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1.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is associated with poor mental and physical health. However, the mechanisms of gene-environment correlations and the potential causal effects of childhood maltreatment on health are unknown. Using genetics, we aimed to delineate the sources of gene-environment correlation for childhood maltreatment and the causal relationship between childhood maltreatment and health. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of childhood maltreatment using data from the UK Biobank (n=143 473), Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n=26 290), Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n=8346), Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (n=5400), and Generation R (n=1905). We included individuals who had phenotypic and genetic data available. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphism heritability and genetic correlations among different subtypes, operationalisations, and reports of childhood maltreatment. Family-based and population-based polygenic score analyses were done to elucidate gene-environment correlation mechanisms. We used genetic correlation and Mendelian randomisation analyses to identify shared genetics and test causal relationships between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health conditions. FINDINGS: Our meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N=185 414) identified 14 independent loci associated with childhood maltreatment (13 novel). We identified high genetic overlap (genetic correlations 0·24-1·00) among different maltreatment operationalisations, subtypes, and reporting methods. Within-family analyses provided some support for active and reactive gene-environment correlation but did not show the absence of passive gene-environment correlation. Robust Mendelian randomisation suggested a potential causal role of childhood maltreatment in depression (unidirectional), as well as both schizophrenia and ADHD (bidirectional), but not in physical health conditions (coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes) or inflammation (C-reactive protein concentration). INTERPRETATION: Childhood maltreatment has a heritable component, with substantial genetic correlations among different operationalisations, subtypes, and retrospective and prospective reports of childhood maltreatment. Family-based analyses point to a role of active and reactive gene-environment correlation, with equivocal support for passive correlation. Mendelian randomisation supports a (primarily bidirectional) causal role of childhood maltreatment on mental health, but not on physical health conditions. Our study identifies research avenues to inform the prevention of childhood maltreatment and its long-term effects. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, Horizon 2020, National Institute of Mental Health, and National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743096

RESUMO

A potential pathway underlying the association between prenatal exposure to maternal psychological problems and childhood externalizing problems is child self-regulation. This prospective study (N = 687) examined whether self-regulated compliance mediates the relation between maternal affective problems and hostility during pregnancy and childhood externalizing problems, and explored moderation by child polygenic risk scores for aggression and sex. Self-regulated compliance at age 3 was observed in mother-child interactions, and externalizing problems at age 6 were reported by mothers and teachers. Polygenic risk scores were calculated based on a genome-wide association study of aggressive behavior. Self-regulated compliance mediated the associations between maternal psychological problems and externalizing problems. Aggression PRS was associated with higher externalizing problems reported by mothers. No evidence was found of moderation by aggression PRS or sex. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal psychological problems during pregnancy might influence externalizing problems through early self-regulation, regardless of child genetic susceptibility or sex.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635441

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that schizophrenia polygenic risk predicts a multitude of mental health problems in the general population. Yet it is unclear by which mechanisms these associations arise. Here, we explored a possible gene-environment correlation in the association of schizophrenia polygenic risk with mental health problems via childhood adversity. This study was embedded in the population-based Generation R Study, including N = 1901 participants with genotyping for schizophrenia polygenic risk, maternal reporting of childhood adversity, and Child Behaviour Checklist measurement of mental health problems. Independent replication was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 3641). Associations were analysed with Poisson regression and statistical mediation analysis. Higher burden of schizophrenia polygenic risk was associated with greater exposure to childhood adversity (P-value threshold < 0.5: Generation R Study, OR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.02-1.15, P = 0.01; ALSPAC, OR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.03, P < 0.01). Childhood adversities partly explained the relationship of schizophrenia polygenic risk with emotional, attention, and thought problems (proportion explained, range 5-23%). Direct effects of schizophrenia polygenic risk and adversity on mental health outcomes were also observed. In summary, genetic liability to schizophrenia increased the risk for mental health problems in the general paediatric population through childhood adversity. Although this finding could result from a mediated causal relationship between genotype and mental health, we argue that these observations most likely reflect a gene-environment correlation, i.e. adversities are a marker for the genetic risk that parents transmit to children. These and similar recent findings raise important conceptual questions about preventative interventions aimed at reducing childhood adversities.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(1): 119-134, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450751

