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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1109-1119, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518070

RESUMO

The difference in microbiota was examined for breeders with different egg-laying rates, and the impact of dietary Enterococcus faecium (EF) was also determined in the present study. A total of 256 Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-wk-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, which encompassed 2 egg-laying rate levels [average (average egg laying: AP, 80.45 ± 0.91%) and low (lower egg laying: LP, 70.61 ± 1.16%)] and 2 different dietary groups [control (no additive), 6 × 108 cfu/kg EF]. The results showed that the AP breeders presented a lower egg weight, feed conversion ratio, abdominal fat rate, and serum leptin level (P(laying) ≤ 0.05) as well as a higher egg-laying rate (P(laying) < 0.01) than the LP breeders. Dietary supplementation with EF improved the egg weight (P(EF) = 0.03) and had a higher concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the serum (P(EF) = 0.04). The relative expression of Caspase 9, Bax, AMHR, BMP15, and GATA4 in the ovary of AP breeders was lower, whereas the FSHR and BMPR1B expression was higher than that measured in LP breeders (P(laying) ≤ 0.05). LP increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes (phylum), Firmicutes (phylum), Bacteroidia (class), Clostridia (class), Bacteroidales (order), Clostridiales (order), and Lachnospiraceae (family), whereas the AP promoted the enrichment of Proteobacteria (phylum) and Gammaproteobacteria (class) (P(laying) < 0.05). The genera Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, and Streptomyces were positively correlated with the egg-laying rate and BMPR1B expression (P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with the abdominal fat rate (P < 0.05) and Caspase 9 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the low reproductive performance breeders had lower microbiota diversity and higher Firmicutes, which triggers the energy storage that led to higher fat deposition. Besides, increases in the abdominal fat rate, leptin level, and apoptosis (Caspase 9, Bax) and reproduction-related gene (BMP15, AMHR, BMPR1B, and GATA4) expression would possibly be the potential mechanisms under which breeders have different reproductive performance. Dietary EF increased the egg weight and serum FSH level and decreased the Bacteroidetes (phylum) in low reproductive breeders.

2.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 196-205, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357682

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary benzoic acid on production performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of laying hens. A total of seven hundred twenty 45-wk-old Lohman pink-shell laying hens were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: control (CON), diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1), and 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). Each treatment included 10 replicates of 24 hens; laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. Overall, the results indicate that benzoic acid supplementation had no effect on laying rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breaking rate; however, a decrease in egg weight (P < 0.01) was observed in the BA2 group. Albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were also linearly increased in the BA1 and BA2 groups (linear effect, P < 0.05). An increase in duodenum villus height (V) (quadratic effect, P = 0.041) and crypt depth (C) (linear effect, P = 0.012) was observed in the BA2 group, whereas an increased jejunum C and decreased V/C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) in the BA1 group. Moreover, an increase in ileum V and C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) was observed in the BA1 group. Microbial richness and diversity were reduced in the BA2 group (P < 0.01). An increase in the abundance of Clostridia (class), Clostridiales (order), Ruminococcaceae (family), and Lachnospiraceae (family) was noted in the BA1 group, whereas an enrichment of Bacteroides caecicola (species) was observed in the BA2 group. The HU positively correlated with genus Sphaerochaeta and Enorma (r = 0.56, 0.56; P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with Romboutsia, Subdoligranulum, Helicobacter, and Mucispirillum (r = -0.58, -0.49, -0.48; -0.70; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with benzoic acid had no effect on production performance, but it significantly improved egg quality. In addition, 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid positively modulated intestinal health by improving intestinal morphology and enriching microbial composition.

3.
J Dairy Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292880

RESUMO

This research reflection examines the physiological links between redox balance, skeletal health and gastrointestinal functionality in dairy cows. With the increase in demand of animal products caused by the growth in human population, the dairy industry needs to develop and implement innovative strategies which are profitable, sustainable and cow friendly. Redox balance, skeletal heath and gastrointestinal functionality are three key physiological systems that are often seen as independent entities. In this research reflection we intend to stress that the antioxidant system, bone health and the microbiome are intimately intertwined. Antioxidants are crucial for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and optimal immune function. Optimal gastrointestinal functionality is important to maintain animal performance, health and welfare. In particular, the intestinal microbiome is increasingly seen as a driver of health and disease. Vitamin D metabolism is pivotal not only for optimal skeletal health, but in light of all the extra-skeletal effect of vitamin D, it is the foundation for optimal productive life. It makes sense to ask the question 'how are redox balance and the microbiome involved in the modulation of bone health and immune function?' In other words, are bugs and bones connected in dairy cows! The existing data available in the literature suggests that this might be the case. The characterization of the interactions between redox balance, skeletal health and the microbiome, will allow the development of a multisystem biological approach to refine nutritional interventions to improve dairy cattle health, welfare and productive longevity.

