Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 273
Filtrar
1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 162: 108129, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224165
2.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 35, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192503

RESUMO

Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have demonstrated a significant reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated by SGLT-2 inhibitors. This holds true in the presence of background therapy with statins in most patients. Noteworthy, this SGLT-2 inhibitors effect is unique because, at variance with other components of cardiorenal protection, MACE prevention does not appear to be a class effect. Here, we present meta-analysis of the four key CVOTs indicating a major role of renal function in determining the extent of MACE prevention, with the benefit increasing in more severe kidney disease, that is, a high-risk condition where effectiveness of the traditional approach with statins is reduced.

3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 162: 108092, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109519

RESUMO

The Guideline Workshop 2019, held in October 2019 in Munich, Germany, had the purpose of facilitating discussion on strategies for optimization of guideline processes in diabetes amongst a group of representatives of renown national and international societies in the field of diabetes, cardiology, and nephrology. Results of this panel's discussions are presented in this manuscript and comprise a variety of suggestions for improving the quality and usability of guidelines, as well as to accelerate the development and responsiveness of guidelines to newly published, relevant data from clinical trials such as cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes mellitus. These include, but are not limited to, recommendations to optimize presentation of content in guidelines, use of the GRADE-approach to rating the quality of evidence to harmonize guidelines, and utilization of digital health technologies to accelerate, streamline, and optimize communication on relevant data and development of clinical guidelines and necessary updates, while reducing costs. Recognizing that achieving alignment in guideline development among various medical organizations will be a long-term process, representatives from cross-sectional medical organizations relevant to cardio-renal metabolic disease and experts in guideline methodology will work together in the future. Among other activities, it is planned to continue the activity and organize a Guideline Workshop in 2020.

4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 161: 108053, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035117

RESUMO

Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), initiation of insulin therapy is very likely in the disease continuum. This article aims at highlighting the current situation with regard to insulin therapy in people with T2DM in Europe and at presenting the associated unmet need. Challenges for both people with T2DM and healthcare professionals include clinical inertia also derived from fear of hypoglycaemia, weight gain and injections as well as increased need for a comprehensive diabetes management. We compare national and international guidelines and recommendations for the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy with the real-world situation in six European countries, demonstrating that glycaemic targets are only met in a minority of people with T2DM on insulin therapy. Furthermore, this work evaluates currently recorded numbers of people with T2DM treated with insulin in Europe, the proportion not achieving the stated glycaemic targets and thus in need to enhance insulin therapy e.g. by a change in means of insulin delivery including, but not limited to, insulin pens, wearable mealtime insulin delivery patches, patch pumps, and conventional insulin pumps with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

5.
Drugs ; 80(2): 147-165, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960258

RESUMO

Therapeutic inertia is a substantial obstacle to the initiation of insulin therapy in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D). This effect has in part been perpetuated by concerns over the impact of a burdensome regimen and the increased risk of hypoglycemia and body weight gain often associated with insulin use. An effective, yet simple, less burdensome regimen with a lower risk of body weight gain and hypoglycemia compared with an insulin-only regimen, may help to address these concerns more effectively. We review the available clinical and real-world data on IDegLira, a once-daily, injectable, fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec (degludec) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide, in people with T2D. Evidence from the comprehensive DUAL clinical trial program suggests an advantage of IDegLira over traditional insulin therapies in a number of clinical outcomes, including maintenance of glycemic control, achievement of glycemic targets, reducing the risk of hypoglycemia, and body weight loss. These findings were demonstrated in participants with T2D irrespective of prior GLP-1RA and insulin use. Furthermore, the individual components of IDegLira have confirmed safety (degludec) or significant benefit in terms of improvement of cardiovascular risk (liraglutide). As an injectable therapy that is simple to titrate, IDegLira has the potential to optimize the ability to achieve relevant glycemic targets, and offers a suitable treatment option for people with T2D requiring insulin therapy who are at risk of hypoglycemia or weight gain.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940853