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is known to play a pivotal role in childhood health and development, but a comprehensive characterization of genome-wide DNAm trajectories across this age period is currently lacking. We have therefore performed a series of epigenome-wide association studies in 5019 blood samples collected at multiple time-points from birth to late adolescence from 2348 participants of two large independent cohorts. DNAm profiles of autosomal CpG sites (CpGs) were generated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Change over time was widespread, observed at over one-half (53%) of CpGs. In most cases, DNAm was decreasing (36% of CpGs). Inter-individual variation in linear trajectories was similarly widespread (27% of CpGs). Evidence for non-linear change and inter-individual variation in non-linear trajectories was somewhat less common (11 and 8% of CpGs, respectively). Very little inter-individual variation in change was explained by sex differences (0.4% of CpGs) even though sex-specific DNAm was observed at 5% of CpGs. DNAm trajectories were distributed non-randomly across the genome. For example, CpGs with decreasing DNAm were enriched in gene bodies and enhancers and were annotated to genes enriched in immune-developmental functions. In contrast, CpGs with increasing DNAm were enriched in promoter regions and annotated to genes enriched in neurodevelopmental functions. These findings depict a methylome undergoing widespread and often non-linear change throughout childhood. They support a developmental role for DNA methylation that extends beyond birth into late adolescence and has implications for understanding life-long health and disease. DNAm trajectories can be visualized at http://epidelta.mrcieu.ac.uk.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are among the major non-communicable diseases, leading to significant disability and mortality worldwide. These diseases may share environmental and genetic determinants associated with multimorbid patterns. Stressful early-life events are among the primary factors associated with the development of mental and physical diseases. However, possible causative mechanisms linking early life stress (ELS) with psycho-cardio-metabolic (PCM) multi-morbidity are not well understood. This prevents a full understanding of causal pathways towards the shared risk of these diseases and the development of coordinated preventive and therapeutic interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This paper describes the study protocol for EarlyCause, a large-scale and inter-disciplinary research project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. The project takes advantage of human longitudinal birth cohort data, animal studies and cellular models to test the hypothesis of shared mechanisms and molecular pathways by which ELS shapes an individual's physical and mental health in adulthood. The study will research in detail how ELS converts into biological signals embedded simultaneously or sequentially in the brain, the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. The research will mainly focus on four biological processes including possible alterations of the epigenome, neuroendocrine system, inflammatome, and the gut microbiome. Life-course models will integrate the role of modifying factors as sex, socioeconomics, and lifestyle with the goal to better identify groups at risk as well as inform promising strategies to reverse the possible mechanisms and/or reduce the impact of ELS on multi-morbidity development in high-risk individuals. These strategies will help better manage the impact of multi-morbidity on human health and the associated risk.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481128

RESUMO

Although there is mounting evidence that the experience of being bullied associates with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms, it is not known yet whether the identified associations are specific to these symptoms, or shared between them. The primary focus of this study is to assess the prospective associations of bullying exposure with both general and specific (i.e., internalizing, externalizing) factors of psychopathology. This study included data from 6,210 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Child bullying was measured by self-report at ages 8 and 10 years. Child psychopathology symptoms were assessed by parent-interview, using the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA) at ages 7 and 13 years. Bullying exposure significantly associated with the general psychopathology factor in early adolescence. In particular, chronically victimized youth exposed to multiple forms of bullying (i.e., both overt and relational) showed higher levels of general psychopathology. Bullying exposure also associated with both internalizing and externalizing factors from the correlated-factors model. However, the effect estimates for these factors decreased considerably in size and dropped to insignificant for the internalizing factor after extracting the shared variance that belongs to the general factor of psychopathology. Using an integrative longitudinal model, we found that higher levels of general psychopathology at age 7 also associated with bullying exposure at age 8 which, in turn, associated with general psychopathology at age 13 through its two-year continuity. Findings suggest that exposure to bullying is a risk factor for a more general vulnerability to psychopathology.