4.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727134

RESUMO

The study of the microbiome in broiler chickens holds great promise for the development of strategies for health maintenance and performance improvement. Nutritional strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota-host relationship can improve chickens' immunological status and metabolic fitness. Here, we present the results of a pilot trial aimed at analyzing the effects of a nutritional strategy involving vitamin B2 supplementation on the ileum, caeca and litter microbiota of Ross 308 broilers, as well as on the metabolic profile of the caecal content. Three groups of chickens were administered control diets and diets supplemented with two different dosages of vitamin B2. Ileum, caeca, and litter samples were obtained from subgroups of birds at three time points along the productive cycle. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region and NMR metabolomics were used to explore microbiota composition and the concentration of metabolites of interest, including short-chain fatty acids. Vitamin B2 supplementation significantly modulated caeca microbiota, with the highest dosage being more effective in increasing the abundance of health-promoting bacterial groups, including Bifidobacterium, resulting in boosted production of butyrate, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in the caeca environment.

5.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2608-2615, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359596

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on performance, egg quality, tibia quality, and serum hormones concentration in laying hens reared under high stocking density. A total of 800 45-week-old Lohmann laying hens were randomly allotted into a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of dietary 25-OH-D3 levels (0 and 69 µg/kg) and 2 rates of stocking densities [506 (low density) and 338 (high density) cm2/hen]. Laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. High stocking density decreased laying rate, egg weight, and feed intake compared with low stocking density (P < 0.01) during 1 to 8 wk and 1 to 16 wk. Overall, high stocking density increased eggshell lightness value and decreased shell redness and yellowness value, strength, thickness, and relative weight compared with low stocking density (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 25-OH-D3 reduced the value of the eggshell lightness and increased its yellowness and eggshells weight (P ≤ 0.05). The increase in eggshell thickness was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P < 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had lower ash content and calcium content in the tibia than layers under low stocking density (P = 0.04); dietary 25-OH-D3 increased tibia strength compared with no addition (P = 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had higher serum concentrations of 25-OH-D3, corticosterone (CORT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and osteocalcin (OC; P < 0.05), lower content of parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared with layers under low stocking density (P < 0.01). Dietary 25-OH-D3 increased serum concentration of 25-OH-D3, carbonic anhydrase (CA), and calcitonin (CT) (P < 0.01) and reduced corticosterone, lipopolysaccharide and osteocalcin concentration (P ≤ 0.05). The increase effect in PTH was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P = 0.05). Overall, the results gathered in this study indicate that high stocking density result in reducing production performance, shell color and quality, and tibia health, whereas dietary 25-OH-D3 was able to maintain tibia health and to mitigate the negative impact of high stocking density on productive performance.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 805-822, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668442

