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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423712

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients admitted for acute heart failure (HF) are at high risk of readmission and death, especially in the 90 days following discharge. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of early optimization of oral HF therapy with beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) on 90-day clinical outcomes in patients admitted for acute HF. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, a total of 900 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either 'usual care' or 'high-intensity care'. Patients enrolled in the usual care arm will be discharged and managed according to usual clinical practice at the site. In the high-intensity care arm, doses of oral HF medications - including a BB, ACEi or ARB, and MRA - will be up-titrated to 50% of recommended doses before discharge and to 100% of recommended doses within 2 weeks of discharge. Up-titration will be delayed if the patients develop worsening symptoms and signs of congestion, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, bradycardia, worsening of renal function or significant increase in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide between visits. The primary endpoint is 90-day all-cause mortality or HF readmission. CONCLUSIONS: STRONG-HF is the first study to assess whether rapid up-titration of evidence-based guideline-recommended therapies with close follow-up in a large cohort of patients discharged from an acute HF admission is safe and can affect adverse outcomes during the first 90 days after discharge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03412201.

2.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 13, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent triple-blind sham procedure-controlled study revealed neutral effects of the cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) on exercise tolerance and symptoms in patients with stable angina. Current data about the effects of CSWT on global and regional myocardial contractility and perfusion is limited. Hereby we report the results of an imaging sub-study that evaluated the capacity of CSWT to ameliorate myocardial ischemia induced during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS: Prospective, randomized, triple-blind, sham procedure-controlled study enrolled 72 adult subjects who complied with defined inclusion criteria. The subjects were assigned to the OMT + CSWT and the OMT + sham procedure study groups with 1:1 ratio. Application of the CSWT covered all segments of the left ventricle. Imaging ischemia tests were performed in 59 study patients: DSE and SPECT before the CSWT treatment and after 6 months, with DSE carried out additionally at 3 months after randomization. Co-primary endpoints of the study were: change in wall motion score index (WMSI), representing the stress-induced impairment of regional myocardial function, and change in summed difference score (SDS), representing the amount of perfusion defect. RESULTS: OMT + CSWT and OMT + sham procedure study groups included 30 and 29 patients, respectively. Regional myocardial contractility during DSE significantly improved at 3 months follow-up in OMT + CSWT group compared to baseline as shown by WMSI at stress (1.4 ± 0.4 vs 1.6 ± 0.4, p = 0.001), but not in OMT + sham procedure group (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 1.6 ± 0.4, p = 0.136). The difference in stress DSE results between both study groups disappeared after 6 months. SPECT results demonstrated a significant reduction of inducible ischemia in OMT + CSWT group compared to OMT + sham procedure group at 6 months follow-up (SDS dropped from 5.4 ± 3.7 to 3.6 ± 3.8 vs 6.4 ± 5.9 to 6.2 ± 5 respectively, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac shock wave treatment showed the ability to reduce stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by wall motion abnormalities and perfusion defects, compared to sham procedure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02339454 ). The trial was registered retrospectively on 12 January 2015.