8.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494854

RESUMO

While previous studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of autism-related traits, little is known about potential biological mechanisms underlying these associations. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined prospective associations between DNA methylation (DNAm: nbirth = 804, nage 7 = 877) and trajectories of social communication deficits at age 8-17 years. Methylomic variation at three loci across the genome (false discovery rate = 0.048) differentiated children following high (n = 80) versus low (n = 724) trajectories of social communication deficits. This differential DNAm was specific to the neonatal period and not observed at 7 years of age. Associations between DNAm and trajectory membership remained robust after controlling for co-occurring mental health problems (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems). The three loci identified at birth were not replicated in the Generation R Study. However, to the best of our knowledge, ALSPAC is the only study to date that is prospective enough to examine DNAm in relation to longitudinal trajectories of social communication deficits from childhood to adolescence. Although the present findings might point to potentially novel sites that differentiate between a high versus low trajectory of social communication deficits, the results should be considered tentative until further replicated.

9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental work in animals has shown that DNA methylation (DNAm), an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression, is influenced by typical variation in maternal care. While emerging research in humans supports a similar association, studies to date have been limited to candidate gene and cross-sectional approaches, with a focus on extreme deviations in the caregiving environment. METHODS: Here, we explored the prospective association between typical variation in maternal sensitivity and offspring epigenome-wide DNAm, in a population-based cohort of children (N = 235). Maternal sensitivity was observed when children were 3- and 4-years-old. DNAm, quantified with the Infinium 450 K array, was extracted at age 6 (whole blood). The influence of methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs), DNAm at birth (cord blood), and confounders (socioeconomic status, maternal psychopathology) was considered in follow-up analyses. RESULTS: Genome-wide significant associations between maternal sensitivity and offspring DNAm were observed at 13 regions (p < 1.06 × 10-07), but not at single sites. Follow-up analyses indicated that associations at these regions were in part related to genetic factors, confounders, and baseline DNAm levels at birth, as evidenced by the presence of mQTLs at five regions and estimate attenuations. Robust associations with maternal sensitivity were found at four regions, annotated to ZBTB22, TAPBP, ZBTB12, and DOCK4. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel leads into the relationship between typical variation in maternal caregiving and offspring DNAm in humans, highlighting robust regions of associations, previously implicated in psychological and developmental problems, immune functioning, and stress responses.

10.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(10): 1061-1069, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) has been implicated in the biology of sleep. Yet, how DNAm patterns across the genome relate to different sleep outcomes, and whether these associations overlap with mental health is currently unknown. Here, we investigated associations of DNAm with sleep and mental health in a pediatric population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 465 10-year-old children (51.3% female) from the Generation R Study. Genome-wide DNAm levels were measured using the Illumina 450K array (peripheral blood). Sleep problems were assessed from self-report and mental health outcomes from maternal questionnaires. Wrist actigraphy was used in 188 11-year-old children to calculate sleep duration and midpoint sleep. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify highly comethylated DNAm 'modules', which were tested for associations with sleep and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 64 DNAm modules, one of which associated with sleep duration after covariate and multiple testing adjustment. This module included CpG sites spanning 9 genes on chromosome 17, including MAPT - a key regulator of Tau proteins in the brain involved in neuronal function - as well as genes previously implicated in sleep duration. Follow-up analyses suggested that DNAm variation in this region is under considerable genetic control and shows strong blood-brain concordance. DNAm modules associated with sleep did not overlap with those associated with mental health. CONCLUSIONS: We identified one DNAm region associated with sleep duration, including genes previously reported by recent GWAS studies. Further research is warranted to examine the functional role of this region and its longitudinal association with sleep.

