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1.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

3.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(8): 1588-1592.e1, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of pre-morbid functional status [Barthel Index (BI)] and frailty [modified Frailty Index (mFI)] with in-hospital mortality and a risk scoring system developed for COVID-19 in patients ≥75 years diagnosed with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective bicentric observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on consecutive patients aged ≥75 years admitted with COVID-19 at 2 Italian tertiary care centers were collected from February 22 to May 30, 2020. METHODS: Overall, 221 consecutive patients with COVID-19 aged ≥75 years were admitted to 2 hospitals in the study period and were included in the analysis. Clinical, functional (BI), frailty (mFI), laboratory, and imaging data were collected. Mortality risk on admission was assessed with the COVID-19 Mortality Risk Score (COVID-19 MRS), a dedicated score developed for hospital triage. RESULTS: Ninety-seven (43.9%) patients died. BI, frailty, age, dementia, respiratory rate, Pao2/Fio2 ratio, creatinine, and platelet count were associated with mortality. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) indicated that the predictivity of age was modest and the combination of BI, mFI, and COVID-19 MRS yielded the highest prediction accuracy (AUCCOVID-19MRS+BI+mFI vs AUCAge: 0.87 vs 0.59; difference: +0.28, lower bound-upper bound: 0.17-0.34, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Premorbid BI and mFI are associated with mortality and improved the accuracy of the COVID-19 MRS. Functional status may prove useful to guide clinical management of older individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fragilidade , Idoso , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 328, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clinical value of Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7), a cellular senescence marker, in an elderly general population with multiple co-morbidities and high prevalence of asymptomatic cardiovascular ventricular dysfunction. Inflammation and fibrosis are hallmarks of cardiac aging and remodelling. Therefore, we assessed the clinical performance of IGFBP7 and two other biomarkers reflecting these pathogenic pathways, the growth differentiation factor-15 (GFD-15) and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), for their association with cardiac phenotypes and outcomes in the PREDICTOR study. METHODS: 2001 community-dwelling subjects aged 65-84 years who had undergone centrally-read echocardiography, were selected through administrative registries. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and 4 echocardiographic patterns were assessed: E/e' (> 8), enlarged left atrial area, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and reduced midwall circumference shortening (MFS). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization were recorded over a median follow-up of 10.6 years. RESULTS: IGFBP7 and GDF-15, but not P1NP, were independently associated with prevalent AF and echocardiographic variables after adjusting for age and sex. After adjustment for clinical risk factors and cardiac patterns or NT-proBNP and hsTnT, both IGFBP7 and GDF-15 independently predicted all-cause mortality, hazard ratios 2.13[1.08-4.22] and 2.03[1.62-2.56] per unit increase of Ln-transformed markers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a community-based elderly cohort, IGFBP7 and GDF-15 appear associated to cardiac alterations as well as to 10-year risk of all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Prevalência , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
5.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 415, 2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although sex differences in cardiovascular diseases are recognised, including differences in incidence, clinical presentation, response to treatments, and outcomes, most of the practice guidelines are not sex-specific. Heart failure (HF) is a major public health challenge, with high health care expenditures, high prevalence, and poor clinical outcomes. The objective was to analyse the sex-specific association of socio-demographics, life-style factors and health characteristics with the prevalence of HF and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction (DLVD) in a cross-sectional population-based study. METHODS: A random sample of 2001 65-84 year-olds underwent physical examination, laboratory measurements, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), electrocardiography, and echocardiography. We selected the subjects with no missing values in covariates and echocardiographic parameters and performed a complete case analysis. Sex-specific multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with the prevalence of the diseases, multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the factors associated to asymptomatic and symptomatic LVD, and spline curves to display the relationship between the conditions and both age and NT-proBNP. RESULTS: In 857 men included, there were 66 cases of HF and 408 cases of DLVD (77% not reporting symptoms). In 819 women, there were 51 cases of HF and 382 of DLVD (79% not reporting symptoms). In men, the factors associated with prevalence of HF were age, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and suffering from three or more comorbid conditions. In women, the factors associated with HF were age, lifestyles (smoking and alcohol), BMI, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation. Age and diabetes were associated to asymptomatic DLVD in both genders. NT-proBNP levels were more strongly associated with HF in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: There were sex differences in the factors associated with HF. The results suggest that prevention policies should consider the sex-specific impact on cardiac function of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Int ; 147: 106371, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated methods for the analysis of multi-level survival data using a pooled dataset of 14 cohorts participating in the ELAPSE project investigating associations between residential exposure to low levels of air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and health (natural-cause mortality and cerebrovascular, coronary and lung cancer incidence). METHODS: We applied five approaches in a multivariable Cox model to account for the first level of clustering corresponding to cohort specification: (1) not accounting for the cohort or using (2) indicator variables, (3) strata, (4) a frailty term in frailty Cox models, (5) a random intercept under a mixed Cox, for cohort identification. We accounted for the second level of clustering due to common characteristics in the residential area by (1) a random intercept per small area or (2) applying variance correction. We assessed the stratified, frailty and mixed Cox approach through simulations under different scenarios for heterogeneity in the underlying hazards and the air pollution effects. RESULTS: Effect estimates were stable under approaches used to adjust for cohort but substantially differed when no adjustment was applied. Further adjustment for the small area grouping increased the effect estimates' standard errors. Simulations confirmed identical results between the stratified and frailty models. In ELAPSE we selected a stratified multivariable Cox model to account for between-cohort heterogeneity without adjustment for small area level, due to the small number of subjects and events in the latter. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the need to account for between-cohort heterogeneity in multi-center collaborations using pooled individual level data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(2): 293-299, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to report the prevalence of delirium on admission to the unit in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection, to identify the factors associated with delirium, and to evaluate the association between delirium and in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTINGS: Acute medical units in four Italian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 516 patients (median age 78 years) admitted to the participating centers with SARS-CoV-2 infection from February 22 to May 17, 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive medical assessment with detailed history, physical examinations, functional status, laboratory and imaging procedures. On admission, delirium was determined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition) criteria, 4AT, m-Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, or clinical impression depending on the site. The primary outcomes were delirium rates and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 73 (14.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.0-17.3%) patients presented delirium on admission. Factors significantly associated with delirium were dementia (odds ratio, OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 2.03-10.69), the number of chronic diseases (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03; 1.40), and chest X-ray or CT opacity (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.12-9.64 and 3.35, 95% CI = 1.07-10.47, for multiple or bilateral opacities and single opacity vs no opacity, respectively). There were 148 (33.4%) in-hospital deaths in the no-delirium group and 43 (58.9%) in the delirium group (P-value assessed using the Gray test <.001). As assessed by a multivariable Cox model, patients with delirium on admission showed an almost twofold increased hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality with respect to patients without delirium (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.25-2.83). CONCLUSION: Delirium is prevalent and associated with in-hospital mortality among older patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/mortalidade , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Environ Res ; 193: 110568, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Environ Res ; 196: 110358, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131710

RESUMO

Introduction There is evidence of improvement on mental health and well-being due to contact with green spaces, through various mechanisms and with potentially differential impacts in different populations. Many of these studies have been conducted among adults, while children have not been sufficiently investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the association between residential exposure to greenness and cognitive development at age 7 and to evaluate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a potential mediator of this association.Methods This longitudinal study was based on a cohort of newborns enrolled at delivery in two large obstetric hospitals in Rome. We assessed cognitive development at 7 years of age through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III edition (WISC-III). We estimated residential surrounding greenness, using satellite derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), within 300m and 500m buffers around each residential address at birth. We applied weighted multiple linear regression analyses to study the association between NDVI and the WISC-III cognitive scores, using the inverse probability weighting methodology to correct for potential selection bias. We performed a mediation analysis to evaluate the mediating role of NO2 in the association under study.Results We enrolled 719 children at birth and performed our analyses only on 465 children with data on exposure and outcome. The results were not consistent for the average residential surrounding greenness in 300m buffer. For an IQR increase in greenness within 500m buffer around home addresses at birth we found a progress in Arithmetic subtest (ß:0.39; 90% CI: 0.11-0.6), a test concerning with attention, concentration and numerical reasoning, apart from an indication of the positive association with Full scale IQ and Verbal IQ. This association was partly mediated by reduction in NO2, since adding this pollutant in our model explained 35% (90% CI: 7%-62%) of our estimate.Conclusions Our findings showed an association between residential surrounding greenness within 500m and better scores on attention tests at 7 years of age. The observed association between Arithmetic subtest and NDVI was mediated, in part, by a reduction in NO2. This topic has important public health implications in supporting green urban planning policies and promoting children's well-being.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Parques Recreativos , Gravidez , Cidade de Roma
13.
Environ Int ; 146: 106249, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines. RESULTS: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 (warm season) were 24.2 µg/m3 (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 µg/m3 (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10-5m-1 (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 µg/m3 (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 µg/m3). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 µg/m3. We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O3 and lung cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Environ Int ; 146: 106267, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but evidence is sparse and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and COPD incidence. METHODS: Within the 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE) study, we pooled data from three cohorts, from Denmark and Sweden, with information on COPD hospital discharge diagnoses. Hybrid land use regression models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) in 2010 at participants' baseline residential addresses, which were analysed in relation to COPD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Of 98,058 participants, 4,928 developed COPD during 16.6 years mean follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations with COPD incidence were 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) per 5 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.11 (1.06, 1.16) per 10 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.11 (1.06, 1.15) per 0.5 10-5m-1 for BC. Associations persisted in subset participants with PM2.5 or NO2 levels below current EU and US limit values and WHO guidelines, with no evidence for a threshold. HRs for NO2 and BC remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas the HR for PM2.5 was attenuated to unity with NO2 or BC. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution is associated with the development of COPD, even below current EU and US limit values and possibly WHO guidelines. Traffic-related pollutants NO2 and BC may be the most relevant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Suécia
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 586686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262713

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a series of older patients consecutively admitted into a non-ICU ward due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (14, males 11), developing delirium. Hypokinetic delirium with lethargy and confusion was observed in 43% of cases (6/14 patients). A total of eight patients exhibited hyperkinetic delirium and 50% of these patients (4/8) died. The overall mortality rate was 71% (10/14 patients). Among the four survivors we observed two different clinical patterns: two patients exhibited dementia and no ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), while the remaining two patients exhibited ARDS and no dementia. The observed different clinical patterns of delirium (hypokinetic delirium; hyperkinetic delirium with or without dementia; hyperkinetic delirium with or without ARDS) identified patients with different prognosis: we believe these observations may have an impact on the management of older subjects with delirium due to COVID-19.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, while evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project "Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with diameter<2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a 16.6 years mean follow-up. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.22 (1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2, and 1.15 (1.08-1.23) per 0.5 10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the EU and US limit values and possibly WHO guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040729, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several physiological abnormalities that develop during COVID-19 are associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we aimed to develop a clinical risk score to predict the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, based on a set of variables available soon after the hospitalisation triage. SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of 516 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-19 to two Italian tertiary hospitals located in Northern and Central Italy were collected from 22 February 2020 (date of first admission) to 10 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients≥18 years admitted for COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simple clinical and laboratory findings readily available after triage were compared by patients' survival status ('dead' vs 'alive'), with the objective of identifying baseline variables associated with mortality. These were used to build a COVID-19 in-hospital mortality risk score (COVID-19MRS). RESULTS: Mean age was 67±13 years (mean±SD), and 66.9% were male. Using Cox regression analysis, tertiles of increasing age (≥75, upper vs <62 years, lower: HR 7.92; p<0.001) and number of chronic diseases (≥4 vs 0-1: HR 2.09; p=0.007), respiratory rate (HR 1.04 per unit increase; p=0.001), PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p<0.001), serum creatinine (HR 1.34 per unit increase; p<0.001) and platelet count (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p=0.001) were predictors of mortality. All six predictors were used to build the COVID-19MRS (Area Under the Curve 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.93), which proved to be highly accurate in stratifying patients at low, intermediate and high risk of in-hospital death (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19MRS is a rapid, operator-independent and inexpensive clinical tool that objectively predicts mortality in patients with COVID-19. The score could be helpful from triage to guide earlier assignment of COVID-19 patients to the most appropriate level of care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos , Procedimentos Clínicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Triagem , Idoso , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e033776, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic inequalities have a strong impact on population health all over the world. Occupational status is a powerful determinant of health in rich societies. We aimed at investigating the association between occupation and mortality in a large metropolitan study. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Rome, capital of Italy. PARTICIPANTS: We used the Rome Longitudinal Study, the administrative cohort of residents in Rome at the 2001 general census, followed until 2015. We selected residents aged 15-65 years at baseline. For each subject, we had information on sex, age and occupation (occupational status and type of job) according to the Italian General Census recognition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We investigated all-cause, cancer, cardiovascular and accidental mortality, major causes of death in the working-age population. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between occupation and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men and women. RESULTS: We selected 1 466 726 subjects (52.1% women). 42 715 men and 29 915 women died during the follow-up. In men, 47.8% of deaths were due to cancer, 26.7% to cardiovascular causes and 6.4% to accidents, whereas in women 57.8% of deaths were due to cancer, 19.3% to cardiovascular causes and 3.5% to accidents. We found an association between occupational variables and mortality, more evident in men than in women. Compared with employed, unemployed had a higher risk of mortality for all causes with an HR=1.99 (95% CI 1.92 to 2.06) in men and an HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.60) in women. Compared with high-qualified non-manual workers, non-specialised manual workers had a higher mortality risk (HR=1.68, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.77 and HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.40, for men and women, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance of occupational variables as social health determinants and provides evidence for policy-makers on the necessity of integrated and preventive policies aimed at improving the safety of the living and the working environment.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Cidade de Roma , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455694

RESUMO

In Italy, few multicentre population-based studies on pregnancy outcomes are available. Therefore, we established a network of population-based birth cohorts in the cities of Turin, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, and Rome (northern and central Italy), to study the role of socioeconomic factors and air pollution exposure on term low birthweight, preterm births and the prevalence of small for gestational age. In this article, we will report the full methodology of the study and the first descriptive results. We linked 2007-2013 delivery certificates with municipal registry data and hospital records, and selected singleton livebirths from women who lived in the cities for the entire pregnancy, resulting in 211,853 births (63% from Rome, 21% from Turin and the remaining 16% from the three cities in Emilia-Romagna Region). We have observed that the association between socioeconomic characteristics and air pollution exposure varies by city and pollutant, suggesting a possible effect modification of both the city and the socioeconomic position on the impact of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes. This is the largest Italian population-based birth cohort, not distorted by selection mechanisms, which has also the advantage of being sustainable over time and easily transferable to other areas. Results from the ongoing multivariable analyses will provide more insight on the relative impact of different strands of risk factors and on their interaction, as well as on the modifying effect of the contextual characteristics. Useful recommendations for strategies to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes may eventually derive from this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Cidade de Roma/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Int ; 136: 105474, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainly continues to exist regarding the role of air pollution on pediatric asthma and allergic conditions, especially as air pollution levels have started to decrease in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of long-term air pollution levels at the home address with pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma prevalences in five birth cohorts (BIB, EDEN, GASPII, RHEA and INMA) from seven areas in five European countries. METHODS: Current eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma were assessed in children aged four (N = 6527) and eight years (N = 2489). A multi-morbidity outcome (≥2 conditions versus none) was also defined. Individual outdoor levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides, mass of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10), 10-2.5 µm (PMcoarse) and <2.5 µm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance were assigned to the birth, four- and eight-year home addresses using highly defined spatial air pollution exposure models. Cohort-specific cross-sectional associations were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and environmental covariates and combined in a random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma at four years was 15.4%, 5.9% and 12.4%. We found no increase in the prevalence of these outcomes at four or eight years with increasing air pollution exposure. For example, the meta-analysis adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma at four years were 0.94 (0.81, 1.09), 0.90 (0.75, 1.09), and 0.91 (0.74, 1.11), respectively, per 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 at the birth address, and 1.00 (0.81, 1.23), 0.70 (0.49, 1.00) and 0.88 (0.54, 1.45), respectively, per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 at the birth address. DISCUSSION: In this large meta-analysis of five birth cohorts, we found no indication of adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on the prevalence of current pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Conjuntivite , Eczema , Rinite , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eczema/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado , Rinite/epidemiologia
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