3.
Am J Med ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between longitudinal clinical congestion pattern and heart failure outcome is uncertain. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of congestion over time and to investigate its impact on outcome in chronic heart failure. METHODS: A total of 588 patients with chronic heart failure older than 60 years of age with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥II from the TIME-CHF study were included. The endpoints for this study were survival and hospitalization-free heart failure survival. Orthopnea, NYHA ≥III, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, hepatomegaly, peripheral pitting edema, jugular venous distension, and rales were repeatedly investigated and related to outcomes. These congestion-related signs and symptoms were used to design a 7-item Clinical Congestion Index. RESULTS: Sixty-one percent of patients had a Clinical Congestion Index ≥3 at baseline, which decreased to 18% at month 18. During the median [interquartile range] follow-up of 27.2 [14.3-39.8] months, 17%, 27%, and 47% of patients with baseline Clinical Congestion Index of 0, 1-2, and ≥3 at inclusion, respectively, died (P <.001). Clinical Congestion Index was identified as an independent predictor of mortality at all visits (P <.05) except month 6 and reduced hospitalization-free heart failure survival (P <.05). Successful decongestion was related to better outcome as compared to persistent congestion or partial decongestion (log-rank P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of congestion as assessed by means of clinical signs and symptoms decreased over time with intensified treatment, but it remained present or relapsed in a substantial number of patients with heart failure and was associated with poor outcome. This highlights the importance of appropriate decongestion in chronic heart failure.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(2): e10362, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive telemonitoring (TM) can be used in heart failure (HF) patients to perform early detection of decompensation at home, prevent unnecessary health care utilization, and decrease health care costs. However, the evidence is not sufficient to be part of HF guidelines for follow-up care, and we have no knowledge of how TM is used in the Nordic Baltic region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals' (HCPs) perception of and presumed experience with noninvasive TM in daily HF patient care, perspectives of the relevance of and reasons for applying noninvasive TM, and barriers to the use of noninvasive TM. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed between September and December 2016 in Norway and Lithuania with physicians and nurses treating HF patients at either a hospital ward or an outpatient clinic. A total of 784 questionnaires were sent nationwide by postal mail to 107 hospitals. The questionnaire consisted of 43 items with close- and open-ended questions. In Norway, the response rate was 68.7% (226/329), with 57 of 60 hospitals participating, whereas the response rate was 68.1% (310/455) in Lithuania, with 41 of 47 hospitals participating. Responses to the closed questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the open-ended questions were analyzed using summative content analysis. RESULTS: This study showed that noninvasive TM is not part of the current daily clinical practice in Norway or Lithuania. A minority of HCPs responded to be familiar with noninvasive TM in HF care in Norway (48/226, 21.2%) and Lithuania (64/310, 20.6%). Approximately half of the HCPs in both countries perceived noninvasive TM to be relevant in follow-up of HF patients in Norway (131/226, 58.0%) and Lithuania (172/310, 55.5%). For physicians in both countries and nurses in Norway, the 3 most mentioned reasons for introducing noninvasive TM were to improve self-care, to reduce hospitalizations, and to provide high-quality care, whereas the Lithuanian nurses described ability to treat more patients and to reduce their workload as reasons for introducing noninvasive TM. The main barriers to implement noninvasive TM were lack of funding from health care authorities or the Territorial Patient Fund. Moreover, HCPs perceive that HF patients themselves could represent barriers because of their physical or mental condition in addition to a lack of internet access. CONCLUSIONS: HCPs in Norway and Lithuania are currently nonusers of TM in daily HF care. However, they perceive a future with TM to improve the quality of care for HF patients. Financial barriers and HF patients' condition may have an impact on the use of TM, whereas sufficient funding from health care authorities and improved knowledge may encourage the more widespread use of TM in the Nordic Baltic region and beyond.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411833

RESUMO

Myriad advances in all fields of cardiac imaging have stimulated and reflected new understanding of cardiac performance, myocardial damage and the mechanisms of heart failure. In this paper, the Heart Failure Association assesses the potential usefulness of innovative imaging modalities in enabling more precise diagnostic and prognostic evaluation, as well as in guiding treatment strategies. Many new methods have gradually penetrated clinical practice and are on their way to becoming a part of routine evaluation. This paper focuses on myocardial deformation and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging; stress tests for the evaluation of contractile and filling function; the progress of magnetic resonance techniques; molecular imaging and other sound innovations. The Heart Failure Association aims to highlight the ways in which paradigms have shifted in several areas of cardiac assessment. These include reassessing of the simplified concept of ejection fraction and implementation of the new parameters of cardiac performance applicable to all heart failure phenotypes; switching from two-dimensional to more accurate and reproducible three-dimensional ultrasound volumetric evaluation; greater tissue characterization via recently developed magnetic resonance modalities; moving from assessing cardiac function and congestion at rest to assessing it during stress; from invasive to novel non-invasive hybrid techniques depicting coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion; as well as from morphometry to the imaging of pathophysiologic processes such as inflammation and apoptosis. This position paper examines the specific benefits of imaging innovations for practitioners dealing with heart failure aetiology, risk stratification and monitoring, and, in addition, for scientists involved in the development of future research.

7.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 20, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness trial "Stress echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE in and beyond coronary artery disease. The core protocol also includes 4-site simplified scan of B-lines by lung ultrasound, useful to assess pulmonary congestion. PURPOSE: To provide web-based upstream quality control and harmonization of B-lines reading criteria. METHODS: 60 readers (all previously accredited for regional wall motion, 53 B-lines naive) from 52 centers of 16 countries of SE 2020 network read a set of 20 lung ultrasound video-clips selected by the Pisa lab serving as reference standard, after taking an obligatory web-based learning 2-h module ( http://se2020.altervista.org ). Each test clip was scored for B-lines from 0 (black lung, A-lines, no B-lines) to 10 (white lung, coalescing B-lines). The diagnostic gold standard was the concordant assessment of two experienced readers of the Pisa lab. The answer of the reader was considered correct if concordant with reference standard reading ±1 (for instance, reference standard reading of 5 B-lines; correct answer 4, 5, or 6). The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥ 90%) with R value (intra-class correlation coefficient) between reference standard and recruiting center) > 0.90. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient statistics. RESULTS: All 60 readers were successfully accredited: 26 (43%) on first, 24 (40%) on second, and 10 (17%) on third attempt. The average diagnostic accuracy of the 60 accredited readers was 95%, with R value of 0.95 compared to reference standard reading. The 53 B-lines naive scored similarly to the 7 B-lines expert on first attempt (90 versus 95%, p = NS). Compared to the step-1 of quality control for regional wall motion abnormalities, the mean reading time per attempt was shorter (17 ± 3 vs 29 ± 12 min, p < .01), the first attempt success rate was higher (43 vs 28%, p < 0.01), and the drop-out of readers smaller (0 vs 28%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based learning is highly effective for teaching and harmonizing B-lines reading. Echocardiographers without previous experience with B-lines learn quickly.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 12: 1113-1122, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983549

RESUMO

Introduction: Self-care is an important patient-reported outcome (PRO) for heart failure (HF) patients, which might be affected by disease management and/or telemonitoring (TM). The number of studies reporting the influence of TM on self-care is limited. Aims: This study aimed: to assess whether TM, in addition to information-and-communication-technology (ICT)-guided disease management system (ICT-guided DMS), affects self-care behavior; to evaluate the dynamics of self-care during the study; to investigate factors contributing to self-care changes; and to identify a patient profile that predisposes the patient to improvement in self-care. Methods: In the INnovative ICT-guided-DMS combined with Telemonitoring in OUtpatient clinics for Chronic HF patients (IN TOUCH) study, 177 patients were randomized to either ICT-guided DMS or TM+ICT-guided DMS, with a follow-up of 9 months. The current analysis included 118 participants (mean age: 69±11.5 years; 70% male) who filled the following PRO instruments: the nine-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour scale (EHFScBs), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADs), and Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire (MLHFQ). Results: The baseline level of self-care was better in the TM+ICT-guided-DMS group (n=58) compared to ICT-guided-DMS group (n=60, p=0.023). Self-care behavior improved in the ICT-guided-DMS group (p<0.01) but not in the TM+ICT-guided-DMS group. Factors associated with self-care worsening were as follows: higher physical subscale of MLHFQ (per 10 points, p<0.05), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (per 5%, p<0.05), lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (class III vs class II, p<0.05). The subgroups of patients who had an initial EHFScBs total score >28, or from 17 to 28 with concomitant HADs depression subscale (HADs_D) score ≤8, demonstrated the greatest potential to improve self-care during the study. Conclusion: TM did not have an advantage on self-care improvement. Poor physical aspect of quality of life, lower LVEF, and lower NYHA class were associated with self-care worsening. The greatest self-care improvement may be achieved in those patients who have low or medium initial self-care level in the absence of depression.

10.
Coron Artery Dis ; 29(7): 579-586, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in managing coronary artery disease and continuous research on alternative techniques to enhance myocardial perfusion and reduce symptoms, coronary artery disease is still one of the leading causes of adult disability worldwide. Cardiac shock-wave therapy (CSWT) has shown promising results in the amelioration of myocardial ischemia in experimental studies; however, clinical results are limited to single-center, mostly uncontrolled and underpowered trials. The current study aimed to evaluate whether CSWT can improve exercise tolerance and relieve angina symptoms in addition to optimal medical treatment in patients with stable angina. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, triple blind, sham-procedure-controlled study was carried out. The primary endpoint was total exercise duration in the modified Bruce treadmill test at the 6-month follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in ST-segment depression during the treadmill test, angina symptoms during the treadmill test, number of angina attacks per week, number of sublingual nitroglycerin consumption per week, Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina functional class, and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire score at the 6-month follow-up. Patients were randomized at a 1 : 1 ratio to optimal medical plus cardiac shock-wave therapy (OMT+CSWT) and optimal medical therapy with sham procedure (OMT+placebo) groups. RESULTS: The mean exercise time improved in both study arms - CSWT and placebo treatment - at the 3- and 6-month follow-up, without a significant difference between groups. The magnitude and frequency of peak exercise ST-segment depression reduced significantly in the CSWT+OMT group compared with the OMT+placebo group at the 6-month follow-up (51.4 vs. 90.6%, P=0.001). Percentage of angina-free patients increased progressively in both groups throughout the study. The Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores improved significantly in both arms for four of five domains at the 3- and the 6-month follow-up. Numerically, although insignificant, the decrease in the number of angina episodes was more prominent in the OMT+CSWT group compared with the OMT+placebo group. CONCLUSION: The total exercise duration in the modified Bruce treadmill test at the 6-month follow-up did not differ significantly in patients treated with CSWT compared with optimal medical therapy alone. In addition, CSWT exerted a neutral effect on the quality of life and level of angina.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(7): 1081-1099, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710416

RESUMO

This paper provides a practical clinical application of guideline recommendations relating to the inpatient monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, through the evaluation of various clinical, biomarker, imaging, invasive and non-invasive approaches. Comprehensive inpatient monitoring is crucial to the optimal management of acute heart failure patients. The European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines provide recommendations for the inpatient monitoring of acute heart failure, but the level of evidence underpinning most recommendations is limited. Many tools are available for the in-hospital monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, and each plays a role at various points throughout the patient's treatment course, including the emergency department, intensive care or coronary care unit, and the general ward. Clinical judgment is the preeminent factor guiding application of inpatient monitoring tools, as the various techniques have different patient population targets. When applied appropriately, these techniques enable decision making. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating that implementation of these tools improves patient outcome. Research priorities are identified to address these gaps in evidence. Future research initiatives should aim to identify the optimal in-hospital monitoring strategies that decrease morbidity and prolong survival in patients with acute heart failure.

14.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 19(2): 100-109, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment (OMT), patients with angina often have a reduced quality of life due to inadequate relief from symptoms. Recent studies have shown that the application of shock waves may reduce angina symptoms and improve quality of life, exercise capacity, and myocardial perfusion due to the stimulation of angiogenesis. However, there is limited evidence due to small, single-arm, single-center studies of low to moderate quality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) on exercise tolerance and angina symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and objective evidence of myocardial ischemia who cannot undergo traditional revascularization and experience angina despite OMT in comparison to sham procedure. METHODS: We designed a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (NCT02339454) to assess the efficacy of CSWT in addition to OMT in patients with stable angina and myocardial ischemia documented by exercise treadmill test (ETT). All patients were treated with stable doses of standard medical treatment 4 weeks before screening. An increase in the total exercise duration on ETT by ≥90 s from the baseline at the end of the study was set as the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included angina class, Seattle angina questionnaire scores, symptoms, and ECG changes during stress test. Patients underwent nine sessions of CSWT or corresponding sham procedure applied to all segments of the left ventricle, within 9 weeks. Endpoint assessments were performed at 6-month follow-up. The imaging substudies assessed the potential of CSWT to reduce stress-induced myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: At two centers, 72 of the 323 screened patients were randomized in two groups (ratio 1:1): active treatment and placebo control. Study patients were predominantly males (70.8%); the mean age of the patients was 68.4±8.3 years. Of these, 44 patients had angina Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III, and 66.7% of the patients had a history of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: Using sham applicators, blinding study participants, investigators, and endpoints assessors to the study data as well as centralized randomization ensures rigorous methodology and low risk of bias in this large randomized controlled CSWT study.

15.
Am J Med ; 131(2): 148-155, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome, physical inactivity, and central obesity contribute to early vascular aging, which leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to assess the effect of heart rate (HR)-targeted aerobic exercise training on the indices of early vascular aging, in particular, arterial stiffness, and on anthropometric and clinical profile of metabolic syndrome subjects. METHODS: There were 126 metabolic syndrome subjects randomly selected. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (BP), blood sample, and arterial wall functional and structural parameters were obtained prior to and after the 8-week (84 patients) supervised training program. The age- and sex-matched control group (42 patients) followed the same protocol, except for the HR-targeted training program. RESULTS: In the study group, HR-targeted training was associated with decreased aortic pulse wave velocity (8.47 ± 1.40 vs 8.01 ± 1.06 m/s; P = .005), HR (P < .001), systolic (P < .015) and diastolic (P < .004) BP, waist circumference (P < .004), total and low-density-lipid cholesterol (respectively, 6.42 ± 1.41 vs 5.89 ± 1.32, P = .003 and 4.2 ± 1.18 vs 3.8 ± 1.21, P = .002), and an increase in aerobic capacity (P < .001). In the control group there were no statistically significant changes of arterial stiffness parameters. Multivariate analysis revealed that reduction of arterial stiffness was BP dependent. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with metabolic syndrome, HR-targeted exercise training is associated with BP-dependent decrease in aortic stiffness and improvement of metabolic and fitness parameters.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(1): 16-37, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044932

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Until recently, attention in patients with HFpEF was almost exclusively focused on the left side. However, it is now increasingly recognized that right heart dysfunction is common and contributes importantly to poor prognosis in HFpEF. More insights into the development of right heart dysfunction in HFpEF may aid to our knowledge about this complex disease and may eventually lead to better treatments to improve outcomes in these patients. In this position paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the Committee on Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of right heart dysfunction and failure in patients with HFpEF. Finally, potential treatment strategies, important knowledge gaps and future directions regarding the right side in HFpEF are discussed.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(2): 199-215, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280256

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple interactions between the failing myocardium and cerebral (dys-)functions. Bi-directional feedback interactions between the heart and the brain are inherent in the pathophysiology of HF: (i) the impaired cardiac function affects cerebral structure and functional capacity, and (ii) neuronal signals impact on the cardiovascular continuum. These interactions contribute to the symptomatic presentation of HF patients and affect many co-morbidities of HF. Moreover, neuro-cardiac feedback signals significantly promote aggravation and further progression of HF and are causal in the poor prognosis of HF. The diversity and complexity of heart and brain interactions make it difficult to develop a comprehensive overview. In this paper a systematic approach is proposed to develop a comprehensive atlas of related conditions, signals and disease mechanisms of the interactions between the heart and the brain in HF. The proposed taxonomy is based on pathophysiological principles. Impaired perfusion of the brain may represent one major category, with acute (cardio-embolic) or chronic (haemodynamic failure) low perfusion being sub-categories with mostly different consequences (i.e. ischaemic stroke or cognitive impairment, respectively). Further categories include impairment of higher cortical function (mood, cognition), of brain stem function (sympathetic over-activation, neuro-cardiac reflexes). Treatment-related interactions could be categorized as medical, interventional and device-related interactions. Also interactions due to specific diseases are categorized. A methodical approach to categorize the interdependency of heart and brain may help to integrate individual research areas into an overall picture.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Card Fail Rev ; 3(1): 56-61, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785477

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity poses substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in acute care settings. The specific role of pulmonary comorbidity in the treatment and outcomes of cardiovascular disease patients was not addressed in any short- or long-term prospective study. Both HF and COPD can be interpreted as systemic disorders associated with low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling and skeletal muscle atrophy. HF is regularly treated as a broader cardiopulmonary syndrome utilising acute respiratory therapy. Based on observational data and clinical expertise, a management strategy of concurrent HF and COPD in acute settings is suggested. Concomitant use of beta2-agonists and beta-blockers in a comorbid cardiopulmonary condition seems to be safe and effective.

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