11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 112: 392-409, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081689

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) - an epigenetic process that regulates gene expression - may represent a mechanism for the biological embedding of early traumatic experiences, including childhood maltreatment. Here, we conducted the first systematic review of human studies linking childhood maltreatment to DNAm. In total, 72 studies were included in the review (2008-2018). The majority of extant studies (i) were based on retrospective data in adults, (ii) employed a candidate gene approach (iii) focused on global maltreatment, (iv) were based on easily accessible peripheral tissues, typically blood; and (v) were cross-sectional. Two-thirds of studies (n = 48) also examined maltreatment-related outcomes, such as stress reactivity and psychiatric symptoms. While findings generally support an association between childhood maltreatment and altered patterns of DNAm, factors such as the lack of longitudinal data, low comparability across studies as well as potential genetic and 'pre-exposure' environmental confounding currently limit the conclusions that can be drawn. Key challenges are discussed and concrete recommendations for future research are provided to move the field forward.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 8, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915053

RESUMO

The occurrence of seizures in childhood is often associated with neurodevelopmental impairments and school underachievement. Common genetic variants associated with epilepsy have been identified and epigenetic mechanisms have also been suggested to play a role. In this study, we analyzed the association of genome-wide blood DNA methylation with the occurrence of seizures in ~ 800 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK, at birth (cord blood), during childhood, and adolescence (peripheral blood). We also analyzed the association between the lifetime occurrence of any seizures before age 13 with blood DNA methylation levels. We sought replication of the findings in the Generation R Study and explored causality using Mendelian randomization, i.e., using genetic variants as proxies. The results showed five CpG sites which were associated cross-sectionally with seizures either in childhood or adolescence (1-5% absolute methylation difference at pFDR < 0.05), although the evidence of replication in an independent study was weak. One of these sites was located in the BDNF gene, which is highly expressed in the brain, and showed high correspondence with brain methylation levels. The Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that seizures might be causal for changes in methylation rather than vice-versa. In conclusion, we show a suggestive link between seizures and blood DNA methylation while at the same time exploring the limitations of conducting such study.

13.
Epigenetics ; 15(6-7): 750-764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992121

RESUMO

Bullying among children is ubiquitous and associated with pervasive mental health problems. However, little is known about the biological pathways that change after exposure to bullying. Epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood were studied from pre- to post measurement of bullying exposure, in a longitudinal study of the population-based Generation R Study and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (combined n = 1,352). Linear mixed-model results were meta-analysed to estimate how DNA methylation changed as a function of exposure to bullying. Sensitivity analyses including co-occurring child characteristics and risks were performed, as well as a Gene Ontology analysis. A candidate follow-up was employed for CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites annotated to 5-HTT and NR3C1. One site, cg17312179, showed small changes in DNA methylation associated to bullying exposure (b = -2.67e-03, SE = 4.97e-04, p = 7.17e-08). This site is annotated to RAB14, an oncogene related to Golgi apparatus functioning, and its methylation levels decreased for exposed but increased for non-exposed. This result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. Enriched Gene Ontology pathways for differentially methylated sites included cardiac function and neurodevelopmental processes. Top CpG sites tended to have overall low levels of DNA methylation, decreasing in exposed, increasing in non-exposed individuals. There were no gene-wide corrected findings for 5-HTT and NR3C1. This is the first study to identify changes in DNA methylation associated with bullying exposure at the epigenome-wide significance level. Consistent with other population-based studies, we do not find evidence for strong associations between bullying exposure and DNA methylation.

14.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(2): 283-295.e4, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to interpersonal violence is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether there are sensitive periods when exposure is most deleterious. We aimed to determine whether there were time periods when physical or sexual violence exposure was associated with greater child psychopathology. METHOD: This study (N = 4,580) was embedded in Generation R, a population-based prospective birth cohort. Timing of violence exposure, reported through maternal reports (child age, 10 years) was categorized by age at first exposure, defined as: very early (0-3 years), early (4-5 years), middle (6-7 years), and late (8+ years) childhood. Using Poisson regression, we assessed the association between timing of first exposure and levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, using the Child Behavior Checklist at age 10 years. RESULTS: Violence exposure at any age was associated with higher internalizing (physical violence: risk ratio [RR] = 1.46, p < 0.0001; sexual violence: RR = 1.30, p < .0001) and externalizing symptoms (physical violence: RR = 1.52, p < 0.0001; sexual violence: RR = 1.31, p = 0.0005). However, the effects of violence were time dependent: compared to children exposed at older ages, children first exposed during very early childhood had greater externalizing symptoms. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these time-based differences emerged slowly across ages 1.5, 3, 6, and 10 years, showing a latency between onset of violence exposure and emergence of symptoms, and were unlikely to be explained by co-occurring adversities. CONCLUSION: Interpersonal violence is harmful to childhood mental health regardless of when it occurs. However, very early childhood may be a particularly sensitive period when exposure results in worse psychopathology outcomes. Results should be replicated in fully prospective designs.