RESUMO

Immune cell subsets and microRNAs have been independently proposed as type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers. Here, we aimed to analyze the relationships between peripheral blood circulating immune cell subsets, plasmatic microRNAs, and T1D. Blood samples were obtained from both children with T1D at diagnosis and age-sex matched healthy controls. Then, immunophenotype assessed by flow cytometry was coupled with the quantification of 60 plasmatic microRNAs by quantitative RT-PCR. The associations between immune cell frequency, plasmatic microRNAs, and the parameters of pancreatic loss, glycemic control, and diabetic ketoacidosis were assessed by logistic regression models and correlation analyses. We found that the increase in specific plasmatic microRNAs was associated with T1D disease onset (let-7c-5p, let-7d-5p, let-7f-5p, let-7i-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-423-3p, and miR-423-5p), serum C-peptide concentration (miR-142-5p and miR-29c-3p), glycated hemoglobin (miR-26a-5p and miR-223-3p) and the presence of ketoacidosis (miR-29c-3p) more strongly than the evaluated immune cell subset frequency. Some of these plasmatic microRNAs were shown to positively correlate with numbers of blood circulating B lymphocytes (miR-142-5p) and CD4+CD45RO+ (miR-146a-5p and miR-223-3p) and CD4+CD25+ cells (miR-423-3p and miR-223-3p) in children with T1D but not in healthy controls, suggesting a disease-specific microRNA association with immune dysregulation in T1D. In conclusion, our results suggest that, while blood co-circulating extracellular microRNAs and immune cell subsets may be biologically linked, microRNAs may better provide powerful information about T1D onset and severity.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(2): 149-157, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495989

RESUMO

We are observing a resurgence of major diabetic vascular complications after a period of dramatic decrease during the period 1990 to 2010. The classical division of cardiovascular prevention into primary (with an event) and secondary (without an event) is largely used to describe cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, there is evidence that the cardiovascular risk in diabetes may range from highest in patients who experienced a previous cardiovascular event to mild in patients with the main risk factors at target. Herein, we present details of the 14 cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) published to date, including the total population investigated, and their separation into primary (T2D + multiple risk factors) and secondary prevention (T2D + established cardiovascular disease [CVD]) populations as detailed within the trials. We also summarize evidence for the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) versus placebo on the risk of major cardiovascular events (MACE), heart failure (HF) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). In primary prevention, SGLT-2i reduce both the risk of hospitalization for HF and progression of DKD; in secondary prevention, SGLT-2i are effective on the three endpoints, DPP-4i are neutral, while GLP1-RA show mixed results.

12.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(3): 573-584, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873857

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of rapid-acting insulin analogues (RAIAs) and regular human insulin (RHI) on glycemic control, including long- and short-term glycemic variability as measured by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and pre- and postprandial glucose (PPG). METHODS: PubMed was searched for studies published between 1999 and 29 June 2016. Randomised controlled trials of patients with diabetes that assessed the effects of RAIAs or RHI on glycemic control, focusing on preprandial glucose, PPG and HbA1c, were included. Only studies that reported both means and standard deviations for those outcomes were analysed; from these data, weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were generated to yield overall point estimates. The primary outcomes of the meta-analysis were the mean differences between RAIAs and RHI at the end of the study in PPG, preprandial glucose, and HbA1c. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies (n = 7452) were included. The difference in PPG between RAIA- and RHI-treated patients was significant-in favour of RAIAs-in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) [- 22.2 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 27.4, - 17.0 mg/dL; P < 0.0001] but not in those with type 2 diabetes (T2D). For preprandial glucose, there was a non-significant trend favouring RHIs in T1D; no data were available for patients with T2D. In patients with T1D, the between-group difference in end-of-treatment (EOT) HbA1c favoured RAIAs (- 0.13%; 95% CI - 0.18, - 0.08%; P < 0.0001), but was not significant in patients with T2D. The main study limitations were the small number and heterogeneity of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that RAIAs are more effective at reducing PPG and improving HbA1c than RHIs in T1D. More data are required to assess the effect of these agents on glucose control in T2D. In patients with diabetes, the risk of complications is increased by poor control of blood glucose levels and high blood glucose variability. Complications may include cardiovascular disease, eye problems and amputation. Control and variability of blood glucose levels can be evaluated using a range of measures, including (i) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level at the end of the treatment period; (ii) change in HbA1c level during the treatment period; (iii) fasting plasma glucose level; (iv) postprandial glucose (PPG) level; (v) change in blood glucose level after a meal. PPG levels following a meal are an important measure of overall metabolic control in diabetes, and reduction of glycemic variability (GV) can be achieved via reductions in PPG. Both rapid-acting insulin analogues (RAIAs; aspart, glulisine and lispro) and regular human insulin (RHI) are widely used in the management of diabetes. Using data from 27 randomised controlled trials involving more than 7000 patients, we investigated the impact of RAIAs and RHI on measures of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our results show that, in patients with T1D, RAIAs are more effective than RHI at reducing PPG excursions and HbA1c. This indicates that glycemic control is better with RAIAs than with RHI. More data are required to assess the effects of RAIAs and RHI on glycemic control and variability in patients with T2D.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824526

RESUMO

The EDEN ISS project has the objective to test key technologies and processes for higher plant cultivation with a focus on their application to long duration spaceflight. A mobile plant production facility was designed and constructed by an international consortium and deployed to the German Antarctic Neumayer Station III. Future astronaut crews, even if well-trained and provided with detailed procedures, cannot be expected to have the competencies needed to deal with all situations that will arise during a mission. Future space crews, as they are today, will be supported by expert backrooms on the ground. For future space-based greenhouses, monitoring the crops and the plant growth system increases system reliability and decreases the crew time required to maintain them. The EDEN ISS greenhouse incorporates a Plant Health Monitoring System to provide remote support for plant status assessment and early detection of plant stress or disease. The EDEN ISS greenhouse has the capability to automatically capture and distribute images from its suite of 32 high-definition color cameras. Collected images are transferred over a satellite link to the EDEN ISS Mission Control Center in Bremen and to project participants worldwide. Upon reception, automatic processing software analyzes the images for anomalies, evaluates crop performance, and predicts the days remaining until harvest of each crop tray. If anomalies or sub-optimal performance is detected, the image analysis system generates automatic warnings to the agronomist team who then discuss, communicate, or implement countermeasure options. A select number of Dual Wavelength Spectral Imagers have also been integrated into the facility for plant health monitoring to detect potential plant stress before it can be seen on the images taken by the high-definition color cameras. These imagers and processing approaches are derived from traditional space-based imaging techniques but permit new discoveries to be made in a facility like the EDEN ISS greenhouse in which, essentially, every photon of input and output can be controlled and studied. This paper presents a description of the EDEN ISS Plant Health Monitoring System, basic image analyses, and a summary of the results from the initial year of Antarctic operations.

14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 147, 2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients with on-treatment high platelet reactivity (HPR) show an increased risk of thrombotic events. Whether measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and/or glycaemic variability (GV) may help identifying diabetic patients at higher risk deserving tailored antiplatelet and/or glucose lowering strategies is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationship between GV, HbA1c levels and platelet reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Platelet reactivity was measured in type 2 DM patients using VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. HPR was defined as P2Y12 Reaction Unit (PRU) > 240. GV was expressed through mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) and coefficient of variance (CV) by using the iPro™ continuous glucose recorder. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (age 70 ± 9 years, 86% male, mean HbA1c 7.2 ± 1.0%) on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled. HbA1c was independently associated with HPR (OR 7.25, 95% CI 1.55-33.86, p = 0.012). Furthermore, when factored into the model, GV indexes provided independent (OR 1.094, 95% CI 1.007-1.188, p < 0.034) and additional (p < 0.001) diagnostic significance in identifying diabetic patients with HPR. CONCLUSIONS: Glyco-metabolic state significantly correlates with HPR in well-controlled type 2 DM patients on clopidogrel therapy. HbA1c identifies patients at higher thrombotic risk but the highest diagnostic accuracy is achieved by combining GV and HbA1c. Whether individualized antithrombotic and glucose-lowering therapies based on the assessment of these parameters may reduce the incidence of thrombotic events in patients undergoing PCI should be further investigated.

