 minute (T1); (4) the VTC was applied by increasing the VT up to 8 mL/kg PBW for 1 minute; (5) the ventilation was kept at 8 mL/kg PBW for 1 minute (T2); (6) a second EEOT (EEOT8) was performed; (7) the VT was reduced back to 6 mL/kg PBW for 1 minute (T3); (8) a fluid challenge of 250 mL of Ringer's solution was infused over 10 minutes. After each step, a complete set of hemodynamic measurements was recorded. RESULTS: Neither PPV and SVV values recorded at T3 nor the EEOT6 or the EEOT8 predicted fluid responsiveness. The change in PPV after VTC application predicted fluid responsiveness with an area under the curve of 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.00), showing a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 94.7%, using a cutoff increase of 12.2%. The change in SVV after VTC application predicted fluid responsiveness with an area under the curve 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.00) showing a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 94.7%, using a cutoff increase of 8.0%. A linear correlation between stroke volume index changes after fluid challenge administration and the changes in PPV and SVV after VTC application was observed (r = 0.71; P < .0001 and r = 0.68; P < .0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In prone elective neurosurgical patients, the baseline values of PPV and SVV and the EEOT fail to predict fluid responsiveness, while the VTC is a very reliable functional hemodynamic test and could be helpful in guiding intraoperative fluid therapy.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030922, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To derive and validate a new clinical prediction rule to risk-stratify emergency department (ED) patients admitted with suspected sepsis. DESIGN: Retrospective prognostic study of prospectively collected data. SETTING: ED. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years who met two Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome criteria or one Red Flag sepsis criteria on arrival, received intravenous antibiotics for a suspected infection and admitted. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: In-hospital all-cause mortality. METHOD: The data were divided into derivation and validation cohorts. The simplified-Mortality in Severe Sepsis in the ED score and quick-SOFA scores, refractory hypotension and lactate were collectively termed 'component scores' and cumulatively termed the 'Risk-stratification of ED suspected Sepsis (REDS) score'. Each patient in the derivation cohort received a score (0-3) for each component score. The REDS score ranged from 0 to 12. The component scores were subject to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for the REDS and the components scores were constructed and their cut-off points identified. Scores above the cut-off points were deemed high-risk. The area under the ROC (AUROC) curves and sensitivity for mortality of the high-risk category of the REDS score and component scores were compared. The REDS score was internally validated. RESULTS: 2115 patients of whom 282 (13.3%) died in hospital. Derivation cohort: 1078 patients with 140 deaths (13%). The AUROC curve with 95% CI, cut-off point and sensitivity for mortality (95% CI) of the high-risk category of the REDS score were: derivation: 0.78 (0.75 to 0.80); ≥3; 85.0 (78 to 90.5). VALIDATION: 0.74 (0.71 to 0.76); ≥3; 84.5 (77.5 to 90.0). The AUROC curve and the sensitivity for mortality of the REDS score was better than that of the component scores. Specificity and mortality rates for REDS scores of ≥3, ≥5 and ≥7 were 54.8%, 88.8% and 96.9% and 21.8%, 36.0% and 49.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The REDS score is a simple and objective score to risk-stratify ED patients with suspected sepsis.

10.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 264, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bedside functional hemodynamic assessment has gained in popularity in the last years to overcome the limitations of static or dynamic indexes in predicting fluid responsiveness. The aim of this systematic review and metanalysis of studies is to investigate the reliability of the functional hemodynamic tests (FHTs) used to assess fluid responsiveness in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and operating room (OR). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were screened for relevant articles using a FHT, with the exception of the passive leg raising. The QUADAS-2 scale was used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. In-between study heterogeneity was assessed through the I2 indicator. Bias assessment graphs were plotted, and Egger's regression analysis was used to evaluate the publication bias. The metanalysis determined the pooled area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, and threshold for two FHTs: the end-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) and the mini-fluid challenge (FC). RESULTS: After text selection, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria, 7 performed in the OR, and 14 in the ICU between 2005 and 2018. The search included 805 patients and 870 FCs with a median (IQR) of 39 (25-50) patients and 41 (30-52) FCs per study. The median fluid responsiveness was 54% (45-59). Ten studies (47.6%) adopted a gray zone analysis of the ROC curve, and a median (IQR) of 20% (15-51) of the enrolled patients was included in the gray zone. The pooled area under the ROC curve for the end-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) was 0.96 (95%CI 0.92-1.00). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.94) and 0.91 (95%CI 0.85-0.95), respectively, with a best threshold of 5% (4.0-8.0%). The pooled area under the ROC curve for the mini-FC was 0.91 (95%CI 0.85-0.97). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95%CI 0.76-0.88) and 0.83 (95%CI 0.77-0.89), respectively, with a best threshold of 5% (3.0-7.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The EEOT and the mini-FC reliably predict fluid responsiveness in the ICU and OR. Other FHTs have been tested insofar in heterogeneous clinical settings and, despite promising results, warrant further investigations.

11.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 63(9): 1262-1271, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intravenous (IV) fluid is a key intervention in the management of septic shock. The benefits and harms of lower versus higher fluid volumes are unknown and thus clinical equipoise exists. We describe the protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan for the conservative versus liberal approach to fluid therapy of septic shock in the Intensive Care (CLASSIC) trial. The aim of the CLASSIC trial is to assess benefits and harms of IV fluid restriction versus standard care in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock. METHODS: CLASSIC trial is an investigator-initiated, international, randomised, stratified, and analyst-blinded trial. We will allocate 1554 adult patients with septic shock, who are planned to be or are admitted to an ICU, to IV fluid restriction versus standard care. The primary outcome is mortality at day 90. Secondary outcomes are serious adverse events (SAEs), serious adverse reactions (SARs), days alive at day 90 without life support, days alive and out of the hospital at day 90 and mortality, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and cognitive function at 1 year. We will conduct the statistical analyses according to a pre-defined statistical analysis plan, including three interim analyses. For the primary analysis, we will use logistic regression adjusted for the stratification variables comparing the two interventions in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. DISCUSSION: The CLASSIC trial results will provide important evidence to guide clinicians' choice regarding the IV fluid therapy in adults with septic shock.

12.
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 39, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethical approval (EA) must be obtained before medical research can start. We describe the differences in EA for an pseudonymous, non-interventional, observational European study. METHODS: Sixteen European national coordinators (NCs) of the international study on very old intensive care patients answered an online questionnaire concerning their experience getting EA. RESULTS: N = 8/16 of the NCs could apply at one single national ethical committee (EC), while the others had to apply to various regional ECs and/or individual hospital institutional research boards (IRBs). The time between applying for EA and the first decision varied between 7 days and 300 days. In 9/16 informed consent from the patient was not deemed necessary; in 7/16 informed consent was required from the patient or relatives. The upload of coded data to a central database required additional information in 14/16. In 4/16 the NCs had to ask separate approval to keep a subject identification code list to de-pseudonymize the patients if questions would occur. Only 2/16 of the NCs agreed that informed consent was necessary for this observational study. Overall, 6/16 of the NCs were satisfied with the entire process and 8/16 were (very) unsatisfied. 11/16 would welcome a European central EC that would judge observational studies for all European countries. DISCUSSION: Variations in the process and prolonged time needed to get EA for observational studies hampers inclusion of patients in some European countries. This might have a negative influence on the external validity. Further harmonization of ethical approval process across Europe is welcomed for low-risk observational studies. CONCLUSION: Getting ethical approval for low-risk, non-interventional, observational studies varies enormously across European countries.

13.
J Crit Care ; 52: 141-148, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate differences in outcome between patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after elective versus acute surgery in a multinational cohort of very old patients (≥80 years; VIP). Predictors of mortality, with special emphasis on frailty, were assessed. METHODS: In total, 5063 VIPs were included in this analysis, 922 were admitted after elective surgery or intervention, 4141 acutely, with 402 after acute surgery. Differences were calculated using Mann-Whitney-U test and Wilcoxon test. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations with mortality. RESULTS: Compared patients admitted after acute surgery, patients admitted after elective surgery suffered less often from frailty as defined as CFS (28% vs 46%; p < 0.001), evidenced lower SOFA scores (4 ±â€¯5 vs 7 ±â€¯7; p < 0.001). Presence of frailty (CFS >4) was associated with significantly increased mortality both in elective surgery patients (7% vs 12%; p = 0.01), in acute surgery (7% vs 12%; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: VIPs admitted to ICU after elective surgery evidenced favorable outcome over patients after acute surgery even after correction for relevant confounders. Frailty might be used to guide clinicians in risk stratification in both patients admitted after elective and acute surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03134807. Registered 1st May 2017.

14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 48, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of different cardiovascular factors on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and test a novel LVEF calculation considering these factors. RESULTS: 10 pigs were studied. The experimental protocol consisted of sequentially changing afterload, preload and contractility. LV pressure-volume (PV) loops and peripheral arterial pressure were obtained before and after each intervention. LVEF was calculated as stroke volume (SV)/end-diastolic volume (EDV). We studied global cardiac function variables: LV end-systolic elastance (Ees), effective arterial elastance (Ea), end-diastolic volume and heart rate. Diastolic function was evaluated by means of the ventricular relaxation time (τ) and ventricular stiffness constant (ß) obtained from the end-diastolic PV relationship. Ventriculo-arterial coupling (VAC), an index of cardiovascular performance, was calculated as Ea/Ees. LV mechanical efficiency (LVeff) was calculated as the ratio of stroke work to LV pressure-volume area. A linear mixed model was used to determine the impact of cardiac factors (Ees, Ea, EDV and heart rate), VAC and LVeff on LVEF during all experimental conditions. LVEF was mainly related to Ees and Ea. There was a strong relationship between LVEF and both VAC and LVeff (r2 = 0.69 and r2 = 0.94, respectively). The relationship between LVEF and Ees was good (r2 = 0.43). Adjusting LVEF to afterload ([Formula: see text]) performed better for estimating Ees (r2 = 0.75) and improved the tracking of LV contractility changes, even when a peripheral Ea was used as surrogate (Ea = radial MAP/SV; r2 = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: LVEF was mainly affected by contractility and afterload changes and was strongly related to VAC and LVeff. An adjustment to LVEF that considers the impact of afterload provided a better assessment of LV contractility.

15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(6): 1263-1267, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a scoring system model that predicts mortality within 30 days of admission of patients older than 80 years admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 306 ICUs from 24 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults admitted to European ICUs (N = 3730; median age = 84 years [interquartile range = 81-87 y]; 51.8% male). MEASUREMENTS: Overall, 24 variables available during ICU admission were included as potential predictive variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Model sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The 30-day-mortality was 1562 (41.9%). In multivariable analysis, these variables were selected as independent predictors of mortality: age, sex, ICU admission diagnosis, Clinical Frailty Scale, Sequential Organ Failure Score, invasive mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy. The discrimination, accuracy, and calibration of the model were good: the area under the curve for a score of 10 or higher was .80, and the Brier score was .18. At a cut point of 10 or higher (75% of all patients), the model predicts 30-day mortality in 91.1% of all patients who die. CONCLUSION: A predictive model of cumulative events predicts 30-day mortality in patients older than 80 years admitted to ICUs. Future studies should include other potential predictor variables including functional status, presence of advance care plans, and assessment of each patient's decision-making capacity.

16.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(8): 583-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) do not predict fluid responsiveness when using a protective ventilation strategy: the use of functional haemodynamic tests can be useful to overcome this limitation. OBJECTIVES: We tested the use of a tidal volume challenge (VTC), during 6 ml kg [predicted body weight (PBW)] ventilation, and the end-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) for prediction of fluid responsiveness. DESIGN: An interventional prospective study. SETTING: Supine elective neurosurgical patients. INTERVENTIONS: The study protocol was, first, the initial EEOT test was performed during baseline 6 ml kg PBW ventilation; second, VTC was performed by increasing the VT up to 8 ml kg PBW and PPV and SVV changes were recorded after 1 min; third, a second EEOT was performed during 8 ml kg PBW ventilation; and VT was reduced back to 6 ml kg PBW and a third EEOT was performed. Finally, a 250 ml fluid challenge was administered over 10 min to identify fluid responders (increase in stroke volume index ≥10%). RESULTS: In the 40 patients analysed, PPV and SVV values at baseline and EEOT performed at 6 ml kg PBW did not predict fluid responsiveness. A 13.3% increase in PPV after VTC predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 76.1%, while a 12.1% increase in SVV after VTC predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 95.2%. After EEOT performed at 8 ml kg PBW, a 3.6% increase in cardiac index predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 89.4% and a specificity of 85.7%, while a 4.7% increase in stroke volume index (SVI) with a sensitivity of 89.4% and a specificity of 85.7%. CONCLUSION: The changes in PPV and SVV obtained after VTC are reliable and comparable to the changes in CI and SVI obtained after EEOT performed at 8 ml kg PBW in predicting fluid responsiveness in neurosurgical patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12618000351213.

17.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 25(3): 259-265, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946038

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an integrated clinical approach to the critically ill patients in shock. RECENT FINDINGS: The complexity behind shock mechanism has improved in the last decades; as consequence, conventional generalized practices have been questioned, in favour of different approaches, titrated to patient's individual response. Bedside clinical examination has been demonstrated to be a reliable instrument to recognize the mismatch between cardiac function and peripheral oxygen demand. Mottling skin and capillary refill time have been recently proposed using a semi-quantitative approach as reliable tool to guide shock therapy; lactate, ΔCO2 and ScVO2 are also useful to track the effect of the therapies overtime. Critical care echocardiography is useful to assess the source of the shock, to choice the correct the therapy and to customize the therapy. Finally, a more sophisticated and invasive calibrated monitoring should be promptly adopted in case of refractory or mixed shock state to titrate the therapy on predefined goals, avoiding the inappropriate use of fluids and vasoactive drugs. SUMMARY: Bedside haemodynamic assessment in critically ill patients should be considered an integrated approach supporting the decision-making process and should be based on clinical examination and critical care echocardiography.

18.
Br J Anaesth ; 122(5): 542-551, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative arterial blood pressure management is a physiologically complex challenge influenced by multiple factors. METHODS: A multidisciplinary, international working subgroup of the Third Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) consensus meeting reviewed the (patho)physiology and measurement of arterial pressure as applied to perioperative medicine. We addressed predefined questions by undertaking a modified Delphi analysis, in which primary clinical research and review articles were identified using MEDLINE. Strength of recommendations, where applicable, were graded by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. RESULTS: Multiple physiological factors contribute to the perioperative physiological importance of arterial pressure: (i) arterial pressure is the input pressure to organ blood flow, but is not the sole determinant of perfusion pressure; (ii) blood flow is often independent of changes in perfusion pressure because of autoregulatory changes in vascular resistance; (iii) microvascular dysfunction uncouples microvascular blood flow from arterial pressure (haemodynamic incoherence). From a practical clinical perspective, we identified that: (i) ambulatory measurement is the optimal method to establish baseline arterial pressure; (ii) automated and invasive arterial pressure measurements have inherent physiological and technical limitations; (iii) individualised arterial pressure targets may change over time, especially in the perioperative period. There remains a need for research in non-invasive, continuous arterial pressure measurements, macro- and micro-circulatory control, regional perfusion pressure measurement, and the development of sensitive, specific, and continuous measures of cellular function to evaluate blood pressure management in a physiologically coherent manner. CONCLUSION: The multivariable, complex physiology contributing to dynamic changes in perioperative arterial pressure may be underappreciated clinically. The frequently unrecognised dissociation between arterial pressure, organ blood flow, and microvascular and cellular function requires further research to develop a more refined, contextualised clinical approach to this routine perioperative measurement.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/normas , Técnica Delfos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos
20.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 20, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are commonly applied to restore and maintain blood pressure in patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the current practice and therapeutic goals regarding vasopressor use in septic shock as a basis for future studies and to provide some recommendations on their use. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, an anonymous web-based survey on the use of vasoactive drugs was accessible to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A total of 17 questions focused on the profile of respondents, triggering factors, first choice agent, dosing, timing, targets, additional treatments, and effects of vasopressors. We investigated whether the answers complied with current guidelines. In addition, a group of 34 international ESICM experts was asked to formulate recommendations for the use of vasopressors based on 6 questions with sub-questions (total 14). RESULTS: A total of 839 physicians from 82 countries (65% main specialty/activity intensive care) responded. The main trigger for vasopressor use was an insufficient mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to initial fluid resuscitation (83%). The first-line vasopressor was norepinephrine (97%), targeting predominantly a MAP > 60-65 mmHg (70%), with higher targets in patients with chronic arterial hypertension (79%). The experts agreed on 10 recommendations, 9 of which were based on unanimous or strong (≥ 80%) agreement. They recommended not to delay vasopressor treatment until fluid resuscitation is completed but rather to start with norepinephrine early to achieve a target MAP of ≥ 65 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Reported vasopressor use in septic shock is compliant with contemporary guidelines. Future studies should focus on individualized treatment targets including earlier use of vasopressors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA