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1.
N Engl J Med ; 379(25): 2429-2437, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of stroke incidence and the competing risks of death from any cause other than stroke to calculate the cumulative lifetime risks of first stroke, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke among adults 25 years of age or older. Estimates of the lifetime risks in the years 1990 and 2016 were compared. Countries were categorized into quintiles of the sociodemographic index (SDI) used in the GBD Study, and the risks were compared across quintiles. Comparisons were made with the use of point estimates and uncertainty intervals representing the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles around the estimate. RESULTS: The estimated global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was 24.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.5 to 26.2); the risk among men was 24.7% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.3 to 26.0), and the risk among women was 25.1% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.7 to 26.5). The risk of ischemic stroke was 18.3%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke was 8.2%. In high-SDI, high-middle-SDI, and low-SDI countries, the estimated lifetime risk of stroke was 23.5%, 31.1% (highest risk), and 13.2% (lowest risk), respectively; the 95% uncertainty intervals did not overlap between these categories. The highest estimated lifetime risks of stroke according to GBD region were in East Asia (38.8%), Central Europe (31.7%), and Eastern Europe (31.6%), and the lowest risk was in eastern sub-Saharan Africa (11.8%). The mean global lifetime risk of stroke increased from 22.8% in 1990 to 24.9% in 2016, a relative increase of 8.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 6.2 to 11.5); the competing risk of death from any cause other than stroke was considered in this calculation. CONCLUSIONS: In 2016, the global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was approximately 25% among both men and women. There was geographic variation in the lifetime risk of stroke, with the highest risks in East Asia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Lancet ; 392(10159): 2052-2090, 2018 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We modelled 250 causes and cause groups organised by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) hierarchical cause structure, using GBD 2016 estimates from 1990-2016, to generate predictions for 2017-40. Our modelling framework used data from the GBD 2016 study to systematically account for the relationships between risk factors and health outcomes for 79 independent drivers of health. We developed a three-component model of cause-specific mortality: a component due to changes in risk factors and select interventions; the underlying mortality rate for each cause that is a function of income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility rate under 25 years and time; and an autoregressive integrated moving average model for unexplained changes correlated with time. We assessed the performance by fitting models with data from 1990-2006 and using these to forecast for 2007-16. Our final model used for generating forecasts and alternative scenarios was fitted to data from 1990-2016. We used this model for 195 countries and territories to generate a reference scenario or forecast through 2040 for each measure by location. Additionally, we generated better health and worse health scenarios based on the 85th and 15th percentiles, respectively, of annualised rates of change across location-years for all the GBD risk factors, income per person, educational attainment, select intervention coverage, and total fertility rate under 25 years in the past. We used the model to generate all-cause age-sex specific mortality, life expectancy, and years of life lost (YLLs) for 250 causes. Scenarios for fertility were also generated and used in a cohort component model to generate population scenarios. For each reference forecast, better health, and worse health scenarios, we generated estimates of mortality and YLLs attributable to each risk factor in the future. FINDINGS: Globally, most independent drivers of health were forecast to improve by 2040, but 36 were forecast to worsen. As shown by the better health scenarios, greater progress might be possible, yet for some drivers such as high body-mass index (BMI), their toll will rise in the absence of intervention. We forecasted global life expectancy to increase by 4·4 years (95% UI 2·2 to 6·4) for men and 4·4 years (2·1 to 6·4) for women by 2040, but based on better and worse health scenarios, trajectories could range from a gain of 7·8 years (5·9 to 9·8) to a non-significant loss of 0·4 years (-2·8 to 2·2) for men, and an increase of 7·2 years (5·3 to 9·1) to essentially no change (0·1 years [-2·7 to 2·5]) for women. In 2040, Japan, Singapore, Spain, and Switzerland had a forecasted life expectancy exceeding 85 years for both sexes, and 59 countries including China were projected to surpass a life expectancy of 80 years by 2040. At the same time, Central African Republic, Lesotho, Somalia, and Zimbabwe had projected life expectancies below 65 years in 2040, indicating global disparities in survival are likely to persist if current trends hold. Forecasted YLLs showed a rising toll from several non-communicable diseases (NCDs), partly driven by population growth and ageing. Differences between the reference forecast and alternative scenarios were most striking for HIV/AIDS, for which a potential increase of 120·2% (95% UI 67·2-190·3) in YLLs (nearly 118 million) was projected globally from 2016-40 under the worse health scenario. Compared with 2016, NCDs were forecast to account for a greater proportion of YLLs in all GBD regions by 2040 (67·3% of YLLs [95% UI 61·9-72·3] globally); nonetheless, in many lower-income countries, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases still accounted for a large share of YLLs in 2040 (eg, 53·5% of YLLs [95% UI 48·3-58·5] in Sub-Saharan Africa). There were large gaps for many health risks between the reference forecast and better health scenario for attributable YLLs. In most countries, metabolic risks amenable to health care (eg, high blood pressure and high plasma fasting glucose) and risks best targeted by population-level or intersectoral interventions (eg, tobacco, high BMI, and ambient particulate matter pollution) had some of the largest differences between reference and better health scenarios. The main exception was sub-Saharan Africa, where many risks associated with poverty and lower levels of development (eg, unsafe water and sanitation, household air pollution, and child malnutrition) were projected to still account for substantive disparities between reference and better health scenarios in 2040. INTERPRETATION: With the present study, we provide a robust, flexible forecasting platform from which reference forecasts and alternative health scenarios can be explored in relation to a wide range of independent drivers of health. Our reference forecast points to overall improvements through 2040 in most countries, yet the range found across better and worse health scenarios renders a precarious vision of the future-a world with accelerating progress from technical innovation but with the potential for worsening health outcomes in the absence of deliberate policy action. For some causes of YLLs, large differences between the reference forecast and alternative scenarios reflect the opportunity to accelerate gains if countries move their trajectories toward better health scenarios-or alarming challenges if countries fall behind their reference forecasts. Generally, decision makers should plan for the likely continued shift toward NCDs and target resources toward the modifiable risks that drive substantial premature mortality. If such modifiable risks are prioritised today, there is opportunity to reduce avoidable mortality in the future. However, CMNN causes and related risks will remain the predominant health priority among lower-income countries. Based on our 2040 worse health scenario, there is a real risk of HIV mortality rebounding if countries lose momentum against the HIV epidemic, jeopardising decades of progress against the disease. Continued technical innovation and increased health spending, including development assistance for health targeted to the world's poorest people, are likely to remain vital components to charting a future where all populations can live full, healthy lives. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Saúde Global/normas , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Causas de Morte , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Previsões , Saúde Global/tendências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Transtornos Nutricionais/mortalidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/tendências , Fatores de Risco
3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(5): 321-337, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732397

RESUMO

Background: The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. Methods: We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. Findings: For children aged 5-9 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were estimated to be 46·3 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 45·1-47·5) in 1990 and 19·5 (18·1-20·9) in 2016, reflecting a 58·0% (54·7-61·1) decline. For children aged 10-14 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were 37·9 (37·3-38·6) in 1990 and 20·1 (18·8-21·3) in 2016, reflecting a 47·1% (43·8-50·4) decline. In 2016, we estimated 10 740 deaths (95% UI 9970-11 542) in children aged 5-9 years and 10 279 deaths (9652-10 897) in those aged 10-14 years in the WHO European Region. Injuries (road injuries, drowning, and other injuries) caused 4163 deaths (3820-4540; 38·7% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 4468 deaths (4162-4812; 43·5% of total) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Neoplasms caused 2161 deaths (1872-2406; 20·1% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 1943 deaths (1749-2101; 18·9% of total deaths) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Notable differences existed in cause-specific mortality rates between the European subregions, from a two-times difference for leukaemia to a 20-times difference for lower respiratory infections between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and EU15 (the 15 member states that had joined the European Union before May, 2004). Interpretation: Marked progress has been made in reducing the mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years over the past 26 years in the WHO European Region. More deaths could be prevented, especially in CIS countries, through intervention and prevention efforts focusing on the leading causes of death, which are road injuries, drowning, and lower respiratory infections. The findings of our study could be used as a baseline to assess the effect of implementation of programmes and policies on child mortality burden. Funding: WHO and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 377(1): 13-27, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 78(9): 1337-1343, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28199072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003 to 2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009 to 2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013 to 2014. The diagnosis of BD was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with BD, were chosen for GRS analysis in early-onset bipolar disease. These SNPs map to 3 genes: CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), ANK3 (ankyrin-3, node of Ranvier [ankyrin G]), and ODZ4 (teneurin transmembrane protein 4 [formerly "odz, odd Oz/10-m homolog 4 {Drosophila}, ODZ4"]). The 8 candidate SNPs were genotyped in patients from the TEAM study (n = 69); adult patients with BD (n = 732), including a subset with early-onset illness (n = 192); and healthy controls (n = 776). GRS analyses were performed to compare early-onset cases with controls. In addition, associations of early-onset BD with individual SNPs and haplotypes were explored. RESULTS: GRS analysis revealed associations of the risk score with early-onset BD (P = .01). Gene-level haplotype analysis comparing TEAM patients with controls suggested association of early-onset BD with a CACNA1C haplotype (global test, P = .01). At the level of individual SNPs, comparison of TEAM cases with healthy controls provided nominally significant evidence for association of SNP rs10848632 in CACNA1C with early-onset BD (P = .017), which did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary analyses suggest that previously identified BD risk loci, especially CACNA1C, have a role in early-onset BD, possibly with stronger effects than for late-onset BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMJ ; 354: i3857, 2016 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27510511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To quantify the dose-response associations between total physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events. DESIGN:  Systematic review and Bayesian dose-response meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:  PubMed and Embase from 1980 to 27 February 2016, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Data from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa from 2007 to 2010 and the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2011 were used to map domain specific physical activity (reported in included studies) to total activity. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:  Prospective cohort studies examining the associations between physical activity (any domain) and at least one of the five diseases studied. RESULTS:  174 articles were identified: 35 for breast cancer, 19 for colon cancer, 55 for diabetes, 43 for ischemic heart disease, and 26 for ischemic stroke (some articles included multiple outcomes). Although higher levels of total physical activity were significantly associated with lower risk for all outcomes, major gains occurred at lower levels of activity (up to 3000-4000 metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes/week). For example, individuals with a total activity level of 600 MET minutes/week (the minimum recommended level) had a 2% lower risk of diabetes compared with those reporting no physical activity. An increase from 600 to 3600 MET minutes/week reduced the risk by an additional 19%. The same amount of increase yielded much smaller returns at higher levels of activity: an increase of total activity from 9000 to 12 000 MET minutes/week reduced the risk of diabetes by only 0.6%. Compared with insufficiently active individuals (total activity <600 MET minutes/week), the risk reduction for those in the highly active category (≥8000 MET minutes/week) was 14% (relative risk 0.863, 95% uncertainty interval 0.829 to 0.900) for breast cancer; 21% (0.789, 0.735 to 0.850) for colon cancer; 28% (0.722, 0.678 to 0.768) for diabetes; 25% (0.754, 0.704 to 0.809) for ischemic heart disease; and 26% (0.736, 0.659 to 0.811) for ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS:  People who achieve total physical activity levels several times higher than the current recommended minimum level have a significant reduction in the risk of the five diseases studied. More studies with detailed quantification of total physical activity will help to find more precise relative risk estimates for different levels of activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício , Carga Global da Doença , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Equivalente Metabólico , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 4(10): e704-13, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27568068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The eastern Mediterranean region is comprised of 22 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since our Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), the region has faced unrest as a result of revolutions, wars, and the so-called Arab uprisings. The objective of this study was to present the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in the eastern Mediterranean region as of 2013. METHODS: GBD 2013 includes an annual assessment covering 188 countries from 1990 to 2013. The study covers 