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Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 549-564, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320545


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied in biology in the past years. This class of molecules can be derived from endogenous sources (e.g., phagocytic cells as neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, and organelles as mitochondria and peroxisomes) and participate in physiological and pathological conditions. The beneficial and harmful effects of ROS depend on redox regulation, which establishes the balance between their production and the activity of antioxidant systems to prevent oxidative stress in vivo. Neutrophils are the immune effectors most well depicted with an intense oxidative burst in response to tissue inflammation. Several proteins and members of the galectin family are involved in this fine modulation of ROS production by neutrophils. Interestingly, studies have indicated that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) can up- or downregulate ROS production by neutrophils even when exposed to N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) or Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA), both of which are potent neutrophil stimulants that trigger high levels of ROS production. Similarly, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) induces ROS in neutrophils from a sterile or nonsterile inflammatory environment, possibly creating a negative loop that could control ROS production. Besides, superoxide production is also induced by Galectin-8 (Gal-8) and Galectin-9 (Gal-9) in neutrophils but in a different manner. We describe herein the luminol and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence technique by using a luminometer as a method of assessment to measure ROS production by human neutrophils isolated and exposed to purified human recombinant Gal-1. The protocol described herein could be applied for the investigation of the role of other galectins in the modulation of ROS production by neutrophils.

Galectinas , Neutrófilos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Galectinas/genética , Galectinas/metabolismo , Galectinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 289-306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320532


Galectins are multifunctional glycan-binding proteins present in various tissues that participate in multiple physiological and pathological processes and are considered as not only biomarkers of human diseases but also molecular targets for treating cancer and inflammatory illnesses in many organs. In the glycobiology field, it is crucial to determine the pattern of galectin expression and location in cells and tissues. Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technology that represents a unique approach to investigate the expression and location of biomolecules in various tissues and cells. The confocal microscope acquires images of the specimen through the reflected or fluorescent light from the objective's focal plane, using laser light focused on a small spot inside the tissue or cell. This technique provides high-resolution and high-contrast images without artifacts generated by conventional microscopy and enables reconstruction of virtual tridimensional images by acquiring multiple sections from several focal planes, which makes it possible to obtain the precise spatial location of any cellular structure or molecule. Furthermore, confocal microscopy is a non-invasive tissue imaging strategy used in clinical practices. We describe herein the immunofluorescence confocal method for examining galectins in frozen tissue sections and mammalian cell culture.

Galectinas , Testes Imunológicos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Mamíferos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos
Glycobiology ; 31(10): 1295-1307, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224566


Skeletal muscle has the intrinsic ability to self-repair through a multifactorial process, but many aspects of its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that some members of the mammalian ß-galactoside-binding protein family (galectins) are involved in the muscular repair process (MRP), including galectin-3 (Gal-3). However, there are many questions about the role of this protein on muscle self-repair. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Gal-3 is required for: (i) muscle repair in vivo by using a chloride-barium myolesion mouse model and (ii) mouse primary myoblasts myogenic programming. Injured muscle from Gal-3 knockout mice (GAL3KO) showed persistent inflammation associated with compromised muscle repair and the formation of fibrotic tissue on the lesion site. In GAL3KO mice, osteopontin expression remained high even after 7 and 14 d of the myolesion, while Myoblast differentiation transcription factor (MyoD) and myogenin had decreased their expression. In GAL3KO mouse primary myoblast cell culture, Paired Box 7 (Pax7) detection seems to sustain even when cells are stimulated to differentiation and MyoD expression is drastically reduced. The detection and temporal expression levels of these transcriptional factors appear to be altered in Gal-3-deficient myoblast. Gal-3 expression in wild-type mice for GAL3KO states, both in vivo and in vitro, in sarcoplasm/cytoplasm and myonuclei; as differentiation proceeds, Gal-3 expression is drastically reduced, and its location is confined to the sarcolemma/plasma cell membrane. We also observed a change in the temporal-spatial profile of Gal-3 expression and muscle transcription factors levels during the myolesion. Overall, these results demonstrate that endogenous Gal-3 is required for the skeletal muscle repair process.

Galectina 3/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Compostos de Bário/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bário/farmacologia , Cloretos/administração & dosagem , Cloretos/farmacologia , Galectina 3/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
Mol Immunol ; 116: 80-89, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630079


Here we report the effects of exogenous and endogenous galectin-1 (Gal-1) in modulating the functional responses of human and murine neutrophils at different stages of activation, i.e. naive, primed, and activated. Exposure to Gal-1 did not induce ROS production in either naive or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-primed (fMLP; 10-9 M) neutrophils. However, Gal-1 elicited a concentration-dependent ROS production in neutrophils activated with fMLP at concentrations ranging from 10-8 M to 10-6 M. Additional fMLP (10-7 M) stimulation of fMLP-activated neutrophils increased ROS production, whose intensity was inversely related to the fMLP concentration used in the first activation step (10-8 M to 10-6 M), and was not influenced by the presence of Gal-1. Naive neutrophils treated with Gal-1 and then exposed to fMLP (10-6 M) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (10-7 M) produced less ROS, as compared to naive neutrophils not treated with Gal-1. Interestingly, these in vitro Gal-1 effects were associated with Gal-1 carbohydrate-binding activity and the ability to decrease FPR-1 (formyl peptide receptor 1) expression in naive human neutrophils. Conversely, positive ROS modulation by Gal-1 in activated neutrophils was not associated with FPR-1 expression but it was related to its carbohydrate recognition. In vitro, fMLP stimulation of Gal-1-/- mouse neutrophils produced more ROS than fMLP stimulation of Gal-1+/+ neutrophils and this effect may be associated with increased FPR-1 expression. Exogenous Gal-1 induced ROS production in Gal-1-/- mouse neutrophils more effectively than in Gal-1+/+ mouse neutrophils. Compared to Gal-1+/+ mice, Gal-1-/- mice exhibited lower bacterial load in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood, thus indicating a greater bactericidal activity in vivo. These findings demonstrate that endogenous Gal-1 restricts ROS generation that correlates with bacterial killing capacity in inflammatory neutrophils. Thus, endogenous and exogenous Gal-1 may either positively or negatively modulate the effector functions of neutrophils according to the cell activation stage.

Galectina 1/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
Methods Mol Biol ; 1207: 343-54, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25253152


Confocal microscopy provides a unique modality to examine the expression and localization of biomolecules in a variety of settings. Using this technique, an image is acquired from the focal plane of the objective using focused laser light, making it possible to work within the resolution limit of the optical system. In addition, by acquiring multiple images from a variety of focal planes, stacked series of images can provide clear spatial localization of a probed structure or protein. We describe herein the immunofluorescence methods for galectin staining in frozen sections of tissue for galectin localization using confocal microscopy.

Galectinas/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Imunofluorescência , Galectinas/análise , Vidro/química , Transporte Proteico
J Neuroimmunol ; 212(1-2): 93-101, 2009 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19508953


Myofiber degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis are remarkable features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We hypothesized that the administration of imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase and TGF-beta pro-fibrogenic activity, could improve the muscular conditions in mdx mice. Four-week old mdx mice were treated and exercised for 6 weeks. Gastrocnemius and diaphragm histopathology, strength, creatine kinase, and cytokine levels were evaluated. The treated group presented increased muscular strength and decreased CK levels, injured myofibers, and inflammatory infiltrates. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-beta were also reduced, while IL-10 was increased, suggesting an immunomodulatory effect of imatinib, which can ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice.

Distrofia Muscular Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Benzamidas , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Mesilato de Imatinib , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculos/patologia , Distrofia Muscular Animal/imunologia , Distrofia Muscular Animal/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos