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1.
J Appl Toxicol ; 40(3): 363-372, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755144

RESUMO

Piperazine designer drugs are a group of synthetic drugs of abuse that have appeared on the illicit market since the second half of the 1990s. The most common derivatives are 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP). They can be consumed as capsules, tablets, but also in powder or liquid forms. Generally, although less potent than amphetamines, piperazines have dopaminergic and serotonergic activities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxic effects of BZP, MeOPP and MDBP using Caenorhabditis elegans as in vivo model for acute toxicity, development, reproduction and behavior testing. The LC50 for BZP, MeOPP and MDBP were 52.21, 5.72 and 1.22 mm, respectively. All concentrations induced a significant decrease in the body surface of the worms, indicating developmental alterations, and decrease in the brood size. Worms exposed to piperazine designer drugs also presented a decrease in locomotor activity and mechanical sensitivity, suggesting the possible dysfunction of the nervous system. Neuronal damage was confirmed through the decrease in fluorescence of BY200 strains, indicating loss of dopaminergic transporters. In conclusion, we suggest that piperazine designer drugs lead to neuronal damage, which might be the underlying cause of the altered behavior observed in humans.

2.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 13(Suppl 2): S370-S374, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28808408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional use of Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) in the south of Brazil to reduce cholesterol has not been described in scientific literature. OBJECTIVE: To verify the hypocholesterolemic effects of D. brasiliensis using rats as animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bark of D. brasiliensis was extracted with water with further lyophilization and was subjected to phytochemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and free radical scavenging activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to determine antioxidant potential. The hypocholesterolemic activity was determined in male Wistar rats treated with 100 and 250 mg/kg/day extract concomitantly fed a hypercaloric diet, over 20 days (prevention assay). In the treatment assay, rats were fed a hypercaloric diet for 40 days and received the extract (100 mg/kg/day) from day 20. RESULTS: In this research, we found that the extract of the bark of D. brasiliensis was able to reduce the triglycerides significantly and reduce total cholesterol at doses 100 and 250 mg/kg/day and both administration regimens (prevention and treatment) in rats treated with the extract and hypercaloric diet. The extract showed strong antioxidant properties (DPPH assay), probably responsible by hypocholesterolemic activity of the plant. By HPLC, we detected catechin (1.34%), epicatechin (3.48%), rutin (0.86%), caffeic acid (0.45%), and ferulic acid (0.84%) in D. brasiliensis extract. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the popular use of the plant to reduce of cholesterol. SUMMARY: The extract of the bark of Drimys brasiliensis was able to reduce the triglycerides significantly and reduced total cholesterol at doses 100 and 250 mg/kg/day and both administration regimens (prevention and treatment) in rats treated with the extract and hypercaloric dietThe extract showed strong antioxidant properties (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), probably responsible by hypocholesterolemic activity of the plantThe extracts present catechin (1.34%), epicatechin (3.48%), rutin (0.86%), caffeic acid (0.45%), and ferulic acid (0.84%)The plant can be used to cholesterol reduction. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; PDA: Photodiode array detector; RS: Reference substances; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; VCEAC: Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(28): 22673-22678, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812184

RESUMO

Ozone helps decontamination environments due to its oxidative power, however present toxicity when it is in high concentrations, by long periods of exposition. This study aimed to assess the safety of ozone generator air purifier at concentrations of 0.05 ppm in rats exposed to 3 and 24 h/day for 14 and 28 days. No significant differences are observed between groups in clinical signs, feed and water intake, relative body weight gain and relative weight of organs, macroscopy and microscopy of lungs, and oxidative plasma assay. In this exposure regime, ozone does not cause genotoxicity and no significant changes in pulmonary histology indicative of toxicity. Ozone generated in low concentrations, even in exposure regimes above the recommended is safe, both acute and sub-acute exposition.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição por Inalação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
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