306 diseases and injuries, 1233 sequelae, and 79 risk factors. Our GBD 2013 analyses included the addition of new data through updated systematic reviews and through the contribution of unpublished data sources from collaborators, an updated version of modelling software, and several improvements in our methods. In this systematic analysis, we use data from GBD 2013 to analyse the burden of disease and injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region specifically. FINDINGS: The leading cause of death in the region in 2013 was ischaemic heart disease (90·3 deaths per 100 000 people), which increased by 17·2% since 1990. However, diarrhoeal diseases were the leading cause of death in Somalia (186·7 deaths per 100 000 people) in 2013, which decreased by 26·9% since 1990. The leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) was ischaemic heart disease for males and lower respiratory infection for females. High blood pressure was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 2013, with an increase of 83·3% since 1990. Risk factors for DALYs varied by country. In low-income countries, childhood wasting was the leading cause of DALYs in Afghanistan, Somalia, and Yemen, whereas unsafe sex was the leading cause in Djibouti. Non-communicable risk factors were the leading cause of DALYs in high-income and middle-income countries in the region. DALY risk factors varied by age, with child and maternal malnutrition affecting the younger age groups (aged 28 days to 4 years), whereas high bodyweight and systolic blood pressure affected older people (aged 60-80 years). The proportion of DALYs attributed to high body-mass index increased from 3·7% to 7·5% between 1990 and 2013. Burden of mental health problems and drug use increased. Most increases in DALYs, especially from non-communicable diseases, were due to population growth. The crises in Egypt, Yemen, Libya, and Syria have resulted in a reduction in life expectancy; life expectancy in Syria would have been 5 years higher than that recorded for females and 6 years higher for males had the crisis not occurred. INTERPRETATION: Our study shows that the eastern Mediterranean region is going through a crucial health phase. The Arab uprisings and the wars that followed, coupled with ageing and population growth, will have a major impact on the region's health and resources. The region has historically seen improvements in life expectancy and other health indicators, even under stress. However, the current situation will cause deteriorating health conditions for many countries and for many years and will have an impact on the region and the rest of the world. Based on our findings, we call for increased investment in health in the region in addition to reducing the conflicts. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Problemas Sociais , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 15(9): 913-924, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of modifiable risk factors to the increasing global and regional burden of stroke is unclear, but knowledge about this contribution is crucial for informing stroke prevention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) to estimate the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of stroke-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with potentially modifiable environmental, occupational, behavioural, physiological, and metabolic risk factors in different age and sex groups worldwide and in high-income countries and low-income and middle-income countries, from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: We used data on stroke-related DALYs, risk factors, and PAF from the GBD 2013 Study to estimate the burden of stroke by age and sex (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UI]) in 188 countries, as measured with stroke-related DALYs in 1990 and 2013. We evaluated attributable DALYs for 17 risk factors (air pollution and environmental, dietary, physical activity, tobacco smoke, and physiological) and six clusters of risk factors by use of three inputs: risk factor exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level. For most risk factors, we synthesised data for exposure with a Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR) or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. We based relative risks on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks, such as high body-mass index (BMI), through other risks, such as high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high total cholesterol. FINDINGS: Globally, 90·5% (95% UI 88·5-92·2) of the stroke burden (as measured in DALYs) was attributable to the modifiable risk factors analysed, including 74·2% (95% UI 70·7-76·7) due to behavioural factors (smoking, poor diet, and low physical activity). Clusters of metabolic factors (high SBP, high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, high total cholesterol, and low glomerular filtration rate; 72·4%, 95% UI 70·2-73·5) and environmental factors (air pollution and lead exposure; 33·4%, 95% UI 32·4-34·3) were the second and third largest contributors to DALYs. Globally, 29·2% (95% UI 28·2-29·6) of the burden of stroke was attributed to air pollution. Although globally there were no significant differences between sexes in the proportion of stroke burden due to behavioural, environmental, and metabolic risk clusters, in the low-income and middle-income countries, the PAF of behavioural risk clusters in males was greater than in females. The PAF of all risk factors increased from 1990 to 2013 (except for second-hand smoking and household air pollution from solid fuels) and varied significantly between countries. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that more than 90% of the stroke burden is attributable to modifiable risk factors, and achieving control of behavioural and metabolic risk factors could avert more than three-quarters of the global stroke burden. Air pollution has emerged as a significant contributor to global stroke burden, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, and therefore reducing exposure to air pollution should be one of the main priorities to reduce stroke burden in these countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, American Heart Association, US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Columbia University, Health Research Council of New Zealand, Brain Research New Zealand Centre of Research Excellence, and National Science Challenge, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment of New Zealand.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
Lancet ; 387(10036): 2383-401, 2016 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young people's health has emerged as a neglected yet pressing issue in global development. Changing patterns of young people's health have the potential to undermine future population health as well as global economic development unless timely and effective strategies are put into place. We report the past, present, and anticipated burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years from 1990 to 2013 using data on mortality, disability, injuries, and health risk factors. METHODS: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) includes annual assessments for 188 countries from 1990 to 2013, covering 306 diseases and injuries, 1233 sequelae, and 79 risk factors. We used the comparative risk assessment approach to assess how much of the burden of disease reported in a given year can be attributed to past exposure to a risk. We estimated attributable burden by comparing observed health outcomes with those that would have been observed if an alternative or counterfactual level of exposure had occurred in the past. We applied the same method to previous years to allow comparisons from 1990 to 2013. We cross-tabulated the quantiles of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by quintiles of DALYs annual increase from 1990 to 2013 to show rates of DALYs increase by burden. We used the GBD 2013 hierarchy of causes that organises 306 diseases and injuries into four levels of classification. Level one distinguishes three broad categories: first, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders; second, non-communicable diseases; and third, injuries. Level two has 21 mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories, level three has 163 categories, and level four has 254 categories. FINDINGS: The leading causes of death in 2013 for young people aged 10-14 years were HIV/AIDS, road injuries, and drowning (25·2%), whereas transport injuries were the leading cause of death for ages 15-19 years (14·2%) and 20-24 years (15·6%). Maternal disorders were the highest cause of death for young women aged 20-24 years (17·1%) and the fourth highest for girls aged 15-19 years (11·5%) in 2013. Unsafe sex as a risk factor for DALYs increased from the 13th rank to the second for both sexes aged 15-19 years from 1990 to 2013. Alcohol misuse was the highest risk factor for DALYs (7·0% overall, 10·5% for males, and 2·7% for females) for young people aged 20-24 years, whereas drug use accounted for 2·7% (3·3% for males and 2·0% for females). The contribution of risk factors varied between and within countries. For example, for ages 20-24 years, drug use was highest in Qatar and accounted for 4·9% of DALYs, followed by 4·8% in the United Arab Emirates, whereas alcohol use was highest in Russia and accounted for 21·4%, followed by 21·0% in Belarus. Alcohol accounted for 9·0% (ranging from 4·2% in Hong Kong to 11·3% in Shandong) in China and 11·6% (ranging from 10·1% in Aguascalientes to 14·9% in Chihuahua) of DALYs in Mexico for young people aged 20-24 years. Alcohol and drug use in those aged 10-24 years had an annual rate of change of >1·0% from 1990 to 2013 and accounted for more than 3·1% of DALYs. INTERPRETATION: Our findings call for increased efforts to improve health and reduce the burden of disease and risks for diseases in later life in young people. Moreover, because of the large variations between countries in risks and burden, a global approach to improve health during this important period of life will fail unless the particularities of each country are taken into account. Finally, our results call for a strategy to overcome the financial and technical barriers to adequately capture young people's health risk factors and their determinants in health information systems. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Afogamento/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Bipolar Disord ; 17(6): 645-52, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26528762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. METHODS: DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early-onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. RESULTS: Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from the Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético , Estados Unidos
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