Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 146
Filtrar
1.
Nutrition ; 74: 110835, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Beginning in December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a pneumonia epidemic that began in Wuhan, China, and is rapidly spreading throughout the whole world. Italy is the hardest hit country after China. Considering the deleterious consequences of malnutrition, which certainly can affect patients with COVID-19, the aim of this article is to present a pragmatic protocol for early nutritional supplementation of non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19 disease. It is based on the observation that most patients present at admission with severe inflammation and anorexia leading to a drastic reduction of food intake, and that a substantial percentage develops respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation or even continuous positive airway pressure. METHODS: High-calorie dense diets in a variety of different consistencies with highly digestible foods and snacks are available for all patients. Oral supplementation of whey proteins as well as intravenous infusion of multivitamin, multimineral trace elements solutions are implemented at admission. In the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficit, cholecalciferol is promptly supplied. If nutritional risk is detected, two to three bottles of protein-calorie oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are provided. If <2 bottles/d of ONS are consumed for 2 consecutive days and/or respiratory conditions are worsening, supplemental/total parenteral nutrition is prescribed. CONCLUSION: We are aware that our straight approach may be debatable. However, to cope with the current emergency crisis, its aim is to promptly and pragmatically implement nutritional care in patients with COVID-19, which might be overlooked despite being potentially beneficial to clinical outcomes and effective in preventing the consequences of malnutrition in this patient population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Administração Oral , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem
2.
Exp Gerontol ; 136: 110944, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between multiple risk factors and the mortality of sarcopenic patients has not been studied. This study's aim is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia among a sample of Italian hospitalized older adults, describe the physical function, body fat composition, cognitive, inflammatory and nutritional status of sarcopenic compared with non-sarcopenic subjects, and determine the risk factors associated with mortality in sarcopenic patients. METHOD: A total of 462 patients were enrolled and followed up for a period of 5 years. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the EWGSOP2 criteria. Factors associated with sarcopenia were identified with linear regression analysis. Logistic regression was applied to explore the association between the risk factors and mortality in sarcopenic subjects. Survival analyses and predictors of mortality were identified using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 33.5%. Linear regression showed that sarcopenia was associated with Barthel index (B -9.63, p0.004), BMI (B -3.19, p<0.001) and android fat (B 1.85, p0.004). Of these factors, only the number of co-morbidities (OR 1.394 C95% 1.023-1.862 p 0.025) and MMSE scores (OR 0.857 C95% 0.79-0.930 p <0.001) were associated with mortality in sarcopenia. Kaplan-Meier and the log-rank tests showed the negative prognostic effect of low BMI (p0.007), albumin (p<0.001) and Barthel index (p 0.018). The Cox regression showed that mortality hazard is reduced with BMI >24.9 (HR 0.287 C95% 0.095-0.866 p 0.027). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is associated with low physical function and BMI but higher android fat. Low Barthel, BMI and albumin can significantly decrease the survival rate in sarcopenic patients. Whereas BMI >24.9 is associated with lower mortality hazard.

3.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264793

RESUMO

Background: Weight homeostasis is complex in Parkinson's disease (PD) and body weight changes substantially throughout the course of the disease. We designed a case-control study to (i) investigate whether PD is associated with changes in resting energy expenditure (REE), (ii) to assess how accurately REE could be predicted for individuals with PD utilizing the equations constructed for healthy individuals, and (iii) to eventually construct a new equation.Materials & Methods: Measured REE (mREE) was compared between 122 PD patients and 122 gender and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. The accuracy of estimated REE by 5 common equations (Harris/Benedict-1919, Roza/Shizgal-1984, Mifflin St. Jeor, WHO/FAO and aggregate formula) was investigated in PD using Bland-Altman analysis and reported as the frequency of accurate predictions (±10%). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were also calculated. Then, we regressed a new REE equation - using gender, age, weight, height and Hoehn-Yahr stage - and validated it in an independent sample (N = 100).Results: No significant difference in mREE was recorded between the whole PD sample and healthy controls. However, mREE was increased in patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and Hoehn-Yahr stage ≥ 3. Limited accuracy was present in the available REE equations (accurate prediction [±10%] frequency, <60% for all). For the new equation, the proportion of accurate prediction was 67.0% (overestimation, 24.0%) and CCC was 0.77.Conclusion: PD patients are not commonly characterized by an increase in REE. This is limited to patients suffering from obesity and more severe disease. Common REE equations appear to be inaccurate. The new predictive equation proposed in this study provided better REE estimates.

4.
Nutrition ; 74: 110757, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been associated with a significant reduction in visceral adipose tissue and ketone bodies that likely possess antiinflammatory properties. We evaluated the efficacy of an aggressive weight-loss (WL) program with a ketogenic induction phase as first-line treatment for chronic plaque psoriasis. METHODS: Adult patients who were overweight or obese and drug-naïve (i.e., never treated, excluding the use of topical emollients; n = 37; 30% men; age: 43.1 ± 13.8 y) with stable chronic plaque psoriasis underwent a 10-wk, 2-phase WL program consisting of a 4-wk protein-sparing, VLCKD (<500 kcal/d; 1.2 g of protein/kg of ideal body weight/d) and 6-wk balanced, hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/d), Mediterranean-like diet. The primary endpoint was the reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score at wk 10. Major secondary endpoints included PASI score responses of ≥50% and ≥75%, reduction in body surface area involved, improvement in itch severity (visual analogue scale), and Dermatology Life Quality Index score at wk 10. RESULTS: With a mean body weight reduction of 12.0% (-10.6 kg), the dietary intervention resulted in a significant reduction in PASI (baseline score: 13.8 ± 6.9; range, 7-32), with a mean change of -10.6 (95% confidence interval, -12.8 to -8.4; P < 0.001). PASI score responses of ≥50% and ≥75% were recorded in 36 patients (97.3%) and 24 patients (64.9%), respectively. Treatment also resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the body surface area involved (-17.4%) and an improvement in itch severity (-33.2 points) and Dermatology Life Quality Index score (-13.4 points). CONCLUSIONS: In drug-naïve adult overweight patients with stable chronic plaque psoriasis, an aggressive dietary WL program consisting of a VLCKD, followed by a balanced, hypocaloric, Mediterranean-like diet, appeared to be an effective first-line strategy to reduce disease severity.

5.
Amyloid ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212933

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the present prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02111538) was to assess the prognostic value of phase angle (PhA), derived from bioimpedance vectorial analysis (BIVA), in patients affected by systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis.Methods: One hundred-twenty seven consecutive newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed AL amyloidosis were enrolled. Nutritional assessment including BIVA-derived PhA was performed before treatment initiation.Results: PhA was associated with unintentional weight loss, caloric intake and the physical component of quality of life (QoL). After a median follow-up of 16.3 months (25th-75th percentile: 8.4-28.9 months), 49 (38.6%) subjects had died. At multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, PhA ≤4.3 independently predicted survival (HR = 2.26 [95%CI, 1.04-4.89]; p = .038]) after controlling for hydration status, haematologic response to treatment and modified Mayo Clinic cardiac stage. There was no effect modification of PhA on mortality by cardiac stage (P for interaction = 0.61).Conclusions: In AL amyloidosis, BIVA-derived PhA is associated with the common parameters implied in malnutrition assessment and QoL, and adjusted for hydration independently predicts survival. Due to its feasibility, BIVA should be systematically considered for the nutritional and clinical assessment of AL patients, in whom nutritional intervention trials are warranted.

6.
Nutrition ; 73: 110720, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088500

RESUMO

We report the case of a 62-y-old woman with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and chronic renal failure, successfully treated with teduglutide, who underwent comprehensive systematic nutritional assessment including bioelectrical impedance vectorial analysis (BIVA). The patient did not tolerate the attempt of gradual suspension of parenteral nutrition (PN), bumping into the worsening of nutritional status and renal function. She was declared eligible for teduglutide, a glucagonlike peptide 2 analog that stimulates structural and functional intestinal adaptation and increases nutrient and fluid absorption. To date, there is no standardized nutritional management protocol for PN-dependent SBS patients treated with teduglutide. We here report our first 1-y follow-up data. The patient underwent comprehensive systematic nutritional assessment initially every 2 wk, then monthly. It included handgrip strength (HGS), blood tests (particularly serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urea, electrolytes, micronutrients, serum albumin), fluid intake, urine output, quality-of-life (QoL) evaluation, and BIVA, which estimates fat-free mass (FFM) and measures phase angle (PhA) and hydration status. At treatment initiation, the patient was on PN 3 d/wk. After 3 mo, she was weaned off PN. At 1 y, weight and serum albumin were reduced (-7.5 kg and -0.6 g/dL, respectively); FFM, PhA, and HGS slightly decreased; hydration status and renal function were preserved; and QoL subtly improved. No relevant clinical complications or metabolic imbalances occurred. The inclusion of BIVA in the comprehensive systematic nutritional assessment of SBS patients treated with teduglutide could be proposed for appropriate and safe management, particularly in the presence of renal impairment.

7.
Curr Probl Cancer ; : 100554, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024589

RESUMO

Attitudes toward cancer-related malnutrition vary considerably among oncologists and nutritional support is often not handled according to the available guidelines. The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism (SINPE), Italian Federation of Volunteer-based Cancer Organizations (FAVO), and Fondazione AIOM Working Group conducted a national web-based survey addressed to all Italian Oncology Units referees and Italian Cancer Patients Associations. The aim was to investigate the current management of malnutrition and views on nutritional care among oncologists and patients. One hundred and seventy-one (51.6%) of the 331 registered Italian Oncology Units and 75 (38.5%) of the 195 FAVO local communities participated in the survey. Nutritional assessment and support were integrated into patient care from diagnosis for 35% of Oncology Unit referees and 15% of FAVO associates. According to 42% of oncologists, nutritional assessment was carried out only after patients requested it, while it was not performed at all for 45% of FAVO associates. Almost 60% of patient affiliates were not aware of clinical referrals for home artificial nutrition management. However, for almost all responders, the evaluation of nutritional status was considered crucial in predicting tolerance to anticancer treatment. Although malnutrition was considered a limiting factor in oncology treatments by both oncologists and patients, nutritional care practices still appear largely inappropriate. Attitudes differ between oncologists and patients, the latter reporting a more dissatisfied picture. Improving nutritional care in oncology remains a challenging task.

8.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 33(3): 123-136, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058438

RESUMO

GENERAL PURPOSE: To review the nutrition-related recommendations presented in the 2019 European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers/Injuries: Clinical Practice Guideline with further discussion of nutrition for pressure injury management in the context of the recommendations. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Distinguish nutrition and malnutrition, especially as they relate to the development and healing of pressure injuries.2. Differentiate the tools and techniques that help clinicians assess nutrition status as well as the causes of pressure injuries in specific populations.3. Identify interventions for improving nutrition status and promoting pressure injury healing. ABSTRACT: Macro- and micronutrients are required by each organ system in specific amounts to promote the growth, development, maintenance, and repair of body tissues. Specifically, nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the nutrition-related recommendations presented in the 2019 European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers/Injuries: Clinical Practice Guideline. Nutrition for pressure injury management is discussed in the context of the recommendations.