15.
Dev Psychol ; 55(12): 2575-2586, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621343

RESUMO

Depression is associated with dietary factors and epigenetics. Serum cholesterol, which is prone to dietary influences, has been linked to symptoms of depression. This relationship may be (in part) due to altered epigenetic regulation of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR). MTHFR codes for the MTHFR enzyme, which has diverse metabolic functions, and has recently been linked individually with diet, serum cholesterol levels and depressive symptoms. In 514 mother-child pairs, we examined prospective relationships between maternal (pregnancy) and child (7 years) serum cholesterol, MTHFR DNA methylation (DNAm; birth, 7 years), and development of depression symptoms from 8-15 years. After adjusting for potential confounding, we had three main findings. First, higher prenatal cholesterol associated (at a small effect size) with higher MTHFR DNAm at birth. Second, there was small effect size continuity for MTHFR DNAm between birth and age 7. Third, higher age 7 MTHFR DNAm associated with higher initial symptoms of depression symptoms at age 8, again at a small effect size. Overall, our findings provide preliminary evidence for a relationship between prenatal cholesterol, MTHFR DNAm, and symptoms of depression in children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Depressão/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(8): 857-865, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that poor family environments are related to more sleep problems; however, little is known about how family irregularity in early life affects the development of sleep problems over childhood using objective sleep measures. The current study tests the hypothesis that early family irregularity contributes to the development of sleep problems. METHODS: This population-based study comprises 5,443 children from the Generation R Study. Family irregularity was measured with seven maternal-reported questions on family routines when children were 2 and 4 years old. Mothers reported on sleep problems at child age 3, 6, and 10 years, whereas children completed questionnaires on sleep problems at age 10. Additionally, we used tri-axial wrist accelerometers for five nights in 851 children (mean age 11.7 years) to assess sleep objectively. RESULTS: Family irregularity was associated with more mother- and child-reported sleep problems at ages 3, 6, and 10 years as well as with a shorter sleep duration and later objective sleep onset, but not with sleep efficiency or waking time. The association between family irregularity and multi-informant subjective sleep problems at age 10 years was mediated by mother-reported child psychopathology at age 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a long-term robust association of preschool family irregularity with more sleep problems during childhood as well as shorter sleep duration and later sleep onset as measured objectively with actigraphy. In part, these sleep problems were associated with family irregularity by way of child psychopathology. These findings suggest that interventions improving preschool family irregularity, which are targeted to reduce child psychopathology, may also impact the development of sleep problems beneficially.


Assuntos
Educação Infantil , Família , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Actigrafia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(5): 399-407, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Callous traits during childhood, e.g., lack of remorse and shallow affect, are a key risk marker for antisocial behavior. Although callous traits have been found to be associated with structural and functional brain alterations, evidence to date has been almost exclusively limited to small, high-risk samples of boys. We characterized gray and white matter brain correlates of callous traits in over 2000 children from the general population. METHODS: Data on mother-reported callous traits and brain imaging were collected at age 10 years from participants of the Generation R Study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain morphology using volumetric indices and whole-brain analyses (n = 2146); diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess global and specific white matter microstructure (n = 2059). RESULTS: Callous traits were associated with lower global brain (e.g., total brain) volumes as well as decreased cortical surface area in frontal and temporal regions. Global mean diffusivity was negatively associated with callous traits, suggesting higher white matter microstructural integrity in children with elevated callous traits. Multiple individual tracts, including the uncinate and cingulum, contributed to this global association. Whereas no gender differences were observed for global volumetric indices, white matter associations were present only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide a systematic characterization of the structural neural profile of callous traits in the general pediatric population. These findings extend previous work based on selected samples by demonstrating that childhood callous traits in the general population are characterized by widespread macrostructural and microstructural differences across the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Comportamento Problema , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Atrofia/patologia , Criança , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/patologia , Neuroimagem , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Schizophr Res ; 206: 127-134, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences comprise auditory and visual perceptive phenomena, such as hearing or seeing things that are not there, in the absence of a psychotic disorder. Psychotic experiences commonly occur in the general pediatric population. Although the majority of psychotic experiences are transient, they are predictive of future psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. They have been associated with sleep problems, but studies with objective sleep measures are lacking. This study assessed whether psychotic experiences were associated with actigraphic sleep measures, symptoms of dyssomnia, nightmares, or other parasomnias. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study comprises 4149 children from the Generation R Study. At age 10 years, psychotic experiences including hallucinatory phenomena were assessed by self-report; dyssomnia and parasomnia symptoms were assessed by mother- and child-report. Additionally, at age 11 years, objective sleep parameters were measured using a tri-axial wrist accelerometer in N = 814 children, who wore the accelerometer for five consecutive school days. RESULTS: Psychotic experiences were not associated with objective sleep duration, sleep efficiency, arousal, or social jetlag. However, psychotic experiences were associated with self-reported dyssomnia (B = 2.45, 95%CI: 2.13-2.77, p < 0.001) and mother-reported parasomnia, specifically nightmares (ORadjusted = 3.59, 95%CI 2.66-4.83, p < 0.001). Similar results were found when analyses were restricted to hallucinatory phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood psychotic experiences were not associated with objective sleep measures. In contrast, psychotic experiences were associated with nightmares, which are a known risk indicator of psychopathology in pre-adolescence. More research is needed to shed light on the potential etiologic or diagnostic role of nightmares in the development of psychotic phenomena.


Assuntos
Dissonias/epidemiologia , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Parassonias/epidemiologia , Acelerometria , Actigrafia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Sonhos , Feminino , Alucinações/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(8): 746-764, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411855

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), have been linked to individual differences in physical aggression. Yet, it is currently unclear whether: (a) DNAm patterns in humans associate with physical aggression independently of other co-occurring psychiatric and behavioral symptoms; (b) whether these patterns are observable across multiple tissues; and (c) whether they may function as a causal versus noncausal biomarker of physical aggression. Here, we used a multisample, cross-tissue design to address these questions. First, we examined genome-wide DNAm patterns (buccal swabs; Illumina 450k) associated with engagement in physical fights in a sample of high-risk youth (n = 119; age = 16-24 years; 53% female). We identified one differentially methylated region in DRD4, which survived genome-wide correction, associated with physical aggression above and beyond co-occurring symptomatology (e.g., ADHD, substance use), and showed strong cross-tissue concordance with both blood and brain. Second, we found that DNAm sites within this region were also differentially methylated in an independent sample of young adults, between individuals with a history of chronic-high versus low physical aggression (peripheral T cells; ages 26-28). Finally, we ran a Mendelian randomization analysis using GWAS data from the EAGLE consortium to test for a causal association of DRD4 methylation with physical aggression. Only one genetic instrument was eligible for the analysis, and results provided no evidence for a causal association. Overall, our findings lend support for peripheral DRD4 methylation as a potential biomarker of physically aggressive behavior, with no evidence yet of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , DNA/sangue , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Genoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 94: 17-30, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067938

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes have been suggested as key mechanisms in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence for an association between epigenetics and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Six databases were searched until the 24th of October 2017. Of the 2169 retrieved articles, 29 met our inclusion criteria. While generally associations between epigenetics and neurodevelopmental disorders were reported, only a few findings were consistent across independent analyses. Differential epigenetic markers were repeatedly identified in OR2L13, C11orf21/TSPAN32, PRRT1 and H3K27 for autism, and in VIPR2 for ADHD. Overall, evidence of an association between epigenetic modifications and ASD or ADHD should be considered preliminary and based on studies suffering from numerous caveats. We highlight the need for carefully designed investigations and for greater homogeneity and provide specific recommendations for future research. Despite the current limited understanding, the suggestive findings and rapid advances in the field hold the promise of a forthcoming elucidation of the role of epigenetic modifications in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
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