RESUMO

Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplemental 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] on concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and minerals in serum, mammary immune status, and responses to intramammary bacterial infection in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous, pregnant lactating Holstein cows with somatic cell count <200,000/mL were blocked by days in milk and milk yield and randomly assigned to receive a daily top-dressed dietary supplement containing 1 or 3 mg of vitamin D3 (1mgD or 3mgD), or 1 or 3 mg 25(OH)D3 (1mg25D or 3mg25D) for 28 d (n = 15/treatment). Cows were kept in a freestall barn and fed a total mixed ration in individual feeding gates. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk and blood samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to the start of treatment. At 21 d, cows fed 1mgD and 3mg25D received an intramammary challenge with Streptococcus uberis. Cows were observed for severity of mastitis, and blood and milk samples were collected every 12 h to measure inflammation. The 1mg25D and 3mg25D cows had greater serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations at 21 d compared with 1mgD and 3mgD cows (62 ± 7, 66 ± 8, 135 ± 15, and 232 ± 26 ng/mL for 1mgD, 3mgD, 1mg25D, and 3mg25D, respectively). The 3mg25D cows had greater concentrations of Ca and P in serum at 21 d compared with other treatments (Ca = 2.38, 2.4, 2.37, and 2.48 ± 0.02 mM, 1.87, 1.88, and 2.10 ± 0.08 mM for 1mgD, 3mgD, 1mg25D, and 3mg25D, respectively). Yields of milk and milk components, DMI, body weight, and concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and Mg in serum did not differ among treatments. Abundance of mRNA transcripts for interleukin-1ß (IL1B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in milk somatic cells before S. uberis challenge were increased in cows fed 25(OH)D3 compared with cows fed vitamin D3. Furthermore, IL1B, iNOS, ß-defensin 7, and ß-defensin 10 in milk somatic cells increased as concentrations of 25(OH)D3 increased in serum. Cows fed 3mg25D had less severe mastitis at 60 and 72 h after challenge with S. uberis compared with cows fed 1mgD. Concentrations of bacteria, somatic cells, and serum albumin in milk after challenge did not differ between treatments; however, an interaction between treatment and day was detected for lactate dehydrogenase in milk. Expression of adhesion protein CD11b on milk neutrophils after the S. uberis challenge was greater among 3mg25D cows compared with 1mgD cows. Transcripts of CYP24A1 and iNOS in milk somatic cells during mastitis also were greater in 3mg25D cows compared with 1mgD cows. Feeding 25(OH)D3 increased serum 25(OH)D3 more effectively than supplemental vitamin D3, resulting in increased serum mineral concentrations, increased expression of vitamin D-responsive genes, and altered immune responses to intramammary bacterial challenge.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/sangue , Animais , Calcifediol/farmacologia , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
7.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 534-543, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845690

RESUMO

It has been shown that supplementation of layers' diets with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can improve egg albumen quality, but the underlying mechanisms behind this response are unclear. In this study, we investigate the effect of EGCG on egg antioxidative activity, free amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and the underlying relationship between the EGCG and oxidant-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in laying hens. 288 hens (35-weeks-old) were fed 0 and 165 mg kg-1 of EGCG diets over 8 weeks. EGCG led to an increase in the albumen height, Haugh unit, and activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a reduction in MDA content in plasma (P < 0.05). Egg white tryptophan and yolk carotenoid content was also increased by EGCG (P < 0.05). Eggs from EGCG fed layers had higher total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), reducing power (RP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and lower albumen and yolk MDA content (P < 0.05). Also, liver gene and protein expression of P-38MAPK, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) was up-regulated by EGCG. Our findings suggest that dietary EGCG increased the antioxidant activity of eggs and regulated the MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
8.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652580

RESUMO

High dietary levels of molybdenum (MO) can negatively affect productive performances and health status of laying hens, while tea polyphenol (TP) can mitigate the negative impact of high MO exposure. However, our understanding of the changes induced by TP on MO challenged layers performances and oxidative status, and on the microbiota, remains limited. The aim of the present study was to better understand host (performances and redox balance) and microbiota responses in MO-challenged layers with dietary TP. In this study, 200 Lohmann laying hens (65-week-old) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive a diet with or without MO (0 or 100 mg/kg), and supplemented with either 0 or 600 mg/kg TP. The results indicate that 100 mg/kg MO decreased egg production (p = 0.03), while dietary TP increased egg production in MO challenged layers (p < 0.01). Egg yolk color was decreased by high MO (p < 0.01), while dietary TP had no effect on yolk color (p > 0.05). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration were increased by high MO, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, glutathione s-transferase (GSH-ST), and glutathione concentration in serum were decreased (p < 0.05). Dietary TP was able to reverse the increasing effect of MO on ALT and AST (p < 0.05). High MO resulted in higher MO levels in serum, liver, kidney, and egg, but it decreased Cu and Se content in serum, liver, and egg (p < 0.05). The Fe concentration in liver, kidney, and eggs was significantly lower in MO supplementation groups (p < 0.05). High MO levels in the diet led to lower Firmicutes and higher Proteobacteria abundance, whereas dietary TP alone and/or in high MO treatment increased the Firmicutes abundance and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio at phylum level. High MO increased the abundance of Proteobacteria (phylum), Deltaproteobacteria (class), Mytococcales (order), and Nanocystaceae (family), whereas dietary TP promoted the enrichment of Lactobacillus agilis (species). Dietary TP also enhanced the enrichment of Bacilli (class), Lactobacillates (order), Lactobacillus (family), and Lactobacillus gasseri (species). Microbiota analysis revealed differentially enriched microbial compositions in the cecum caused by MO and TP, which might be responsible for the protective effect of dietary TP during a MO challenge.

9.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 6091-6099, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198968

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the impact of different feed additives on reproductive performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and blood metabolic profile of broiler breeder with different egg-laying rate. A total of 512 AA broiler breeders (48 wk old) were used in a 2 × 4 factorial design which encompassed 2 egg-laying rate levels [average (AR) and low (LR)] and 4 different dietary groups [control (no additive), 6 × 108 CFU/kg Enterococcus faecium (EF), 200 mg/kg apple pectic oligosaccharide (APO), and 1,000 mg/kg tributyrin (TRI)]. As expected, the LR breeders presented higher egg weight, eggshell thickness (P < 0.05), and feed conversion ratio as well as lower egg-laying and qualified egg rate than the AR breeders (P < 0.01). Dietary supplementation with the 3 additives improved egg weight (P ≤ 0.01). Dietary APO addition improved albumen height and Haugh units (P < 0.05) in both AR and LR breeders. Compared with APO and TRI, dietary EF addition increased eggshell thickness (P ≤ 0.01). An effect of the egg-laying rate and dietary additives on eggshell thickness (P < 0.01) was noted, with the addition of EF enhancing the eggshell thickness, which is more pronounced in the AR group. The duodenum of AR breeders presented a lower crypt depth and a higher villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05); moreover, an effect of the laying rate and dietary additives on crypt depth was noted (P < 0.05), with the addition of APO to the diet resulting in a lower crypt depth. Compared with the APO and TRI, dietary EF addition increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level in serum (P < 0.05). Overall, the results gathered in this study indicate that LR breeders have lower production performance, eggshell thickness and decreased gastrointestinal tract functionality in compared with the AR breeders. Dietary supplementation with APO might improve albumen quality and decrease duodenal morphology, while EF improved eggshell quality and FSH secretion, and the improvement was more pronounced in the breeders with an average egg-laying rate.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Enterococcus faecium/química , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2687-2699, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115441

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine whether feeding a diet supplemented with 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP) affects feeding behavior altering intake and rumen fermentation. Two experiments were conducted with 9 rumen-cannulated beef steers in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design where animals received a high-forage or high-grain diet. Treatments were 1) a basal diet (CON), the CON diet supplemented with 3-NOP (dNOP; 100 mg/kg in dietary DM or 1 g/d), or the CON diet with 3-NOP (1 g/d) infused into the rumen (infNOP). Each experimental period consisted of 14-d diet adaptation and 7-d sample collection. A 7-d washout period was provided between experiment periods. All data were analyzed as a Latin square design using Mixed Procedure of SAS. In Exp. 1 (high-forage diet), methane yield (measured by the Greenfeed system) was lowered by 18% (18.6 vs. 22.7 g/kg DMI; P < 0.01) by dNOP compared with CON. Rumen fermentation was altered similarly by both NOP treatments compared with CON where dNOP and infNOP increased (P < 0.01) rumen pH at 3 h and decreased (P < 0.01) proportion of acetate in total VFA. However, DMI, feed consumption rate (0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 12, and 12 to 24 h after feeding), particle size distribution of orts, and feeding behavior (videotaped for individual animals over 48 h) were not affected by dNOP and infNOP compared with CON. In Exp. 2 (high-grain diet), methane production was not affected by dNOP or infNOP compared with CON. Dry matter intake, feed consumption rate, particle size distribution of orts, and feeding behavior were not altered by dNOP and infNOP compared with CON. However, both dNOP and infNOP affected rumen fermentation where total VFA decreased (P = 0.04) and acetate proportion in total VFA tended to decrease (P = 0.07) compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 3-NOP did not affect feeding behavior of beef steers fed a high-forage or high-grain diet. However, rumen fermentation was similarly changed when 3-NOP was provided in the diet or directly infused in the rumen. Thus, observed changes in rumen fermentation with 3-NOP were not due to changes in feeding behavior indicating no effects on the organoleptic property of the diets. In addition, according to small or no changes in DMI in both experiments and relatively small changes in rumen fermentation in Exp. 2, a greater dosage level of 3-NOP than 100 mg/kg (dietary DM) may need further examination of its effects on feeding behavior of beef cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Propanóis/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Poaceae , Rúmen/metabolismo
11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(2)2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744136

RESUMO

Thirty-six pregnant Holstein⁻Friesian cows were used to study the effect of Yerba Mate (YM) supplementation during the dry period on redox balance. The treatments groups were Control (no YM), YM 250 (250 g/cow/day), and YM 500 (500 g/cow/day). Blood samples were obtained 30 days prepartum, at calving, and monthly postpartum until four months post calving. Liveweight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) were assessed prepartum, at calving, and then postpartum monthly until the end of the trial. Plasma was analyzed for hydroperoxides (d-ROMs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). The oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated as OSI = ROMs/BAP × 100. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk yield data were recorded daily. Redox balance was improved by YM supplementation, as reflected in the lower OSI values observed in the YM groups. Yerba Mate supplementation significantly affected LW, but did not affect BCS. Milk yield averaged 28.1 ± 0.40, 29.0 ± 0.48, and 29.9 ± 0.46 L/cow/day in the Control, YM 250, and YM 500 groups, respectively, but was not significant. Nutritional manipulation during the dry period with Yerba Mate has demonstrated the potential to improve redox balance and milk yield.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(1)2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646595

RESUMO

High neutrophil (PMN, Polymorphonuclear neutrophil) counts in the endometrium of cows affected by endometritis, suggests the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) among the causes of impaired fertility. Protein oxidation, in particular, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), are OS biomarkers linked to PMN activity. To test this hypothesis, the relationship between protein oxidation and uterus health was studied in thirty-eight dairy cows during the puerperium. The animals were found to be cycling, without any signs of disease and pharmacological treatments. PMN count was performed either through a cytobrush or a uterine horn lavage (UHL). Cows were classified into four groups, based on the uterine ultrasonographic characteristics and the PMN percentage in the uterine horns with a higher percentage of high neutrophil horn (HNH). They were classified as: Healthy (H); Subclinical Endometritis (SCE); Grade 1 Endometritis (EM1); and Grade 2 Endometritis (EM2). AOPP and carbonyls were measured in plasma and UHL. UHL samples underwent Western blot analysis to visualize the carbonyl and dityrosine formation. Plasma AOPP were higher (p < 0.05) in EM2. AOPP and carbonyl group concentrations were higher in the HNH samples (p < 0.05). Protein concentration in the UHL was higher in the EM2 (p < 0.05). Carbonyl and dityrosine formation was more intense in EM1 and EM2. Protein oxidation observed in the EM2 suggests the presence of an inflammatory status in the uterus which, if not adequately hindered, could result in low fertility.

13.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905870

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to examine eating preference of beef cattle for diets with or without the investigative enteric methane inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP). Nine beef steers were housed in individual stalls, each equipped with two feed bunks. The first experiment (Exp. 1) was conducted with a high forage diet and each animal received a diet without 3-NOP (CON) in one bunk and a diet with 3-NOP (dNOP) in the other bunk. The second study (Exp. 2) was conducted with the same animals about 6 months after Exp. 1 where a high grain diet without (CON) or with 3-NOP (dNOP) was offered. In Exp. 1, animals initially preferred CON compared with dNOP. Feed consumption from 0 to 3, 3 to 6, and 6 to 12 h after feeding was lower for dNOP compared with CON. However, dry matter intake (DMI) and feed consumption of dNOP gradually increased during Exp. 1 such that there was no preference between CON and dNOP on day 7. In Exp. 2, there was no preference for or against dNOP. Average DMI was greater for dNOP vs. CON, but interactions between diet and day for DMI and feed consumption rates indicated that daily preference between CON and dNOP was variable. In conclusion, beef steers initially detected a difference between CON and dNOP and selected in favor of CON rather than dNOP when they had not previously been exposed to 3-NOP. However, the animals rapidly acclimatized to a diet with 3-NOP (Exp. 1) and showed no eating preference between CON and dNOP within 7 days. This lack of preference was maintained throughout Exp. 2 when the same animals were fed a high grain diet.

14.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 224, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320126

RESUMO

The risk of respiratory disease in the transported horse can increase as a consequence of immunosuppression and stress associated primarily with opportunistic bacterial proliferation and viral reactivation. This study examines the ecology of equid herpesviruses (EHV) in these horses, exploring reactivation and changes in infection and shedding associated with transport, and any potential contributions to transport-related respiratory disease. Twelve horses were subjected to an 8-h road-transport event. Antibodies to EHV-1 and EHV-4 were detected by ELISA in serum collected prior to, immediately after and 2 weeks post transport. Respiratory tract endoscopy and tracheal washes were collected prior to and 5 days after transportation. Nasal swabs collected prior to, immediately after, 1 and 5 days following transport were screened for EHV-1,-2,-4,-5 using qPCR. Six horses had persistent neutrophilic airway infiltrates post transportation, indicative of subclinical respiratory disease. No horses were qPCR positive for either of the alphaherpesviruses (i.e., EHV-1/-4) nor did any seroconvert to either virus. Four out of nine horses positive for either EHV-2 or EHV-5 on qPCR prior to transport developed neutrophilic airway inflammation. Five horses showed increasingly positive readings on qPCR (i.e., reduced Cq) for EHV-2 after transportation and seven out of eleven horses positive for EHV-2 after transport shared strains of high sequence similarity with other horses in the study. One EHV-2 virus detected in one horse after transport was genetically different which may be due to reactivation. The clinical significance of EHV-2 and EHV-5 remains in question. However these results indicate that transportation may lead to increased shedding, transmission and reactivation of EHV-2 and EHV-5 but not EHV-1/-4. Unlike previous work focusing on the role of alphaherpesviruses, this research suggests that investigation of the gammaherpesviruses (i.e., EHV-2/-5) in transport-related disease should not be dismissed, particularly given that these viruses can encode suppressive immunomodulators that may affect host health.

15.
Environ Toxicol ; 33(12): 1312-1320, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251772

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) can induce cell apoptosis in layers' oviduct resulting in egg quality reduction. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling pathway and V-induced apoptosis in poultry oviduct magnum epithelial cells (OMECs). Cultured OMECs were divided into 8 treatment groups: 0 µmol/L V (control), 100 µmol/L V (V100), V100 + P38MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), SB203580, V100 + extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor (U0126), U0126, V100 + c-JUN NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and SP600125. The OMECs were pretreated with the MAPK inhibitors before their treatment with V100 for 12 h. V100 increased the apoptosis of OMECs (P < .05), while 3 MAPK inhibitors suppressed V100-induced apoptosis P < .05); V100 enhanced the depolarization of △ψm (P < .05), and SB203580 and U0126 alleviated the V100-induced △ψm decrease (P < .05); V100 downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and poly [Adenosine diphosphate ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) mRNA expression (P < .05), meanwhile it upregulated Bcl-2 associated x (Bax), Apaf1, cytochrome C (CytC) and cysteine aspartase (caspase) 3, 8, 9 mRNA expression (P < .05). All MAPKs inhibitors alleviated the up-regulation of V100 for Bax and caspase 3 mRNA expression and down-regulation of V100 for Bcl-2 expression (P < .05). SB203580 and U0126 upregulated CytC expression treated by V100 (P < .05), except SP600125, while SB203580 administration resulted in a similar upregulation of PARP1 expression (P < .05). SP600125 can alleviated V triggered p-P38MAPK (phosphor-P38), p-ERK1/2 (phosphor-ERK1/2), p-JNK (phosphor-JNK) increase on OME cells, and SB203580 and U0126 had a similar response to phosphor-P38 and p-JNK (P < .05). It concluded that V-induced apoptosis in OMECs through the activation of P38 and ERK1/2, and by increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, which resulted in △ψm decrease, CytC release into the cytosol; consequently caspase 3 is recruited and activated, PARP1 is cleaved, eventually leading to apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviductos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vanádio/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oviductos/citologia
16.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566072

RESUMO

This study aimed to document the effects of an eight hour journey on behavioural, clinical, haematological, environmental and respiratory parameters, and to identify possible associations between factors. Twelve horses underwent clinical examination, respiratory endoscopy with tracheal wash (TW) aspiration, and collection of venous and arterial blood before (BJ) and after the journey (AJ). TW were submitted for conventional quantitative bacteriological evaluation and genetic microbiome analyses. Behaviour was assessed in stables prior to transportation and throughout the journey. Transportation caused mild, but significant, effects on fluid and electrolyte balance and an acute phase response, characterized by neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and hyperglobulinaemia. The proportion of neutrophils in TW, tracheal mucus and TW bacterial concentration was increased AJ, with preferential replication of Pasteurellaceae. Horse behaviour en route predicted clinical and respiratory outcomes. The frequency of stress related behaviours was greatest in the first hour of the journey, and balance-related behaviours were most common in the final hour of the journey. Horses which lowered their heads less frequently en route and showed more stress-related behaviours had higher physiological stress (serum cortisol and heart rate on arrival), increased tracheal mucus and inflammation scores, and higher TW bacterial concentration AJ (P<0.05). Six horses with abnormal lung auscultation AJ proved to have had higher tracheal inflammation scores at preloading (P = 0.017), an overall higher concentration of bacteria in their TW (P = 0.013), and an increased percentage of neutrophils in TW at five days AJ (P = 0.003) in comparison to the other horses. While transport-related health problems are multifactorial, clinical examination, including auscultation and endoscopic inspection of the lower respiratory tract before and after journey, and behavioural observation en route may identify animals at increased risk of transport associated respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Traqueia/microbiologia , Transportes , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Broncoscopia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/microbiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Muco/citologia , Neutrófilos , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 31(2): 263-269, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heat stress (HS) triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE) can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. METHODS: A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE) or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE) diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity) or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily) conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. RESULTS: Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all p<0.05 for diet×temperature) the loss of blood CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate, as well as the increase in blood pH in the heat-stressed pigs. The HS reduced (p = 0.003) plasma biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and tended to increase (p = 0.067) advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) in the heat-stressed pigs, suggesting HS triggers oxidative stress. The HiVE diet did not affect plasma BAP or AOPP. Only under TN conditions the HiVE diet reduced the plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (p<0.05 for diet× temperature). CONCLUSION: A short-term supplementation with 200 IU/kg VE partially alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

19.
Res Vet Sci ; 116: 28-39, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943061

RESUMO

This review examines the role of nutritional strategies to improve lifetime performance in ruminants. Strategies to increase ruminants' productive longevity by means of nutritional interventions provide the opportunity not only to increase their lifetime performances and their welfare, but also to decrease their environmental impact. This paper will also address how such nutritional interventions can increase herd efficiency and farm profitability. The key competencies reviewed in this article are redox balance, skeletal development and health, nutrient utilization and sustainability, which includes rearing ruminants without antibiotics and methane mitigation. While the relationships between these areas are extremely complex, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to develop nutritional strategies that would allow ruminants to become more resilient to the environmental and physiological challenges that they will have to endure during their productive career. As the demand of ruminant products from the rapidly growing human world population is ever-increasing, the aim of this review is to present animal and veterinary scientists as well as nutritionists a multidisciplinary approach towards a sustainable ruminant production, while improving their nutrient utilization, health and welfare, and mitigation of their carbon footprint at the same time.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 111: 641-649, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203197

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of 25-OH-D3 addition to the diet of bovine calves. The investigation was conducted as a feeding experiment for 90 days. 40 calves were allotted to four groups: T1 - control group which received 30 IU vitamin D3/kg feed, and three experimental groups, which received 25-OH-D3 in increasing dosages: T2 - 25-OH-D3 at 1.7 µg/kg, T3 - 25-OH-D3 at 5.1 µg/kg and T4 - 25-OH-D3 at 8.5 µg/kg. All calves in the four groups gained weight continually: no growth depression was observed. No adverse effects of 25- OH-D3 were observed for any of the hematology and serum chemistry parameters measured or during the routine clinical examinations. Plasma 25-OH-D3 concentration was higher (p<0.05) in groups T2, T3 and T4 compared to that observed in group T1. Tissues content of 25-OH-D3 was significantly higher in in groups T2, T3 and T4 than in group T1. In the post-mortem evaluation, no adverse effects of the different 25-OH-D3 doses were observed, neither during the gross pathology nor in the histological examination. The results of this study show explicitly that there were no adverse effects of 25-OH-D3 compared to the control group, supplemented with vitamin D3.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colecalciferol/análise , Feminino , Masculino
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