15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 25-32, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722562

RESUMO

The global prevalence of diabetes is predicted to increase dramatically in the coming decades as the population grows and ages, in parallel with the rising burden of overweight and obesity, in both developed and developing countries. Cardiovascular disease represents the principal cause of death and morbidity among people with diabetes, especially in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adults with diabetes have 2-4 times increased cardiovascular risk compared with adults without diabetes, and the risk rises with worsening glycaemic control. Diabetes has been associated with 75% increase in mortality rate in adults, and cardiovascular disease accounts for a large part of the excess mortality. Diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications, including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal disease, diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy are responsible for the impaired quality of life, disability and premature death associated with diabetes. Given the substantial clinical impact of diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor, there has been a growing focus on diabetes-related complications. While some population-based studies suggest that the epidemiology of such complications is changing and that rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with diabetes are decreasing in high-income countries, the economic and social burden of diabetes is expected to rise due to changing demographics and lifestyle especially in middle- and low-income countries. In this review we outline data from population-based studies on recent and long-term trends in diabetes-related complications.

16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 15-24, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722564

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is one of the main complications of diabetes involving multiple causative factors. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is a hallmark of most conditions that are associated with both diabetes and atherosclerosis. Although the pathological link between diabetes and atherosclerosis is well-established, better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms is of utmost importance to identify novel potential molecular targets. It is difficult to separate the effects of hyperglycaemia from those of other atherogenic factors: recent evidence shows that they share many common mechanisms, such as endothelial activation and inflammation, mitochondrial oxidative stress, changes in extracellular matrix components and disruption of cellular defence systems. The plausible hypothesis of the 'common soil' between diabetes and atherosclerosis seems to be born from a unique 'ancestor': the nuclear factor κB, a transcription factor able to guide multiple molecular processes. It seems that this master regulator triggers either some hyperglycaemia-induced effects on the endothelial function, or the expression of certain microRNAs (in particular miR-126, -21 and miR-146a-5p) involved in favouring atherosclerosis. Here, we review the latest evidence and proposed mechanisms, aiming to understand the link between diabetes and atherosclerosis.

17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 64-72, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766916

RESUMO

The challenges of diabetes treatment are to prevent or delay microangiopathic complications and macrovascular disease. Early, effective and sustained glycaemic control is advocated by all diabetes guidelines to mitigate the risks of prolonged hyperglycaemia. The post-hoc analyses of the large randomised glucose intervention trials and the long-term results of these trials have shown clearly that intensive glycaemic control may have more favourable cardiovascular effects when initiated earlier in the course of diabetes, particularly among in patients without cardiovascular disease. Based on the intervention trials a haemoglobin A1c level of less than 7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) is a generally accepted target to reduce microvascular disease and should be initiated early in the course of the diabetes. However, haemoglobin A1c targets should be individualised. Achieving a good glycaemic control without detrimental effect and preferably with benefit to the cardiovascular system and to renal function is an important challenge. When targeting a tight glycaemic control, avoidance of hypoglycaemia is crucial particularly in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with heart failure. The cardiovascular outcomes trials performed to test the cardiovascular safety of the new glucose-lowering therapies offer compelling evidence in favour of the role of these drugs for cardiovascular prevention. Thus, both the glycaemic target and the choice of therapies should now be defined on an individual basis.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 73-80, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766918

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, and many patients with diabetes have prevalent cardiovascular complications. Recent cardiovascular outcome clinical trials suggest that certain new glucose-lowering drugs are accompanied by additional cardioprotective properties. Indeed, selected glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have a proved cardiovascular benefit in terms of a reduced incidence of ischaemic events, while sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors have also shown significant protection, with a striking effect on heart failure and renal endpoints. These findings have been integrated in recent guidelines which now recommend prescribing (when initial metformin monotherapy fails) a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist or a sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor with clinical trial-confirmed benefit in patients with diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and a sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor in such patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease at initial stages. Furthermore, the new 2019 European Society of Cardiology guidelines in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist or a sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. Future research will disentangle the mechanisms underpinning these beneficial effects and will also establish to what extent these results are generalisable to the whole diabetes population. In the meantime, available evidence should prompt a wide diffusion of these two classes of drugs among patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we briefly summarise recent findings emerging from cardiovascular outcome clinical trials, discuss their impact on treatment algorithms and propose new possible approaches to improve our knowledge further regarding the cardiovascular effect of glucose-lowering medications.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA