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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 372, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457089

RESUMO

Although guidelines provide excellent expert guidance for managing patients with septic shock, they leave room for personalization according to patients' condition. Hemodynamic monitoring depends on the evolution phase: salvage, optimization, stabilization, and de-escalation. Initially during the salvage phase, monitoring to identify shock etiology and severity should include arterial pressure and lactate measurements together with clinical examination, particularly skin mottling and capillary refill time. Low diastolic blood pressure may trigger vasopressor initiation. At this stage, echocardiography may be useful to identify significant cardiac dysfunction. During the optimization phase, echocardiographic monitoring should be pursued and completed by the assessment of tissue perfusion through central or mixed-venous oxygen saturation, lactate, and carbon dioxide veno-arterial gradient. Transpulmonary thermodilution and the pulmonary artery catheter should be considered in the most severe patients. Fluid therapy also depends on shock phases. While administered liberally during the resuscitation phase, fluid responsiveness should be assessed during the optimization phase. During stabilization, fluid infusion should be minimized. In the de-escalation phase, safe fluid withdrawal could be achieved by ensuring tissue perfusion is preserved. Norepinephrine is recommended as first-line vasopressor therapy, while vasopressin may be preferred in some patients. Essential questions remain regarding optimal vasopressor selection, combination therapy, and the most effective and safest escalation. Serum renin and the angiotensin I/II ratio may identify patients who benefit most from angiotensin II. The optimal therapeutic strategy for shock requiring high-dose vasopressors is scant. In all cases, vasopressor therapy should be individualized, based on clinical evaluation and blood flow measurements to avoid excessive vasoconstriction. Inotropes should be considered in patients with decreased cardiac contractility associated with impaired tissue perfusion. Based on pharmacologic properties, we suggest as the first test a limited dose of dobutamine, to add enoximone or milrinone in the second line and substitute or add levosimendan if inefficient. Regarding adjunctive therapies, while hydrocortisone is nowadays advised in patients receiving high doses of vasopressors, patients responding to corticosteroids may be identified in the future by the analysis of selected cytokines or specific transcriptomic endotypes. To conclude, although some general rules apply for shock management, a personalized approach should be considered for hemodynamic monitoring and support.


Assuntos
Monitorização Hemodinâmica , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Choque Séptico/terapia , Hemodinâmica , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Angiotensina II , Lactatos
2.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 10(1): 46, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329266

RESUMO

Fluid administration is a cornerstone of treatment of critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to reappraise the pathophysiology of fluid therapy, considering the mechanisms related to the interplay of flow and pressure variables, the systemic response to the shock syndrome, the effects of different types of fluids administered and the concept of preload dependency responsiveness. In this context, the relationship between preload, stroke volume (SV) and fluid administration is that the volume infused has to be large enough to increase the driving pressure for venous return, and that the resulting increase in end-diastolic volume produces an increase in SV only if both ventricles are operating on the steep part of the curve. As a consequence, fluids should be given as drugs and, accordingly, the dose and the rate of administration impact on the final outcome. Titrating fluid therapy in terms of overall volume infused but also considering the type of fluid used is a key component of fluid resuscitation. A single, reliable, and feasible physiological or biochemical parameter to define the balance between the changes in SV and oxygen delivery (i.e., coupling "macro" and "micro" circulation) is still not available, making the diagnosis of acute circulatory dysfunction primarily clinical.

4.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 366, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443764

RESUMO

Since the advent of critical care in the twentieth century, the core elements that are the foundation for critical care systems, namely to care for critically ill and injured patients and to save lives, have evolved enormously. The past half-century has seen dramatic advancements in diagnostic, organ support, and treatment modalities in critical care, with further improvements now needed to achieve personalized critical care of the highest quality. For critical care to be even higher quality in the future, advancements in the following areas are key: the physical ICU space; the people that care for critically ill patients; the equipment and technologies; the information systems and data; and the research systems that impact critically ill patients and families. With acutely and critically ill patients and their families as the absolute focal point, advancements across these areas will hopefully transform care and outcomes over the coming years.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Exame Físico
5.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 10(1): 42, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal hemodynamic targets and management of patients with acute brain injury are not completely elucidated, but recent evidence points to important impact on clinical outcomes. We performed an international survey with the aim to investigate the practice in the hemodynamic targets, monitoring, and management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: This survey was endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care (ESICM). An electronic questionnaire of 76 questions divided in 4 sections (general information, AIS, ICH, SAH specific questions) was available between January 2022 to March 2022 on the ESICM website. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four healthcare professionals from 36 different countries and at least 98 different institutions answered the survey. Routine echocardiography is routinely performed in 37% of responders in AIS, 34% in ICH and 38% in SAH. Cardiac output monitoring is used in less than 20% of cases by most of the responders. Cardiovascular complications are the main reason for using advanced hemodynamic monitoring, and norepinephrine is the most common drug used to increase arterial blood pressure. Most responders target fluid balance to neutral (62% in AIS, 59% in ICH,44% in SAH), and normal saline is the most common fluid used. Large variability was observed regarding the blood pressure targets. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodynamic management and treatment in patients with acute brain injury from cerebrovascular diseases vary largely in clinical practice. Further research is required to provide clear guidelines to physicians for the hemodynamic optimization of this group of patients.

6.
J Pers Med ; 12(10)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cardiac Power Index (CPI) measures the rate of energy output generated by the heart and correlates this with in-hospital mortality due to cardiogenic shock. In open aortic surgery, both aortic clamping and unclamping expose the heart to abrupt variations of the left ventricle afterload, preload, and contractility, with possible hemodynamic impairment. We investigated how aortic-cross clamping (Ao-XC) and unclamping (Ao-UC) procedures affect the CPI during open aortic surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed our surgical database of 67 patients submitted to open surgical aortic repair at Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan. Patients were monitored by an EV1000-FloTrac SystemTM (Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, CA, USA) beyond the standard intra-operative hemodynamic monitoring. The primary outcome was the variation of basal CPI after aortic clamping and unclamping. Secondary outcomes were variations of the cardiac index (CI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, and lactate during aortic clamping and after unclamping. The CPI was computed as: (CI × MAP)/451. RESULTS: The CPI changed significantly after aortic unclamping. CPI: basal = 0.39 ± 0.1 W/m2, after Ao-XC = 0.39 ± 0.1 W/m2, and after Ao-UC = 0.44 ± 0.2 W/m2, p < 0.05. The CI changed during both cross-clamping and unclamping (p < 0.0001), whilst the MAP and heart rate did not during any phase of the surgery. Five subjects (8.3%) needed inotropic support after cross-clamping. Their basal CPI was lower than the general population: 0.31 ± 0.11 W/m2 vs. 0.39 ± 0.1 W/m2. CONCLUSIONS: The CPI describes the adaptation of the cardiac function to the changes in preload, contractility, and afterload occurring during aortic cross-clamping and unclamping. It may be used to explore the cardiac performance in real-time and predict cardiac impairment in the intraoperative period in a minimally invasive way, similar to ventriculo-arterial coupling parameters.

7.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197548

RESUMO

In this study we evaluated the effect of fluid challenge (FC) administration in elective surgical patients with low or normal blood pressure. Secondarily, we appraised the pharmacodynamic effect of FC in normotensive and hypotensive patients. We assessed five merged datasets of patients with a baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) above or below 65 mmHg and assessed the changes of systolic, diastolic, mean and dicrotic arterial pressures, dynamic indexes of fluid responsiveness and arterial elastance over a 10-min infusion. The hemodynamic effect was assessed by considering the net area under the curve (AUC), the maximal percentage difference from baseline (dmax), the time when the maximal value was observed (tmax) and change from baseline at 5-min (d5) after FC end. A stroke volume index increase > 10% with respect to the baseline value after FC administration indicated fluid response. Two hundred-seventeen patients were analysed [102 (47.0%) fluid responders]. On average, FC restored a MAP [Formula: see text] 65 mmHg after 5 min. The AUCs and the dmax of pressure variables and arterial elastance of hypotensive patients were all significantly greater than normotensive patients. Pressure variables and arterial elastance changes in the hypotensive group were all significantly higher at d5 as compared to the normotensive group. In hypotensive patients, FC restores a MAP [Formula: see text] 65 mmHg after 5 min from infusion start. The hemodynamic profile of FC in hypotensive and normotensive patients is different; both the magnitude of pressure augmentation and duration is greater in the hypotensive group.

8.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 652-659, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226709

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe different strategies adopted during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic to cope with the shortage of mechanical ventilators. RECENT FINDINGS: Short-term interventions aimed to increase ventilator supply and decrease demand. They included: redistributing and centralizing patients, repurposing operating rooms into intensive care units (ICUs) and boosting ventilator production and using stocks and back-ups; support by the critical care outreach team to optimize treatment of patients in the ward and permit early discharge from the ICU, ethical allocation of mechanical ventilators to patients who could benefit more from intensive treatment and short term ICU trials for selected patients with uncertain prognosis, respectively. Long-term strategies included education and training of non-ICU physicians and nurses to the care of critically-ill patients and measures to decrease viral spread among the population and the progression from mild to severe disease. SUMMARY: The experience and evidence gained during the current pandemic is of paramount importance for physicians and law-makers to plan in advance an appropriate response to any future similar crisis. Intensive care unit, hospital, national and international policies can all be improved to build systems capable of treating an unexpectedly large number of patients, while keeping a high standard of safety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/terapia , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Pandemias , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Críticos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238871, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301541

RESUMO

Importance: Data on the association of COVID-19 vaccination with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia are scarce. Objective: To evaluate whether COVID-19 vaccination is associated with preventing ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia and to compare baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study on regional data sets reports: (1) daily number of administered vaccines and (2) data of all consecutive patients admitted to an ICU in Lombardy, Italy, from August 1 to December 15, 2021 (Delta variant predominant). Vaccinated patients received either mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) or adenoviral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1-S or Ad26.COV2). Incident rate ratios (IRRs) were computed from August 1, 2021, to January 31, 2022; ICU and baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU were analyzed from August 1 to December 15, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination status (no vaccination, mRNA vaccine, adenoviral vector vaccine). Main Outcomes and Measures: The incidence IRR of ICU admission was evaluated, comparing vaccinated people with unvaccinated, adjusted for age and sex. The baseline characteristics at ICU admission of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were investigated. The association between vaccination status at ICU admission and mortality at ICU and hospital discharge were also studied, adjusting for possible confounders. Results: Among the 10 107 674 inhabitants of Lombardy, Italy, at the time of this study, the median [IQR] age was 48 [28-64] years and 5 154 914 (51.0%) were female. Of the 7 863 417 individuals who were vaccinated (median [IQR] age: 53 [33-68] years; 4 010 343 [51.4%] female), 6 251 417 (79.5%) received an mRNA vaccine, 550 439 (7.0%) received an adenoviral vector vaccine, and 1 061 561 (13.5%) received a mix of vaccines and 4 497 875 (57.2%) were boosted. Compared with unvaccinated people, IRR of individuals who received an mRNA vaccine within 120 days from the last dose was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.03-0.04; P < .001), whereas IRR of individuals who received an adenoviral vector vaccine after 120 days was 0.21 (95% CI, 0.19-0.24; P < .001). There were 553 patients admitted to an ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia during the study period: 139 patients (25.1%) were vaccinated and 414 (74.9%) were unvaccinated. Compared with unvaccinated patients, vaccinated patients were older (median [IQR]: 72 [66-76] vs 60 [51-69] years; P < .001), primarily male individuals (110 patients [79.1%] vs 252 patients [60.9%]; P < .001), with more comorbidities (median [IQR]: 2 [1-3] vs 0 [0-1] comorbidities; P < .001) and had higher ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) and fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) at ICU admission (median [IQR]: 138 [100-180] vs 120 [90-158] mm Hg; P = .007). Factors associated with ICU and hospital mortality were higher age, premorbid heart disease, lower Pao2/FiO2 at ICU admission, and female sex (this factor only for ICU mortality). ICU and hospital mortality were similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines were associated with significantly lower risk of ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia. ICU and hospital mortality were not associated with vaccinated status. These findings suggest a substantial reduction of the risk of developing COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission among vaccinated people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estado Terminal/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Vacina BNT162 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Oxigênio
10.
Br J Anaesth ; 129(5): 801-814, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are at risk of long-term comorbidities. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and physical and psychological impairments in ARDS survivors from 3 months to 5 yr follow-up after ICU discharge. METHODS: Systematic search of PubMed, AMED, BNI, and CINAHL databases from January 2000 to date. The primary outcome was HRQoL. Secondary outcomes included physical, pulmonary, and cognitive function, mental health, and return to work. A secondary analysis compared classical ARDS with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ARDS. RESULTS: Forty-eight papers met inclusion criteria including 11 693 patients; of those 85% (n=9992) had classical ARDS and 14% (n=1632) had SARS-CoV-2 ARDS. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical component summary score mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 46 (41-50) at 3 months, 39 (36-41) at 6 months, and 40 (38-43) at 12 months. The SF-36 mental component summary mean score was 53 (48-57) at 3 months, 45 (40-50) at 6 months, and 44 (42-47) at 12 months. SF-36 values were lower than those found in the normal population up to 5 yr. The predictive distance walked in 6 min was 57% (45-69), 63% (56-69), and 66% (62-70) at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Classical ARDS and SARS-CoV-2 ARDS showed no difference in HRQoL and physical function; however, patients with classical ARDS had higher incidence of anxiety and depression (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: ARDS survivors can experience reduced HRQoL and physical and mental health impairment. These symptoms might not recover completely up to 5 yr after ICU discharge. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42021296506.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complicações , Sobreviventes/psicologia
11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 294, 2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171594

RESUMO

Hemodynamic monitoring is the centerpiece of patient monitoring in acute care settings. Its effectiveness in terms of improved patient outcomes is difficult to quantify. This review focused on effectiveness of monitoring-linked resuscitation strategies from: (1) process-specific monitoring that allows for non-specific prevention of new onset cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI) in perioperative care. Such goal-directed therapy is associated with decreased perioperative complications and length of stay in high-risk surgery patients. (2) Patient-specific personalized resuscitation approaches for CVI. These approaches including dynamic measures to define volume responsiveness and vasomotor tone, limiting less fluid administration and vasopressor duration, reduced length of care. (3) Hemodynamic monitoring to predict future CVI using machine learning approaches. These approaches presently focus on predicting hypotension. Future clinical trials assessing hemodynamic monitoring need to focus on process-specific monitoring based on modifying therapeutic interventions known to improve patient-centered outcomes.


Assuntos
Monitorização Hemodinâmica , Ressuscitação , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Assistência Perioperatória , Ressuscitação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(10): 1482-1494, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945344

RESUMO

In critically ill patients, fluid infusion is aimed at increasing cardiac output and tissue perfusion. However, it may contribute to fluid overload which may be harmful. Thus, volume status, risks and potential efficacy of fluid administration and/or removal should be carefully evaluated, and monitoring techniques help for this purpose. Central venous pressure is a marker of right ventricular preload. Very low values indicate hypovolemia, while extremely high values suggest fluid harmfulness. The pulmonary artery catheter enables a comprehensive assessment of the hemodynamic profile and is particularly useful for indicating the risk of pulmonary oedema through the pulmonary artery occlusion pressure. Besides cardiac output and preload, transpulmonary thermodilution measures extravascular lung water, which reflects the extent of lung flooding and assesses the risk of fluid infusion. Echocardiography estimates the volume status through intravascular volumes and pressures. Finally, lung ultrasound estimates lung edema. Guided by these variables, the decision to infuse fluid should first consider specific triggers, such as signs of tissue hypoperfusion. Second, benefits and risks of fluid infusion should be weighted. Thereafter, fluid responsiveness should be assessed. Monitoring techniques help for this purpose, especially by providing real time and precise measurements of cardiac output. When decided, fluid resuscitation should be performed through fluid challenges, the effects of which should be assessed through critical endpoints including cardiac output. This comprehensive evaluation of the risk, benefits and efficacy of fluid infusion helps to individualize fluid management, which should be preferred over a fixed restrictive or liberal strategy.


Assuntos
Edema Pulmonar , Termodiluição , Débito Cardíaco , Estado Terminal/terapia , Hidratação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Termodiluição/métodos
14.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 236, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. RESULTS: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
16.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 224, 2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a promising alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with a particular importance amidst the shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the use of NIV in Europe and factors associated with outcomes of patients treated with NIV. METHODS: This is a substudy of COVIP study-an international prospective observational study enrolling patients aged ≥ 70 years with confirmed COVID-19 treated in ICU. We enrolled patients in 156 ICUs across 15 European countries between March 2020 and April 2021.The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Cohort included 3074 patients, most of whom were male (2197/3074, 71.4%) at the mean age of 75.7 years (SD 4.6). NIV frequency was 25.7% and varied from 1.1 to 62.0% between participating countries. Primary NIV failure, defined as need for endotracheal intubation or death within 30 days since ICU admission, occurred in 470/629 (74.7%) of patients. Factors associated with increased NIV failure risk were higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR 3.73, 95% CI 2.36-5.90) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) on admission (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.00). Patients initially treated with NIV (n = 630) lived for 1.36 fewer days (95% CI - 2.27 to - 0.46 days) compared to primary IMV group (n = 1876). CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of NIV use varies across European countries. Higher severity of illness and more severe frailty were associated with a risk of NIV failure among critically ill older adults with COVID-19. Primary IMV was associated with better outcomes than primary NIV. Clinical Trial Registration NCT04321265 , registered 19 March 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fragilidade , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
17.
N Engl J Med ; 386(26): 2459-2470, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids are recommended for the treatment of patients who are in septic shock, but higher fluid volumes have been associated with harm in patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In this international, randomized trial, we assigned patients with septic shock in the ICU who had received at least 1 liter of intravenous fluid to receive restricted intravenous fluid or standard intravenous fluid therapy; patients were included if the onset of shock had been within 12 hours before screening. The primary outcome was death from any cause within 90 days after randomization. RESULTS: We enrolled 1554 patients; 770 were assigned to the restrictive-fluid group and 784 to the standard-fluid group. Primary outcome data were available for 1545 patients (99.4%). In the ICU, the restrictive-fluid group received a median of 1798 ml of intravenous fluid (interquartile range, 500 to 4366); the standard-fluid group received a median of 3811 ml (interquartile range, 1861 to 6762). At 90 days, death had occurred in 323 of 764 patients (42.3%) in the restrictive-fluid group, as compared with 329 of 781 patients (42.1%) in the standard-fluid group (adjusted absolute difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.7 to 4.9; P = 0.96). In the ICU, serious adverse events occurred at least once in 221 of 751 patients (29.4%) in the restrictive-fluid group and in 238 of 772 patients (30.8%) in the standard-fluid group (adjusted absolute difference, -1.7 percentage points; 99% CI, -7.7 to 4.3). At 90 days after randomization, the numbers of days alive without life support and days alive and out of the hospital were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among adult patients with septic shock in the ICU, intravenous fluid restriction did not result in fewer deaths at 90 days than standard intravenous fluid therapy. (Funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation and others; CLASSIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03668236.).


Assuntos
Hidratação , Choque Séptico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/terapia
18.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 186, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fluid challenges are widely adopted in critically ill patients to reverse haemodynamic instability. We reviewed the literature to appraise fluid challenge characteristics in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving haemodynamic monitoring and considered two decades: 2000-2010 and 2011-2021. METHODS: We assessed research studies and collected data regarding study setting, patient population, fluid challenge characteristics, and monitoring. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane search engines were used. A fluid challenge was defined as an infusion of a definite quantity of fluid (expressed as a volume in mL or ml/kg) in a fixed time (expressed in minutes), whose outcome was defined as a change in predefined haemodynamic variables above a predetermined threshold. RESULTS: We included 124 studies, 32 (25.8%) published in 2000-2010 and 92 (74.2%) in 2011-2021, overall enrolling 6,086 patients, who presented sepsis/septic shock in 50.6% of cases. The fluid challenge usually consisted of 500 mL (76.6%) of crystalloids (56.6%) infused with a rate of 25 mL/min. Fluid responsiveness was usually defined by a cardiac output/index (CO/CI) increase ≥ 15% (70.9%). The infusion time was quicker (15 min vs 30 min), and crystalloids were more frequent in the 2011-2021 compared to the 2000-2010 period. CONCLUSIONS: In the literature, fluid challenges are usually performed by infusing 500 mL of crystalloids bolus in less than 20 min. A positive fluid challenge response, reported in 52% of ICU patients, is generally defined by a CO/CI increase ≥ 15%. Compared to the 2000-2010 decade, in 2011-2021 the infusion time of the fluid challenge was shorter, and crystalloids were more frequently used.


Assuntos
Monitorização Hemodinâmica , Choque Séptico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Hidratação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
19.
Int J Med Inform ; 164: 104807, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671585

RESUMO

PURPOSE: COVID-19 disease frequently affects the lungs leading to bilateral viral pneumonia, progressing in some cases to severe respiratory failure requiring ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. Risk stratification at ICU admission is fundamental for resource allocation and decision making. We assessed performances of three machine learning approaches to predict mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU using early operative data from the Lombardy ICU Network. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from Lombardy ICU network. A logistic regression, balanced logistic regression and random forest were built to predict survival on two datasets: dataset A included patient demographics, medications before admission and comorbidities, and dataset B included respiratory data the first day in ICU. RESULTS: Models were trained on 1484 patients on four outcomes (7/14/21/28 days) and reached the greatest predictive performance at 28 days (F1-score: 0.75 and AUC: 0.80). Age, number of comorbidities and male gender were strongly associated with mortality. On dataset B, mode of ventilatory assistance at ICU admission and fraction of inspired oxygen were associated with an increase in prediction performances. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning techniques might be useful in emergency phases to reach good predictive performances maintaining interpretability to gain knowledge on complex situations and enhance patient management and resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9208, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654818

RESUMO

Some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia develop an associated cytokine storm syndrome that aggravates the pulmonary disease. These patients may benefit of anti-inflammatory treatment. The role of colchicine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and established hyperinflammation remains unexplored. In a prospective, randomized controlled, observer-blinded endpoint, investigator-initiated trial, 240 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and established hyperinflammation were randomly allocated to receive oral colchicine or not. The primary efficacy outcome measure was a composite of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (CPAP or BiPAP), admission to the intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation requirement or death. The composite primary outcome occurred in 19.3% of the total study population. The composite primary outcome was similar in the two arms (17% in colchicine group vs. 20.8% in the control group; p = 0.533) and the same applied to each of its individual components. Most patients received steroids (98%) and heparin (99%), with similar doses in both groups. In this trial, including adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and associated hyperinflammation, no clinical benefit was observed with short-course colchicine treatment beyond standard care regarding the combined outcome measurement of CPAP/BiPAP use, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation or death (Funded by the Community of Madrid, EudraCT Number: 2020-001841-38; 26/04/2020).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial
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