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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360732


Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a well-known transcription factor best recognised as one of the main regulators of the oxidative stress response. Beyond playing a crucial role in cell defence by transactivating cytoprotective genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, Nrf2 is also implicated in a wide network regulating anti-inflammatory response and metabolic reprogramming. Such a broad spectrum of actions renders the factor a key regulator of cell fate and a strategic player in the control of cell transformation and response to viral infections. The Nrf2 protective roles in normal cells account for its anti-tumour and anti-viral functions. However, Nrf2 overstimulation often occurs in tumour cells and a complex correlation of Nrf2 with cancer initiation and progression has been widely described. Therefore, if on one hand, Nrf2 has a dual role in cancer, on the other hand, the factor seems to display a univocal function in preventing inflammation and cytokine storm that occur under viral infections, specifically in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). In such a variegate context, the present review aims to dissect the roles of Nrf2 in both cancer and COVID-19, two widespread diseases that represent a cause of major concern today. In particular, the review describes the molecular aspects of Nrf2 signalling in both pathological situations and the most recent findings about the advantages of Nrf2 inhibition or activation as possible strategies for cancer and COVID-19 treatment respectively.

COVID-19/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443600


Organotin(IV) compounds are a class of non-platinum metallo-conjugates exhibiting antitumor activity. The effects of different organotin types has been related to several mechanisms, including their ability to modify acetylation protein status and to promote apoptosis. Here, we focus on triorganotin(IV) complexes of butyric acid, a well-known HDAC inhibitor with antitumor properties. The conjugated compounds were synthesized and characterised by FTIR spectroscopy, multi-nuclear (1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR, and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In the triorganotin(IV) complexes, an anionic monodentate butyrate ligand was observed, which coordinated the tin atom on a tetra-coordinated, monomeric environment similar to ester. FTIR and NMR findings confirm this structure both in solid state and solution. The antitumor efficacy of the triorganotin(IV) butyrates was tested in colon cancer cells and, among them, tributyltin(IV) butyrate (BT2) was selected as the most efficacious. BT2 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ER stress, and apoptotic cell death. These effects were obtained using low concentrations of BT2 up to 1 µM, whereas butyric acid alone was completely inefficacious, and the parent compound TBT was poorly effective at the same treatment conditions. To assess whether butyrate in the coordinated form maintains its epigenetic effects, histone acetylation was evaluated and a dramatic decrease in acetyl-H3 and -H4 histones was found. In contrast, butyrate alone stimulated histone acetylation at a higher concentration (5 mM). BT2 was also capable of preventing histone acetylation induced by SAHA, another potent HDAC inhibitor, thus suggesting that it may activate HDACs. These results support a potential use of BT2, a novel epigenetic modulator, in colon cancer treatment.

Apoptose/genética , Ácido Butírico/química , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Trialquitina/química , Compostos de Trialquitina/farmacologia , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143349


Organotin compounds represent potential cancer therapeutics due to their pro-apoptotic action. We recently synthesized the novel organotin ferulic acid derivative tributyltin (IV) ferulate (TBT-F) and demonstrated that it displays anti-tumor properties in colon cancer cells related with autophagic cell death. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of TBT-F action in colon cancer cells. We specifically show that TBT-F-dependent autophagy is determined by a rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. TBT-F evoked nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response and Nrf2 silencing by RNA interference markedly increased the anti-tumor efficacy of the compound. Moreover, as a consequence of ROS production, TBT-F increased the levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), two ER stress markers. Interestingly, Grp78 silencing produced significant decreasing effects on the levels of the autophagic proteins p62 and LC3-II, while only p62 decreased in CHOP-silenced cells. Taken together, these results indicate that ROS-dependent ER stress and autophagy play a major role in the TBT-F action mechanism in colon cancer cells and open a new perspective to consider the compound as a potential candidate for colon cancer treatment.

Autofagia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Trialquitina/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
J Inorg Biochem ; 205: 110999, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986423


Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural phenolic phytochemical that has low toxicity and exhibits therapeutic effects against various diseases, behaving as an antioxidant. FA also displays modest antitumor properties that have been reported at relatively high concentrations. With the aim of improving the anti-tumor efficacy of FA, we synthesized the novel compound tributyltin(IV) ferulate (TBT-F). The coordination environment at the tin center was investigated spectroscopically. Following synthesis, chemical characterization and computational analysis, we evaluated TBT-F effects in colon cancer cells. The results showed that TBT-F, at nanomolar range concentrations, was capable of reducing the viability of HCT116, HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. On the other hand, FA was completely inefficacious at the same treatment conditions. Cell viability reduction induced by TBT-F was associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest, increase in membrane permeabilization and appearance of typical morphological signs. TBT-F-induced cell death seemed not to involve apoptotic or necroptotic markers whereas autophagic vacuoles appearance and increase in LC3-II and p62 autophagic proteins were observed after treatment with the compound. The autophagy inhibitor bafylomicin A1 markedly prevented the effect of TBT-F on colon cancer cells, thus indicating that autophagy is triggered as a cell death process. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the novel ferulic derivative TBT-F is a promising therapeutic agent for colon cancer since it is capable of triggering autophagic (type-II) cell death that may be important in case of resistance to classic apoptosis.

Antineoplásicos , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos , Compostos de Trialquitina , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Compostos de Trialquitina/síntese química , Compostos de Trialquitina/química , Compostos de Trialquitina/farmacologia