9.
Brain ; 143(3): 920-931, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025699

RESUMO

A variety of cellular processes, including vesicle clustering in the presynaptic compartment, are impaired in Parkinson's disease and have been closely associated with α-synuclein oligomerization. Emerging evidence proves the existence of α-synuclein-related pathology in the peripheral nervous system, even though the presence of α-synuclein oligomers in situ in living patients remains poorly investigated. In this case-control study, we show previously undetected α-synuclein oligomers within synaptic terminals of autonomic fibres in skin biopsies by means of the proximity ligation assay and propose a procedure for their quantification (proximity ligation assay score). Our study revealed a significant increase in α-synuclein oligomers in consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease compared to consecutive healthy controls (P < 0.001). Proximity ligation assay score (threshold value > 96 using receiver operating characteristic) was found to have good sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (82%, 86% and 89%, respectively). Furthermore, to disclose the role of putative genetic predisposition in Parkinson's disease aetiology, we evaluated the differential accumulation of oligomers in a unique cohort of 19 monozygotic twins discordant for Parkinson's disease. The significant difference between patients and healthy subjects was confirmed in twins. Intriguingly, although no difference in median values was detected between consecutive healthy controls and healthy twins, the prevalence of healthy subjects positive for proximity ligation assay score was significantly greater in twins than in the consecutive cohort (47% versus 14%, P = 0.019). This suggests that genetic predisposition is important, but not sufficient, in the aetiology of the disease and strengthens the contribution of environmental factors. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that α-synuclein oligomers accumulate within synaptic terminals of autonomic fibres of the skin in Parkinson's disease for the first time. This finding endorses the hypothesis that α-synuclein oligomers could be used as a reliable diagnostic biomarker for Parkinson's disease. It also offers novel insights into the physiological and pathological roles of α-synuclein in the peripheral nervous system.

10.
Cancer Med ; 8(16): 6923-6932, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568698

RESUMO

In recent years, whey proteins (WP) have attracted increasing attention in health and disease for their bioactive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of WP isolate (WPI) supplementation in addition to nutritional counseling in malnourished advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT). In a single-center, randomized, pragmatic, and parallel-group controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02065726), 166 malnourished advanced cancer patients with mixed tumor entities candidate to or undergoing CT were randomly assigned to receive nutritional counseling with (N = 82) or without (N = 84) WPI supplementation (20 g/d) for 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change in phase angle (PhA). Secondary endpoints included changes in standardized PhA (SPA), fat-free mass index (FFMI), body weight, muscle strength, and CT toxicity (CTCAE 4.0 events). In patients with the primary endpoint assessed (modified intention-to-treat population), counseling plus WPI (N = 66) resulted in improved PhA compared to nutritional counseling alone (N = 69): mean difference, 0.48° (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.90) (P = .027). WPI supplementation also resulted in improved SPA (P = .021), FFMI (P = .041), body weight (P = .023), muscle strength (P < .001), and in a reduced risk of CT toxicity (risk difference, -9.8% [95% CI, -16.9 to -2.6]; P = .009), particularly of severe (grade ≥ 3) events (risk difference, -30.4% [95% CI, -44.4 to -16.5]; P = .001). In malnourished advanced cancer patients undergoing CT, receiving nutritional counseling, a 3-month supplementation with WPI resulted in improved body composition, muscle strength, body weight, and reduced CT toxicity. Further trials, aimed at verifying the efficacy of this nutritional intervention on mid- and long-term primary clinical endpoints in newly diagnosed specific cancer types, are warranted.

11.
Neurology ; 93(5): e485-e496, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of muscle-targeted nutritional support on the functional outcomes of multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) or parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, bicentric, randomized (1:1), assessor-blind controlled trial (Protein, Leucine and Vitamin D Enhancing Rehabilitation [PRO-LEADER]; April 2017 to January 2018) in cognitively intact patients with PD or parkinsonism and undergoing a 30-day MIRT. Patients (n = 150) received a standard hospital diet with or without a whey protein-based nutritional supplement enriched with leucine and vitamin D twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the increase in the distance walked during a 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Secondary endpoints were changes in 4-meter walking speed, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Berg balance scale, handgrip strength, Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale, body weight, and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). RESULTS: Nutritional support resulted in greater increase in the distance walked during 6MWT (mean 69.6 meters [95% confidence interval (CI) 60.7-78.6]) than no support (51.8 meters [95% CI 37.0-66.7]): center-adjusted mean difference, 18.1 meters (95% CI 0.9-35.3) (p = 0.039). Further adjustment for changes in dopaminergic therapy and SMM yielded consistent results: mean difference, 18.0 meters (95% CI 0.7-35.2) (p = 0.043). A meaningful effect was also found for the following secondary endpoints: 4-meter walking speed (p = 0.032), TUG (p = 0.046), SMM, and SMM index (p = 0.029). Six patients discontinued the nutritional therapy due to mild side effects. CONCLUSION: The consumption of a whey protein-based nutritional formula enriched with leucine and vitamin D with MIRT improved lower extremity function and preserved muscle mass in patients with PD or parkinsonism.Clinicaltrials.gov IDENTIFIER: NCT03124277. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with parkinsonism undergoing intensive rehabilitation, a whey protein-based nutritional formula enriched with leucine and vitamin D increased distance walked on the 6MWT.


Assuntos
Leucina/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aminoácidos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/reabilitação , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada
12.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277488

RESUMO

Malnutrition is widespread in older people and represents a major geriatric syndrome with multifactorial etiology and severe consequences for health outcomes and quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to describe current approaches and evidence regarding malnutrition treatment and to highlight relevant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Recently published guidelines of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) provide a summary of the available evidence and highlight the wide range of different measures that can be taken-from the identification and elimination of potential causes to enteral and parenteral nutrition-depending on the patient's abilities and needs. However, more than half of the recommendations therein are based on expert consensus because of a lack of evidence, and only three are concern patient-centred outcomes. Future research should further clarify the etiology of malnutrition and identify the most relevant causes in order to prevent malnutrition. Based on limited and partly conflicting evidence and the limitations of existing studies, it remains unclear which interventions are most effective in which patient groups, and if specific situations, diseases or etiologies of malnutrition require specific approaches. Patient-relevant outcomes such as functionality and quality of life need more attention, and research methodology should be harmonised to allow for the comparability of studies.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 38(4): 1877-1882, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on disease-related malnutrition and related outcomes in pediatric patients with chronic diseases in different settings of care is not available. METHODS: Consecutive eligible patients attending the out-patient clinic (n = 177) or admitted to the day-hospital clinic (n = 163) or to hospital (n = 201) were screened for the presence of malnutrition (BMI and/or height/length for age z-scores < -2). We recorded data on emergency care admissions to hospital that occurred during the 3 years before screening and related total days of stay, as well as data on emergency care admissions to hospital occurring within 6 months after screening. RESULTS: Prevalence of malnutrition was 2-fold higher (P < 0.001) in in-patients (56.7% [95% CI, 49.6-63.7]) than in patients assessed at the out-patient (33.3% [95% CI, 26.4-40.8]) and day-hospital (28.3% [95% CI, 21.5-35.8]) clinics. Estimates were heterogeneous across diagnostic groups with higher rates in patients with neurologic (61%) and cardiac (56%) diseases. Stunting was more frequent among in-patients, who also had more evident nutritional derangements. Multivariate logistic regression (covariates: age, gender, healthcare setting and disease group), showed that malnutrition (OR = 1.86 [95% CI, 1.21-2.88]; P = 0.005) was significantly associated with prolonged hospitalization (≥15 days) in the 3 years before screening. In-patients were also more likely to have been hospitalized ≥15 days (using out-patients as reference category, OR = 2.24 [95% CI, 1.39-3.63], P = 0.001), but we did not find any modifying effect (interaction) of the setting of care on the association between malnutrition and prolonged hospitalization. DISCUSSION: The rates of malnutrition in children with chronic diseases are very high and increase hospital care needs, especially when they are admitted to hospital. Nutritional care in this patient population is recommended.

15.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(7): 2497-2506, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The international guidelines recommend the use of supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) in cancer patients when they are malnourished and hypophagic and where enteral nutrition is not feasible. However, there are limited data on the short-term effects of SPN in this patient population. METHODS: The aim of this bicentric single-arm clinical trial (NCT02828150) was to evaluate the effects of early 7-day SPN on bioimpedance vectorial analysis (BIVA)-derived body composition, handgrip strength (HG), and serum prealbumin (PAB) in 131 hypophagic, hospitalized cancer patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications for enteral nutrition. RESULTS: One hundred eighteen patients (90.1%) completed the 7-day SPN support regimen and 102 of them (86.4%) were in advanced disease stage. SPN induced a significant improvement of phase angle (PhA, + 0.25 [95% CI 0.11, 0.39]; p = 0.001), standardized phase angle (SPA, + 0.33 [95% CI 0.13, 0.53]; p = 0.002), HG (+ 2.1 kg -95% CI 1.30, 2.81]; p < 0.001), and PAB (+ 3.8 mg/dL [95% CI 2.1, 5.6]; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, the effects on BIVA parameters were more pronounced in patients (N = 90, 76.3%) in whom estimated protein and calorie requirements were both satisfied (adjusted difference: PhA, + 0.39 [95% CI 0.04, 0.73]; p = 0.030; SPA, + 0.62 [95% CI 0.16, 1.09]; p = 0.009). No significant changes in hydration status were detected and no severe metabolic or other complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Early 7-day SPN resulted in improved body composition, HG and PAB levels in hypophagic, and hospitalized cancer patients at nutritional risk in the absence of any relevant clinical complications. Further trials, aimed at verifying the efficacy of this early nutritional intervention on mid- and long-term primary clinical endpoints in specific cancer types, are warranted.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Necessidades Nutricionais
16.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(1): 107-115, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792366

RESUMO

In Zambia, chronic malnutrition still is one of the most common problem among children. To fight against malnutrition, the easiest short-term solution could be to combine specific types of food with affordable local plants. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Zambia, such as Moringa oleifera (MO), whose leaves are known for their health benefits, but are not consumed much by local populations. We analysed Zambian MO powder obtained from dried leaves and found that it contains large amounts of protein, minerals and vitamins, such as iron, calcium and carotenoids. These characteristics make MO a good and sustainable complementary solution to malnutrition. We also evaluated the acceptability and the safety of dietary supplementation with MO powder in malnourished children for 30 days. A daily dose of 14 g daily was safe and well accepted. Its regular use in the menu of local populations may be viable proposition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Moringa oleifera/química , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Minerais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Pós , Segurança , Vitaminas/análise , Zâmbia
17.
Mov Disord ; 34(3): 396-405, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have suggested that abnormalities in gut microbiota may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, data are still extremely heterogeneous. METHODS: 16S gene ribosomal RNA sequencing was performed on fecal samples of 350 individuals, subdivided into idiopathic PD (n = 193, of whom 39 were drug naïve) stratified by disease duration, PSP (n = 22), MSA (n = 22), and healthy controls (HC; n = 113). Several confounders were taken into account, including dietary habits. RESULTS: Despite the fact that unadjusted comparison of PD and HC showed several differences in relative taxa abundances, the significant results were greatly reduced after adjusting for confounders. Although most of these differences were associated with disease duration, lower abundance in Lachnospiraceae was the only difference between de novo PD and HC (remaining lower across almost all PD duration strata). Decreased Lachnospiraceae and increased Lactobacillaceae and Christensenellaceae were associated with a worse clinical profile, including higher frequencies of cognitive impairment, gait disturbances, and postural instability. When compared with HC, MSA and PSP patients shared the changes in PD, with a few exceptions: in MSA, Lachnospiraceae were not lower, and Prevotellaceae were reduced; in PSP, Lactobacillaceae were similar, and Streptococcaceae were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota may be an environmental modulator of the pathogenesis of PD and contribute to the interindividual variability of clinical features. Data are influenced by PD duration and several confounders that need to be taken into account in future studies. Prospective studies in de novo PD patients are needed to elucidate the net effect of dysbiosis on the progression of the disease. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/microbiologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/microbiologia
18.
Mov Disord ; 33(9): 1492-1496, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior work on appendectomy and PD has produced mixed results. In this study we examined whether history of self-reported appendectomy was related to risk of incident Parkinson's disease in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. METHODS: We used the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratio of Parkinson's disease associated with self-report of appendectomy in men and women. Among women, we estimated the hazard ratio of Parkinson's disease associated with appendectomy for appendicitis and incidental appendectomy. RESULTS: In pooled analyses, self-report of any appendectomy was not related to Parkinson's disease risk: the hazard ratio of Parkinson's disease comparing participants who reported any appendectomy with those who did not was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.23). In women, appendectomy for appendicitis, but not incidental appendectomy, was associated with a modestly elevated risk of Parkinson's disease (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.50]). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study suggests limited to no association between appendectomy and Parkinson's disease risk. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 19(11): 981-988.e7, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Slow gait speed may be associated with premature mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer, although a comprehensive meta-analysis is lacking. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we explored potential associations between gait speed and mortality, incident CVD, and cancer. DESIGN: A systematic search in major databases was undertaken from inception until March 15, 2018 for prospective cohort studies reporting data on gait speed and mortality, incident CVD, and cancer. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All available. MEASURES: The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), based on the model with the maximum number of covariates for each study between gait speed (categorized as decrease in 0.1 m/s) and mortality, incident CVD, and cancer, were meta-analyzed with a random effects model. RESULTS: Among 7026 articles, 44 articles corresponding to 48 independent cohorts were eligible. The studies followed up on a total of 101,945 participants (mean age 72.2 years; 55% women) for a median of 5.4 years. After adjusting for a median of 9 potential confounders and the presence of publication bias, each reduction of 0.1 m/s in gait speed was associated with a 12% increased risk of earlier mortality (45 studies; HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.09-1.14; I2 = 90%) and 8% increased risk of CVD (13 studies; HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13; I2 = 81%), but no relationship with cancer was observed (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97-1.04; I2 = 15%). CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS: Slow gait speed may be a predictor of mortality and CVD in older adults. Because gait speed is a quick and inexpensive measure to obtain, our study suggests that it should be routinely used and may help identify people at risk of premature mortality and CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Humanos
20.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 21(5): 399-404, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916923

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated perspective on the use of probiotics as adjuvant treatment strategy for patients suffering from or at risk of developing mucositis. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggest that oral and intestinal microbiota could be relevant to mucositis development and treatment, but no clear high-risk pattern has been identified and no single probiotic formulation has emerged from human clinical trials for strong recommendation. Promising results from available clinical trials suggest their use in patients with peri-implant mucositis or at risk of anticancer treatment-related oral or intestinal mucositis. In general, a positive effects of Lactobacillus species is becoming consistent, particularly Lactobacillus reuteri, in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis and Lactobacillus brevi CD2 in the prevention of chemoradiotherapy-related oral mucositis. However, several limitations still need to be addressed by future research. Nonetheless, their use appears to be safe. Therefore, decision to consider the use of probiotics ultimately depends on the preference of the clinicians. SUMMARY: In the ongoing era of 'precision medicine', efforts should be directed toward the identification of high-risk patient populations which could benefit most from targeted interventions with probiotics enabling an improvement of clinical outcomes and quality of life in a cost-effective manner.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Mucosite/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactobacillus reuteri , Microbiota , Mucosite/etiologia , Mucosite/prevenção & controle , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA