Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515146

RESUMO

Aquatic pollution resulting from anthropogenic activities requires adequate environmental monitoring strategies in sentinel organisms. Thus, biochemical biomarkers have been used as early-warning tools of biological effects in aquatic organisms. However, before using these markers for environmental monitoring, knowledge about their developmental variation is vital. In this study, we assessed baseline levels and developmental variations of a group of potential biomarkers, oxylipins, during the lifespan of the Northern damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Effects of wastewater exposure on baseline levels were studied in a subset of damselflies to investigate the responsiveness due to anthropogenic pollution. Thirty-eight oxylipins deriving from four polyunsaturated fatty acids via two enzymatic pathways were detected in damselflies at three larval stages and in the adult form. Overall, oxylipin baseline levels showed developmental variation, which was lowest in the intermediate larval stages. Effects of exposure to wastewater effluent on oxylipin baseline levels were dependent on the life stage and were greatest in the early and intermediate larval stages. The study provides first insights into oxylipin profiles of damselflies at different stages of development and their developmental variation. Based on our results, we propose further strategies for incorporating oxylipins in damselfly larvae as biochemical markers for anthropogenic pollution.

2.
Environ Pollut ; : 115888, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158621

RESUMO

With increasing population growth and climate change, de facto reuse practices are predicted to increase globally. We investigated a longitudinal gradient within the Uhlava River, a representative watershed, where de facto reuse is actively occurring, during Fall and Spring seasons when instream flows vary. We observed human pharmaceutical levels in the river to continuously increase from the mountainous areas upstream to downstream locations and a potable intake location, with the highest concentrations found in small tributaries. Significant relationship was identified between mass flow of pharmaceuticals and the size of human populations contributing to wastewater treatment plant discharges. Advanced ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration effectively removed pharmaceuticals from potable source waters. We observed a higher probability of encountering a number of targeted pharmaceuticals during colder Spring months when stream flows were elevated compared to warmer conditions with lower flows in the Fall despite a dilution paradigm routinely applied for surface water quality assessment and management efforts. Such observations translated to greater water quality hazards during these higher Spring flows. Future water monitoring efforts should account for periods when higher chemical uses occur, particularly in the face of climate change for regions experiencing population growth and de facto reuse.

3.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1760-1769, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934760

RESUMO

Environmental concentrations of the anxiolytic drug oxazepam have been found to disrupt antipredator behaviors of wild fish. Most experiments exposed fish for a week, while evidence from mammals suggests that chronic exposure to therapeutic concentrations of benzodiazepines (such as oxazepam) results in the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects. If tolerance can also develop in response to the low concentrations found in the aquatic environment, it could mitigate the negative effects of oxazepam pollution. In the current study, we exposed wild-caught zebrafish to oxazepam (∼7 µg L-1) for 7 or 28 days and evaluated behavioral and physiological parameters at both time points. Females showed reduced diving responses to conspecific alarm pheromone after 7 days, but not after 28 days, indicating that they had developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of the drug. Zebrafish males were not affected by this oxazepam concentration, in line with earlier results. Serotonin turnover (ratio 5-HIAA/5-HT) was reduced in exposed females and males after 28 days, indicating that brain neurochemistry had not normalized. Post-confinement cortisol concentrations and gene expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were not affected by oxazepam. We did not find evidence that chronically exposed fish had altered relative expression of GABAA receptor subunits, suggesting that some other still unknown mechanism caused the developed tolerance.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Oxazepam , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134701, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734507

RESUMO

Pollution by psychoactive pharmaceuticals has been found to disrupt anti-predator behaviors of wild fish. The challenge is now to identify which of the many psychoactive drugs pose the greatest threat. One strategy is to screen for behavioral effects of selected pharmaceuticals using a single, widely available fish species such as zebrafish. Here, we show that although such high-throughput behavioral screening might facilitate comparisons between pharmaceuticals, the choice of strain is essential. While wild-caught zebrafish exposed to concentrations of the anxiolytic drug oxazepam as low as 0.57 µg L-1 showed a reduction in the response to conspecific alarm pheromone, laboratory strain AB did not respond to the alarm cue, and consequently, the anxiolytic effect of oxazepam could not be measured. Adaptation to the laboratory environment may have rendered laboratory strains unfit for use in some ecotoxicological and pharmacological studies, since the results might not translate to wild fish populations.


Assuntos
Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ansiolíticos , Benzodiazepinas , Oxazepam , Poluentes Químicos da Água
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(14): 8282-8290, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067036

RESUMO

Field-based ecotoxicology studies are invaluable for uncovering the effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) on aquatic organisms. However, large-scale exposures are still very rare due to prohibitive costs, the availability of replicated habitats, and the potential for exposure to cause lasting damage to the environment. Here, we evaluated the viability of internal slow-release implants as an alternative method for manipulating CEC exposures in aquatic wildlife using two fat-based carriers (coconut oil and vegetable shortening). We treated roach (Rutilus rutilus) with implants containing a high (50 µg/g), low (25 µg/g), or control (0 µg/g) concentration of the behavior-modifying pharmaceutical oxazepam. We then measured oxazepam uptake in four tissues (plasma, muscle, liver, and the brain) over 1 month. The two carriers released oxazepam differently: coconut oil was the superior implant type because it delivered a more consistent dose across time, while vegetable shortening released oxazepam rapidly at the start of the exposure period. For both carriers and treatments, the brain and liver contained the most oxazepam. Overall, the method is a promising technique for controlled manipulations of pharmaceuticals in fish, and we have provided some of the first data on the suitability and contaminant release kinetics from different implant types.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Ecotoxicologia , Oxazepam
7.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
8.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

9.
Water Res ; 134: 226-233, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427964

RESUMO

The fate of fourteen target perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are described within a small stream affected by a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Concentrations of target PFASs in samples of water, benthic macroinvertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta) are presented. Two hundred brown trout individuals originating from clean sites within the same stream were tagged and stocked into an experimental site affected by the STP's effluent. As a passive sampling approach, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the water to reveal the water-macroinvertebrates-fish biotransformation processes of PFASs. Bioconcentration/bioaccumulation of target compounds was monitored one, three, and six months after stocking. Twelve of the fourteen target PFASs were found in concentration above the LOQ in at least one of the studied matrices. The compound pattern varied significantly between both the studied species and water samples. Concerning the accumulation of PFASs in fish, the highest concentrations were found in the liver of individuals sampled after three months of exposure. These concentrations rapidly decreased after six months although the water concentrations were slightly increasing during experiment.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Invertebrados , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Fígado/química , Masculino , Rios , Esgotos
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 342: 401-407, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854392

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are frequently studied contaminants, their fate in the environment is still not completely clear. During a one year study, a complex approach including water, sediment and fish sampling was used to describe the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites (PTMs) in the environment. Eighteen pharmaceuticals and seven of their metabolites were determined in a pond used for the tertiary treatment of wastewater effluent. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to determine the PTMs concentrations in all matrices. Seasonal variations in concentrations were evaluated. The partitioning of contaminants between pond compartments was estimated by means of solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for the livers of fish. Kd values were almost stable throughout the year, which may be a sign of the continuous transport of PTMs between water and sediment under the experimental conditions. Almost all of the studied compounds, with exception of sertraline (BAF of 6200), were found to not be bioaccumulative in fish livers. The pond removal efficiency was calculated for all PTMs, and favourable conditions for natural pharmaceutical removal were proposed. Further aspects regarding fish pharmaceutical exposure need to be studied.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Cromatografia Líquida , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estações do Ano
11.
Water Res ; 124: 654-662, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825984

RESUMO

The treated effluent from sewage treatment plants (STP) is a major source of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that enter the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation of 11 selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals (citalopram, clomipramine, haloperidol, hydroxyzine, levomepromazine, mianserin, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline, tramadol and venlafaxine) was examined in Zivny Stream (tributary of the Blanice River, the Czech Republic), which is a small stream highly affected by effluent from the Prachatice STP. Six of the 11 pharmaceuticals were detected in grab water samples and in passive samplers. All pharmaceuticals were found in fish exposed to the stream for a defined time. The organs with highest presence of the selected pharmaceuticals were the liver and kidney; whereas only one pharmaceutical (sertraline) was detected in the brain of exposed fish. Fish plasma and muscle samples were not adequate in revealing exposure because the number of hits was much lower than that in the liver or kidney. Using the criterion of a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) ≥ 500, citalopram, mianserin, mirtazapine and sertraline could be classified as potential bioaccumulative compounds. In combination, data from integrative passive samplers and fish liver or kidney tissue samples were complimentary in detection of target compounds and simultaneously helped to distinguish between bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Peixes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , República Tcheca , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Rios , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
12.
Water Res ; 103: 334-342, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27486042

RESUMO

Toxic metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) and fifteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in different fish samples at two locations on the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. The muscle tissue of the two adult fish species most commonly used as bioindicators in central Europe and whole body homogenates of various species of young-of-the-year (YOY) fish were used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential to replace adult fish muscle tissue with YOY fish for contamination monitoring. All of the toxic metals and five of the fifteen PFASs were found in the YOY fish samples while only mercury and PFOS were detected in the muscle tissue of adults. The concentration of total mercury (THg) in the YOY fish homogenates ranged between 0.014 and 0.062 µg g(-1). Of the spectrum of analysed pollutants, only the THg concentrations were lower in YOY fish homogenates than in adult muscle tissue. The cadmium concentration varied from 0.004 to 0.024 µg g(-1) and the lead concentration varied from 0.032 to 0.396 µg g(-1) in YOY fish homogenates, while in most of the adult samples, Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the analytical methods employed. The PFOS concentrations in YOY fish homogenates were comparable to the concentrations frequently found in adult liver tissue. These results show that mixed shoals of YOY fish can be successfully used for aquatic bio-monitoring. Interspecific variability in the concentrations of the target pollutants in YOY fish whole body homogenates is usually lower than the intraspecific variability of the concentrations of the pollutants in adult fish muscle. YOY fish were found to be a suitable bioindicator and have several advantages compared to adult fish.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Peixes , Mercúrio , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Chemosphere ; 163: 290-295, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543678

RESUMO

Muscle tissue and pectoral fins of two important indicator fish species, frequently used in biomonitoring programs, were sampled and analysed for total mercury content (THg) at six localities within the Czech Republic. The relationship between mercury concentration in muscle and in fin-clips was described. Mean values of THg fin-clip concentration correlate significantly (p < 0.01) with those measured in muscle of indicator fish. Concerning comparison among localities, a coefficient of determination (r(2)) of 0.85 and 0.91 was found between studied approaches in the case of chub (Squalius cephalus) and bream (Abramis brama), respectively. THg muscle concentrations (mean, n = 10) varied from 0.181 to 0.491 µg g(-1) wet, depending on indicator species and locality. A concentration-dependent relationship between muscle and fin-clip THg content was found in both species. Based on this finding, a novel method for the prediction of muscle THg concentration from fin-clips analysis was developed. The difference between measured and predicted muscle concentration was below 10% in both indicator species at most sampling sites. Use of fish fin-clips was found as an appropriate nonlethal approach for the evaluation of mercury contamination in aquatic environments as well as for human health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Mercúrio/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Nadadeiras de Animais/química , Animais , Cyprinidae , República Tcheca , Humanos , Músculos/química , Análise de Regressão
14.
Environ Res ; 144(Pt A): 92-98, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599587

RESUMO

The concentrations of seven perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 36 European chub (Squalius cephalus) individuals from six localities in the Czech Republic. Chub muscle and liver tissue were analysed at all sampling sites. In addition, analyses of 16 target PFASs were performed in Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCISs) deployed in the water at the same sampling sites. We evaluated the possibility of using passive samplers as a standardized method for monitoring PFAS contamination in aquatic environments and the mutual relationships between determined concentrations. Only perfluorooctane sulphonate was above the LOQ in fish muscle samples and 52% of the analysed fish individuals exceeded the Environmental Quality Standard for water biota. Fish muscle concentration is also particularly important for risk assessment of fish consumers. The comparison of fish tissue results with published data showed the similarity of the Czech results with those found in Germany and France. However, fish liver analysis and the passive sampling approach resulted in different fish exposure scenarios. The total concentration of PFASs in fish liver tissue was strongly correlated with POCIS data, but pollutant patterns differed between these two matrices. The differences could be attributed to the metabolic activity of the living organism. In addition to providing a different view regarding the real PFAS cocktail to which the fish are exposed, POCISs fulfil the Three Rs strategy (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in animal testing.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fígado/química , Músculos/química
15.
Water Res ; 72: 145-53, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25283339

RESUMO

Aquatic organisms can be affected not only via polluted water but also via their food. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of seventy pharmaceuticals in two benthic organisms, Hydropsyche sp. and Erpobdella octoculata in a small stream affected by the effluent from a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Prachatice (South Bohemia region, Czech Republic). Furthermore, water samples from similar locations were analyzed for all seventy pharmaceuticals. In water samples from a control locality situated upstream of the STP, ten of the seventy pharmaceuticals were found with average total concentrations of 200 ng L(-1). In water samples collected at STP-affected sites (downstream the STP's effluent), twenty-nine, twenty-seven and twenty-nine pharmaceuticals were determined at average total concentrations of 2000, 2100 and 1700 ng L(-1), respectively. Six of the seventy pharmaceuticals (azithromycin, citalopram, clarithromycin, clotrimazole, sertraline, and verapamil) were found in Hydropsyche. Four pharmaceuticals (clotrimazole, diclofenac, sertraline, and valsartan) were detected in Erpobdella. Using evaluation criterion bioconcentration factor (BCF) is higher than 2000 we can assign azithromycin and sertraline as bioaccumulative pharmaceuticals. Even pharmaceuticals present at low levels in water were found in benthic organisms at relatively high concentrations (up to 85 ng g(-1) w.w. for azithromycin). Consequently, the uptake of pharmaceuticals via the food web could be an important exposure pathway for the wild fish population.


Assuntos
Cidades , Ecossistema , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Rios/química , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , República Tcheca , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 109: 101-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25173745

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the contamination levels of certain important fishing grounds in the Czech Republic and to assess the health risk of consuming the fish from these localities. The assessment was performed from 2006 to 2010 in 27 fishing grounds. Within this project, 707 fish from 14 different species were sampled. The concentration of selected toxic metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (o,p´-DDE; p,p´-DDE; o,p´-DDD; p,p´-DDD; o,p´-DDT; p,p´-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were analysed in the muscle tissue of the sampled fish. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the analysis of toxic metals. All of the POPs were analysed using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Common bream (Abramis brama) was chosen as a reference fish species for the comparison of fishing grounds. Mercury was found as a major pollutant in fish flesh at all of the sampling sites. Concentrations in excess of the maximum level (ML) of mercury in the muscle tissue of fish (0.5 mg kg(-1)) were registered in 32 samples. Concentrations of other monitored toxic metals in fish muscle were low, typically below the limit of quantification (LOQ). From the tested POPs, DDTs and NDL-PCBs were found as major pollutants. ML for NDL-PCBs (ICES-6) in muscle tissue of fish (0.125 mg kg(-1)) was exceeded in 7 samples. In case of tested pesticides, concentrations in excess of the MRL were not registered.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Músculos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , República Tcheca , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/química , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...