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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(5): 661-674, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with thoracic malignancies are at increased risk for mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and a large number of intertwined prognostic variables have been identified so far. METHODS: Capitalizing data from the Thoracic Cancers International COVID-19 Collaboration (TERAVOLT) registry, a global study created with the aim of describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with thoracic malignancies, we used a clustering approach, a fast-backward step-down selection procedure, and a tree-based model to screen and optimize a broad panel of demographics and clinical COVID-19 and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: As of April 15, 2021, a total of 1491 consecutive eligible patients from 18 countries were included in the analysis. With a mean observation period of 42 days, 361 events were reported with an all-cause case fatality rate of 24.2%. The clustering procedure screened 73 covariates in 13 clusters. A further multivariable logistic regression for the association between clusters and death was performed, resulting in five clusters significantly associated with the outcome. The fast-backward step-down selection procedure then identified the following seven major determinants of death: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS) (OR = 2.47, 1.87-3.26), neutrophil count (OR = 2.46, 1.76-3.44), serum procalcitonin (OR = 2.37, 1.64-3.43), development of pneumonia (OR = 1.95, 1.48-2.58), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.90, 1.43-2.51), tumor stage at COVID-19 diagnosis (OR = 1.97, 1.46-2.66), and age (OR = 1.71, 1.29-2.26). The receiver operating characteristic analysis for death of the selected model confirmed its diagnostic ability (area under the receiver operating curve = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.81). The nomogram was able to classify the COVID-19 mortality in an interval ranging from 8% to 90%, and the tree-based model recognized ECOG-PS, neutrophil count, and c-reactive protein as the major determinants of prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: From 73 variables analyzed, seven major determinants of death have been identified. Poor ECOG-PS was found to have the strongest association with poor outcome from COVID-19. With our analysis, we provide clinicians with a definitive prognostication system to help determine the risk of mortality for patients with thoracic malignancies and COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Torácicas , Proteína C-Reativa , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias Torácicas/diagnóstico
2.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(4): 540-552, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few treatment options exist for second-line treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the antibody-drug conjugate anetumab ravtansine versus vinorelbine in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease overexpressing mesothelin who had progressed on first-line platinum-pemetrexed chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. METHODS: In this phase 2, randomised, open-label study, done at 76 hospitals in 14 countries, we enrolled adults (aged ≥18 years) with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic malignant pleural mesothelioma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and who had progressed on first-line platinum-pemetrexed chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. Participants were prospectively screened for mesothelin overexpression (defined as 2+ or 3+ mesothelin membrane staining intensity on at least 30% of viable tumour cells by immunohistochemistry) and were randomly assigned (2:1), using an interactive voice and web response system provided by the sponsor, to receive intravenous anetumab ravtansine (6·5 mg/kg on day 1 of each 21-day cycle) or intravenous vinorelbine (30 mg/m2 once every week) until progression, toxicity, or death. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival according to blinded central radiology review, assessed in the intention-to-treat population, with safety assessed in all participants who received any study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02610140, and is now completed. FINDINGS: Between Dec 3, 2015, and May 31, 2017, 589 patients were enrolled and 248 mesothelin-overexpressing patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups (166 patients were randomly assigned to receive anetumab ravtansine and 82 patients were randomly assigned to receive vinorelbine). 105 (63%) of 166 patients treated with anetumab ravtansine (median follow-up 4·0 months [IQR 1·4-5·5]) versus 43 (52%) of 82 patients treated with vinorelbine (3·9 months [1·4-5·4]) had disease progression or died (median progression-free survival 4·3 months [95% CI 4·1-5·2] vs 4·5 months [4·1-5·8]; hazard ratio 1·22 [0·85-1·74]; log-rank p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (one [1%] of 163 patients for anetumab ravtansine vs 28 [39%] of 72 patients for vinorelbine), pneumonia (seven [4%] vs five [7%]), neutrophil count decrease (two [1%] vs 12 [17%]), and dyspnoea (nine [6%] vs three [4%]). Serious drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 12 (7%) patients treated with anetumab ravtansine and 11 (15%) patients treated with vinorelbine. Ten (6%) treatment-emergent deaths occurred with anetumab ravtansine: pneumonia (three [2%]), dyspnoea (two [1%]), sepsis (two [1%]), atrial fibrillation (one [1%]), physical deterioration (one [1%]), hepatic failure (one [1%]), mesothelioma (one [1%]), and renal failure (one [1%]; one patient had 3 events). One (1%) treatment-emergent death occurred in the vinorelbine group (pneumonia). INTERPRETATION: Anetumab ravtansine showed a manageable safety profile and was not superior to vinorelbine. Further studies are needed to define active treatments in relapsed mesothelin-expressing malignant pleural mesothelioma. FUNDING: Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Imunoconjugados , Mesotelioma Maligno , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrogripose , Colestase , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Insuficiência Renal , Vinorelbina/efeitos adversos
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 653497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The CDKN2A gene plays a central role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The gene encodes for two tumor suppressor proteins, p16/INK4A and p14/ARF, frequently lost in MPM tumors. The exact role of p14/ARF in MPM and overall its correlation with the immune microenvironment is unknown. We aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between p14/ARF expression, tumor morphological features, and the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. METHODS: Diagnostic biopsies from 76 chemo-naive MPMs were evaluated. Pathological assessments of histotype, necrosis, inflammation, grading, and mitosis were performed. We evaluated p14/ARF, PD-L1 (tumor proportion score, TPS), and Ki-67 (percentage) by immunohistochemistry. Inflammatory cell components (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes; CD20+ B-lymphocytes; CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages) were quantified as percentages of positive cells, distinguishing between intratumoral and peritumoral areas. The expression of p14/ARF was associated with several clinical and pathological characteristics. A random forest-based machine-learning algorithm (Boruta) was implemented to identify which variables were associated with p14/ARF expression. RESULTS: p14/ARF was evaluated in 68 patients who had a sufficient number of tumor cells. Strong positivity was detected in 14 patients (21%) (11 epithelioid and 3 biphasic MPMs). At univariate analysis, p14/ARF-positive epithelioid mesotheliomas showed higher nuclear grade (G3) (p = 0.023) and higher PD-L1 expression (≥50%) (p = 0.042). The percentages of CD4 and CD163 in peritumoral areas were respectively higher and lower in p14/ARF positive tumors but did not reach statistical significance with our sample size (both p = 0.066). The Boruta algorithm confirmed the predictive value of PD-L1 percentage for p14/ARF expression in all histotypes. CONCLUSIONS: p14/ARF-positive epithelioid mesotheliomas may mark a more aggressive pathological phenotype (higher nuclear grade and PD-L1 expression). Considering the results regarding the tumor immune microenvironment, p14/ARF-negative tumors seem to have an immune microenvironment less sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors, being associated with low PD-L1 and CD4 expression, and high CD163 percentage. The association between p14/ARF-positive MPMs and PD-L1 expression suggests a possible interaction of the two pathways. Confirmation of our preliminary results could be important for patient selection and recruitment in future clinical trials with anticancer immunotherapy.

7.
J Bone Oncol ; 26: 100341, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33425672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone remodeling is disrupted in metastatic disease, which affects > 70% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. As a result, abnormal levels of specific bone turnover biomarkers (BTMs) are released. In this prospective ancillary analysis of the Italian real-world study ABITUDE, four markers were measured during abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) treatment in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC men failing androgen-deprivation therapy. METHODS: Patients were enrolled if a blood sample was obtained before the first administration of abiraterone (baseline); ad-hoc blood samples were withdrawn during routine tests after 3, 6, and 12 months. A centralized lab measured bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteoblast activity marker), type-I collagen-C-telopeptide (CTX-1, bone resorption marker), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (vitD). At each time point, intra-patient variations vs baseline were compared by the signed-rank test (statistical significance: P-value < 0.05). RESULTS: Of 481 patients enrolled in ABITUDE, 186 (median age: 76 [range: 53-93] years) met the substudy criteria: 74.7% had bone metastases, 11.8% were on bone-targeted therapies (BTT) and 14.0% on vitD supplementation. BALP decreased significantly at month 6 (P = 0.0010) and 12 (P < 0.0001) and CTX-1 at month 6 (P = 0.0028); PTH increased at month 3 (P < 0.0001); no significant difference in vitD levels was observed. Similar findings were observed in BTT-untreated patients. The reduction in BALP and CTX-1 levels was more pronounced in patients with than without bone metastases; in the latter group, no significant variation in BALP and CTX-1 levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: AAP seems to exert an effect on the microenvironment of metastatic but not of normal bone, which likely contributes to its antitumoral activity.

9.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(4): 361-370.e3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic approaches in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are eagerly awaited. Trabectedin is an antitumor agent with an effect on cancer cell proliferation and a modulating action on tumor microenvironment. The ATREUS study explored the activity and safety of trabectedin in patients with unresectable MPM. METHODS: Epithelioid patients with MPM received trabectedin as second-line while biphasic/sarcomatoid patients with MPM as first- or second-line therapy. Treatment was given intravenously at an initially planned dose of 1.3 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 12 weeks (PFS12wks). RESULTS: Overall, 78 patients (54%) had epithelioid and 67 (46%) nonepithelioid MPM. PFS12wks in 62 evaluable patients with epithelioid MPM was 43.5% (80% confidence interval 34.9%-52.5%); median progression-free and overall survival were 2.4 and 9.0 months, respectively. PFS12wks in 52 evaluable patients with nonepithelioid MPM was 30.8% (90% confidence interval 20.3%-42.9%); median progression-free and overall survival were 1.7 and 5.4 months. Trabectedin starting dose was amended due to excess of liver toxicity. Eighty-four (64%) and 48 (36%) patients received 1.3 mg/m2 and 1.1. mg/m2, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were hepatotoxicity, leukopenia/neutropenia, and fatigue. Grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity was reported in 59 (70%) patients treated at 1.3 mg/m2, and in 19 (40%) treated at 1.1 mg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Trabectedin showed modest clinical activity, at the expense of relevant liver toxicity. Further development of this drug in MPM at full doses is not warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Trabectedina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trabectedina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(6): 1583-1592, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying the patients who may benefit the most from immune checkpoints inhibitors remains a great challenge for clinicians. Here we investigate on blood serum amyloid A (SAA) as biomarker of response to upfront pembrolizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients with PD-L1 ≥ 50% receiving upfront pembrolizumab (P cohort) and with PD-L1 0-49% treated with chemotherapy (CT cohort) were evaluated for blood SAA and radiological response at baseline and every 9 weeks. Endpoints were response rate (RR) according to RECIST1.1, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The most accurate SAA cut-off to predict response was established with ROC analysis in the P cohort. RESULTS: In the P Cohort (n = 42), the overall RR was 38%. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (mo), baseline SAA ≤ the ROC-derived cut-off (29.9 mg/L; n = 28/42.67%) was significantly associated with higher RR (53.6 versus 7.1%; OR15, 95% CI 1.72-130.7, p = 0.009), longer PFS (17.4 versus 2.1 mo; p < 0.0001) and OS (not reached versus 7.2mo; p < 0.0001) compared with SAA > 29.9 mg/L. In multivariate analysis, low SAA positively affects PFS (p = 0.001) and OS (p = 0.048) irrespective of ECOG PS, number of metastatic sites and pleural effusion. SAA monitoring (n = 40) was also significantly associated with survival endpoints: median PFS 17.4 versus 2.1 mo and median OS not reached versus 7.2 mo when SAA remained low (n = 14) and high (n = 12), respectively. In the CT Cohort (n = 30), RR was not affected by SAA level (p > 0.05) while low SAA at baseline (n = 17) was associated with better PFS (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.90, p = 0.006) and OS (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.67, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Low SAA predicts good survival outcomes irrespective of treatment for advanced NSCLC patients and higher likelihood of response to upfront pembrolizumab only. The strong prognostic value might be exploited to easily identify patients most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. A further study (FoRECATT-2) is ongoing to confirm results in a larger sample size and to investigate the effect of SAA on immune response in vitro assays.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 1-6, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: No standard treatment option is available for patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) progressing after upfront chemotherapy. We aimed to explore the role of focal radiotherapy (FRT) as a treatment modality for oligo-progressive MPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients pretreated with ≥1 lines of chemotherapy were included. Oligo-progressive MPM was defined as an unresectable disease with radiological progression at ≤3 sites according to a chest-abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Patients were treated with either stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, ≥5 Gy per fraction) or hypo-fractionated radiotherapy (hypoRT, <5 Gy per fraction). Time to further systemic therapy (TFST) and local control (LC) after FRT were the primary endpoints. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated using three different alpha/beta models (1.5 Gy, 3 Gy and 10 Gy). RESULTS: From April 2006 to March 2019, 37 patients were treated on 43 pleural lesions; 16/37 (43 %) had undergone upfront multimodality treatment (MMT) including surgery. FRT was given in 22/37 (59.5 %) after one line of chemotherapy. SBRT was delivered for 26/43 lesions (60.5 %), hypoRT for 17/43 (39.5 %). Median TFST was 6 months (95 % CI 4.9-7.1). LC at 6 months and 1 year was 84 % and 76 %, respectively. Median TFST was longer in patients treated after 1 vs >1 line of chemotherapy (9 vs 4 months, p = 0.001) and in patients pretreated with MMT (6 vs 3 months, p = 0.021). Six-month LC was better in patients treated with a BED > 100 using alpha/beta 1.5 and 3. No ≥ G3 acute or late toxicities were reported. CONCLUSION: FRT was feasible in selected patients with oligo-progressive MPM, allowing delay of further systemic therapies, with no severe toxicity. FRT was more effective when performed at progression after one line of systemic therapy. Our results suggest a radio-resistant behavior of MPM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Mesotelioma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 140-146, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of complicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is still unclear if the risk of mortality is influenced by cancer type or ongoing anti-cancer treatments. An interesting debate concerning the potential relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been opened in the case of prostate cancer (PC), and the aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with mCRPC who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recorded their baseline clinical characteristics, their history of PC and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their oncological status and treatment at the time of infection. The primary study end point was the death rate and the possible impact of the patients' PC-related history and treatments on mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 1433 patients with mCRPC attending the participating centres (2.3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 22 (64.7%) of whom were hospitalised. Most of the patients were symptomatic, the most frequent symptoms being fever (70.6%), dyspnoea (61.8%), cough (52.9%) and fatigue (38.2%). After a median follow-up of 21 days (interquartile range: 13-41), 13 patients had died (38.2%), 17 recovered (50.0%) and four (11.7%) were still infected. The number of treatments previously administered for mCRPC had a significant impact on mortality (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute additional data to the current debate concerning the postulated protective role of ADT, which seems to be less in patients with metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , COVID-19 , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(14): 1580-1590, 2020 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the KEYNOTE-010 study, pembrolizumab improved overall survival (OS) versus docetaxel in previously treated, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)‒expressing advanced non‒small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with a tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥ 50% and ≥ 1%. We report KEYNOTE-010 long-term outcomes, including after 35 cycles/2 years or second-course pembrolizumab. METHODS: Of 1,033 patients randomly assigned (intention to treat), 690 received up to 35 cycles/2 years of pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg (n = 344) or 10 mg/kg (n = 346) every 3 weeks, and 343 received docetaxel 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Eligible patients with disease progression after 35 cycles/2 years of pembrolizumab could receive second-course treatment (up to 17 cycles). Pembrolizumab doses were pooled because no between-dose difference was observed at primary analysis. RESULTS: Pembrolizumab continued to improve OS over docetaxel in the PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% and ≥ 1% groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.66; P < .00001; and HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.80; P < .00001, respectively) after a 42.6-month (range, 35.2-53.2 months) median follow-up. Estimated 36-month OS rates were 34.5% versus 12.7% and 22.9% versus 11.0%, respectively. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 16% versus 37% of patients, respectively. Seventy-nine of 690 patients completed 35 cycles/2 years of pembrolizumab; 12-month OS and progression-free survival rates after completing treatment were 98.7% (95% CI, 91.1% to 99.8%) and 72.5% (95% CI, 59.9% to 81.8%), respectively. Seventy-five patients (95%) had objective response (RECIST v1.1, blinded independent central review) and 48 (64%) had ongoing response. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 17.7% of patients. Fourteen patients received second-course pembrolizumab: 5 completed 17 cycles, 6 (43%) had partial response, and 5 (36%) had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab provided long-term OS benefit over docetaxel, with manageable safety, durable responses among patients receiving 2 years of treatment, and disease control with second-course treatment, further supporting pembrolizumab for previously treated, PD-L1‒expressing advanced NSCLC.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Lung Cancer ; 140: 59-64, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of any and of severe-grade immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with second-line nivolumab monotherapy is 31-65 % and 2-5 % respectively. While potentially serious and even fatal, in the absence of an appropriate therapy, such events might be indicators of the activation of the immune system and, potentially, of efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the records of 1959 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab in the Italian expanded access program, and we registered the appearance of any and of severe grade irAEs. We retrospectively searched for correlations between toxicity and efficacy parameters by using Cox's regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 342 (17.8%) patients developed an irAE of any grade. We observed that patients developing irAE of any grade achieved a significantly higher response rate (RR 27.2% vs 15.2%; p < 0.0001), disease control rate (DCR 60.5% vs 40.2%; p < 0.0001), median progression-free survival (mPFS 6.0 months [95% CI 4.9-7.1] vs 3.0 [95% CI: 2.8-3.2], p < 0.0001) and median overall survival (mOS 16.7 months [95% CI: 13.5-19.9] vs 9.4 [95% CI: 8.4-10.4], p < 0.00001) compared to patients who did not. At multivariate analysis the development of an irAE remained an independent indicator of nivolumab efficacy (HR 1.44 [95% CI: 1.22-1.71] p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This report, performed in Caucasian NSCLC patients, showed that the appearance of irAEs correlated with outcome.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Lung Cancer ; 140: 71-79, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Molecular diagnostics and care of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are continuously evolving. Few data document the current strategies to manage advanced NSCLC patients beyond progression in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Be-TeaM is an Italian multi-center observational study conducted on consecutive EGFR-mutated stage IV NSCLC patients, progressed during/after a first-line EGFR-TKI. It consists of a retrospective phase, from first-line EGFR-TKI therapy start until study entry (i.e. beginning of the diagnostic process), and a prospective phase, until treatment choice or for 3 months if no therapy was prescribed. Primary objective was to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches adopted after progression in a real-world setting. RESULTS: Of 308 patients enrolled in 63 centers from July 2017 to June 2018, 289 were included in the analysis. In first line, 53.3 % received gefitinib, 32.5 % afatinib and 14.2 % erlotinib. The testing rate (i.e. rate of all patients undergone any biopsy -liquid and/or tissue- for the T790 M detection) was 90.7 %, with liquid biopsy being the most frequently executed. Of 262 biopsied patients, 64.5 % underwent only 1 liquid biopsy, 10.7 % only 1 tissue biopsy and 18.3 % >1 biopsy, both liquid and solid in 85.4 %. The T790M positivity rate was 45.3 %; of 166 patients undergone only a liquid biopsy and tested for the mutation, 39.8 % were T790M+ and 60.2 % T790M-/undetermined. By the observation end, 87.9 % patients had a post-progression treatment chosen, osimertinib being the most frequent among the T790M+. CONCLUSION: Be-TeaM provides the first snapshot of current practices for the management of NSCLC patients beyond progression in Italy; in clinical practice, assessing the T790M status is not always feasible.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Future Oncol ; 15(33): 3775-3782, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709807

RESUMO

Aim: The association of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and local radiotherapy in EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer patients experiencing disease progression under TKIs could be a valid an option. Patients & methods: We included 131 patients experiencing disease progression during first-line TKI. In group A, patients received TKI beyond progression and site(s) of progression were irradiated; in group B, patients remained on TKI alone beyond progression; and group C stopped TKI at first disease progression. Results: Median overall survival resulted longer in group A versus B and C (p < 0.0001). Group A had a trend toward a longer second progression-free survival (measured from the time of first progression until second progression) versus group B (p = 0.06). Conclusion: TKI beyond progression in association with local ablative treatment is a valid treatment option in oligoprogressive patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Adulto , Afatinib/farmacologia , Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos da radiação , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(11): 1179-1186, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In-vivo characterization of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with C-methionine PET/computed tomography (MET PET). METHODS: Between September 2014 and February 2016, 30 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of MPM were prospectively recruited. The study was approved and registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02519049). Patients were evaluated at baseline with MET PET (experimental) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (FDG PET) (standard). Principal parameters analyzed were SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and metabolic tumor burden (MTB = MTV ×SUVmean). The reference standard for diagnostic performance was based on histology. RESULTS: The presence of malignancy was confirmed in 29/30 patients: 23 (76.6%) with MPM (20 epithelioid, two biphasic, and one sarcomatoid), five (16.6%) with adenocarcinoma of the lung, and one (3.3%) with an undifferentiated carcinoma. In one case, diagnosis was benign pleural inflammation. All tumors showed increased uptake of C-methionine: median SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and MTB were, respectively, 5.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.51-6.79], 3.15 (95% CI: 2.71-3.40), 33.85 (95% CI: 14.08-66.64), and 105.25 (95% CI: 41.77-215.25). Pathology data revealed MTV and MTB to be significantly higher in nonepithelioid histology (P < 0.05). The other parameters showed a homogeneous distribution across the tumor types. Overall, MET PET identified 49 lymph nodes, compared with 34 nodes on FDG PET, demonstrating a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 80-96%), a positive predictive value of 92% (95% CI: 82- 97%), and an accuracy of 85% (P = 0.0042). CONCLUSIONS: MET PET is able to characterize MPM lesions regardless of histology. This technique shows higher sensitivity than FDG PET for the identification of secondary lymph nodes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(12): 1702-1709, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour Treating Fields (TTFields) are a regional, antimitotic treatment for solid tumours, which is based on the delivery of low-intensity alternating electric fields. The aim of the STELLAR study was to test the activity of TTFields delivered to the thorax in combination with systemic chemotherapy for the front-line treatment of patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: STELLAR was a prospective, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 12 European academic and non-academic sites (five in Italy, three in Poland, one in France, one in Belgium, one in Spain, and one in the Netherlands) for treatment-naive patients with histologically confirmed unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma. Patients were aged at least 18 years, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and at least one measurable or evaluable lesion according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors for mesothelioma. Patients received continuous TTFields at a frequency of 150 kHz to the thorax and concomitant chemotherapy with intravenous pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 on day 1) plus intravenous platinum (either cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 or carboplatin area under the curve 5 on day 1) every 21 days for up to six cycles. Patients not progressing after completion of chemotherapy received TTFields as maintenance treatment until progression, patient or physician decision, or unacceptable toxic effects. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival. Survival analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least 1 day of TTFields treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02397928. FINDINGS: Between Feb 9, 2015 and March 21, 2017, 80 patients were enrolled in the study. Median follow-up was 12·5 months (IQR 7·4-16·6). Median overall survival was 18·2 months (95% CI 12·1-25·8). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were anaemia (nine [11%] patients), neutropenia (seven [9%]), and thrombocytopenia (four [5%]). Skin reaction was the only adverse event associated with TTFields and was reported as grade 1-2 in 53 (66%) patients, and as grade 3 in four (5%) patients. No treatment-related deaths were observed. INTERPRETATION: The trial showed encouraging overall survival results, with no increase in systemic toxicity. TTFields (150 kHz) delivered to the thorax concomitant with pemetrexed and platinum was an active and safe combination for front-line treatment of unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma. Further investigation in a randomised trial is warranted. FUNDING: Novocure.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Mesotelioma Maligno , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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