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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mutations in SQSTM1 are strongly associated with Paget's disease of bone (PDB) but little is known about the clinical characteristics of those with early disease. METHODS: Radionuclide bone scans, biochemical markers of bone turnover and clinical characteristics were analysed in SQSTM1 mutation carriers who took part in the Zoledronic acid in the Prevention of Paget's disease (ZiPP) study. RESULTS: We studied 222 individuals of whom 54.9% were female with average (± sem) age of 50.1± 0.6 years. Twelve SQSTM1 mutations were observed, including p.Pro392Leu which was present in 141/222 (63.5%) subjects. Bone scan examination revealed evidence of PDB in 20 subjects (9.0%) of which 9 (50%) had a single affected site. Participants with lesions were older than those without lesions but the difference was not significant (53.6 ± 9.1 vs. 49.8 ± 8.9, p=0.07). The mean age of participants with lesions was not significantly different from the age at which their parents were diagnosed with PDB (55 years vs. 59 years, p=0.25). All individuals with lesions were asymptomatic. Serum concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) normalised to the upper limit of normal in each centre were higher in those with lesions (0.75 ± 0.69 vs 0.42 ± 0.29; p<0.0001). Similar findings were observed for other biochemical markers of bone turnover but the sensitivity of ALP and other markers in detecting lesions was poor. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic PDB is present in about 9% of SQSTM1 mutation carriers by the fifth decade. Further follow up of this cohort will provide important information on the natural history of early PDB and its response to treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030689, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by increased and disorganised bone remodelling affecting one or more skeletal sites. Complications include bone pain, deformity, deafness and pathological fractures. Mutations in sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) are strongly associated with the development of PDB. Bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone pain in PDB, but there is no evidence that treatment alters the natural history of PDB or prevents complications. The Zoledronate in the Prevention of Paget's disease trial (ZiPP) will determine if prophylactic therapy with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) can delay or prevent the development of PDB in people who carry SQSTM1 mutations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: People with a family history of PDB aged >30 years who test positive for SQSTM1 mutations are eligible to take part. At the baseline visit, participants will be screened for the presence of bone lesions by radionuclide bone scan. Biochemical markers of bone turnover will be measured and questionnaires completed to assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Participants will be randomised to receive a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZA or placebo and followed up annually for between 4 and 8 years at which point baseline assessments will be repeated. The primary endpoint will be new bone lesions assessed by radionuclide bone scan. Secondary endpoints will include changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, pain, HRQoL, anxiety, depression and PDB-related skeletal events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Fife and Forth Valley Research Ethics Committee on 22 December 2008 (08/S0501/84). Following completion of the trial, a manuscript will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice by determining if early intervention with ZA in presymptomatic individuals with SQSTM1 mutations can prevent or slow the development of bone lesions with an adverse event profile that is acceptable. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11616770.

3.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(3-4): 650-662, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182502

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a portable FibroScan® device can be an acceptable screening tool for chronic liver disease in a community alcohol support service, through recording uptake, determining apparent prevalence of undiagnosed fibrosis/cirrhosis in participants and report engagement following referral to specialist liver services of those individuals referred because of a FibroScan® reading ≥ 7.1 kilopascals (kPa). BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related liver disease, including cirrhosis, is a major cause of death in the UK. Liver disease is silent and usually presents late. Socially deprived patients with alcohol-related liver disease are a "hard to engage" population and at higher risk of death than less deprived. A FibroScan® device is a non-invasive tool for measuring liver stiffness. A result of ≥7.1 kPa can indicate possible chronic liver disease. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHOD: Individuals who self-identified as harmful drinkers were recruited. Consented individuals attended for a liver FibroScan® . Those with a reading ≥7.1 kPa were referred to a nurse-led liver clinic for further investigations, results of which determined referral to a liver specialist in secondary care. Participants referred were monitored for compliance over a 6-month period. RESULTS: Seventy-nine consented individuals participated, an uptake of 67% of those informed of the study. Of the 79 scans performed, three were unreliable leaving 76 participants. After scanning, 20/76 (26%) had a FibroScan® ≥7.1 kPa requiring referral on to the nurse-led clinic. All 20 (100%) engaged in further assessment. Of those, 12 required onward referral to specialist services. Subsequent compliance with specialist services in this sample (n = 12) was ≥90%. CONCLUSION: A nurse-led FibroScan® outreach clinic encourages socially deprived drinkers to engage with liver services. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A 67% uptake suggests a nurse-led FibroScan® service in a community alcohol service is acceptable. High engagement gives potential for early intervention and improved health outcomes.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/enfermagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
4.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 23(1): 8-17, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23820601

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for 9.7% of all cancer cases and for 8% of all cancer-related deaths. Established risk factors include personal or family history of CRC as well as lifestyle and dietary factors. We investigated the relationship between CRC and demographic, lifestyle, food and nutrient risk factors through a case-control study that included 2062 patients and 2776 controls from Scotland. Forward and backward stepwise regression was applied and the stability of the models was assessed in 1000 bootstrap samples. The variables that were automatically selected to be included by the forward or backward stepwise regression and whose selection was verified by bootstrap sampling in the current study were family history, dietary energy, 'high-energy snack foods', eggs, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and white fish (associated with an increased CRC risk) and NSAIDs, coffee and magnesium (associated with a decreased CRC risk). Application of forward and backward stepwise regression in this CRC study identified some already established as well as some novel potential risk factors. Bootstrap findings suggest that examination of the stability of regression models by bootstrap sampling is useful in the interpretation of study findings. 'High-energy snack foods' and high-energy drinks (including sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices) as risk factors for CRC have not been reported previously and merit further investigation as such snacks and beverages are important contributors in European and North American diets.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Cancer ; 12: 487, 2012 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23088590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Scotland colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and a leading cause of cancer death. Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting associations between statins and CRC risk and there is one published report of the association between statins and CRC survival. METHODS: Analysis was carried out on 309 cases and 294 controls from the Scottish Study of Colorectal Cancer (SOCCS). Cox's hazard and logistic regression models were applied to investigate the association between statin use and CRC risk and survival. RESULTS: In an adjusted logistic regression model, statins were found to show a statistically significant association for three of the four statin variables and were found to not show a statistically significant association with either all-cause or CRC-specific mortality (OR 0.49; 95%CI 0.49-1.36; p-value = 0.17 and OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.08-1.35; P-value = 0.12, respectively). CONCLUSION: We did find a statistically significant association between statin intake and CRC risk but not statin intake and CRC-specific mortality. However, the study was insufficiently powered and larger scale studies may be advisable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
6.
J Nutr ; 141(8): 1535-42, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21697298

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency has recently been implicated as a possible risk factor in the etiology of numerous diseases, including nonskeletal conditions. In humans, skin synthesis following exposure to UVB is a potent source of vitamin D, but in regions with low UVB, individuals are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to investigate determinants of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations in a high northern latitude country. Detailed dietary, lifestyle, and demographic data were collected for 2235 healthy adults (21-82 y) from Scotland. Plasma 25-OHD was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Among study participants, 34.5% were severely deficient (25-OHD <25 nmol/L) and 28.9% were at high risk of deficiency (25-40 nmol/L). Only 36.6% of participants were at low risk of vitamin D deficiency or had adequate levels (>40 nmol/L). Among participants who were taking supplements, 21.3% had a May-standardized 25-OHD concentration >50 nmol/L, 54.2% had 25-50 nmol/L, and 24.5% had <25 nmol/L, whereas this was 15.6, 43.3, and 41%, respectively, among those who did not take supplements (P < 0.0001). The most important sources of vitamin D were supplements and fish consumption. Vitamin D deficiency in Scotland is highly prevalent due to a combination of insufficient exposure to UVB and insufficient dietary intake. Higher dietary vitamin D intake modestly improved the plasma 25-OHD concentration (P = 0.02) and reduced the proportion of severely deficient individuals (P < 0.0001). In regions with low UVB exposure, dietary and supplement intake may be much more important than previously thought and consideration should be given to increasing the current recommended dietary allowance of 0-10 µg/d for adults in Scotland.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estilo de Vida , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Gut ; 59(12): 1670-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20844293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the lowest effective NSAID dose, treatment duration, and effects on survival are not defined. In a large population-based case-control study, we have explored the relationship between NSAID dose and duration, CRC risk and overall CRC-specific survival. METHODS: The relationship between NSAID use and CRC risk was examined in 2279 cases and 2907 controls. Subjects completed food-frequency and lifestyle questionnaires. NSAID categories were low-dose aspirin (75 mg), non-aspirin NSAIDs (NA-NSAIDs) and any NSAID. Users were defined as taking >4 tablets/week for >1 month. ORs were calculated by logistic regression models and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Effect of NSAID use on all-cause and CRC-specific mortality was estimated using Logrank tests and Cox's hazard models. RESULTS: In all, 354 cases (15.5%) were taking low-dose aspirin compared to 526 controls (18.1%). Low-dose aspirin use was associated with decreased CRC risk (OR 0.78 95% CI 0.65 to 0.92, p=0.004), evident after 1 year and increasing with duration of use (p(trend)=0.004). NA-NSAID and any NSAID use were also inversely associated with CRC. There was no demonstrable effect of NSAIDS on all-cause (HR 1.11, p=0.22, 0.94-1.33) or CRC-specific survival (HR 1.01, p=0.93, 0.83-1.23). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate a protective effect against CRC associated with the lowest dose of aspirin (75 mg per day) after only 5 years use in the general population. NSAID use prior to CRC diagnosis does not influence survival from the disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 16(14): 3754-9, 2010 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20628028

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, genomewide association studies have identified 10 genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. We hypothesized that these loci might also affect cancer survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms tagging these 10 loci influenced all-cause and CRC-specific mortality, we prospectively followed survival outcomes for 2,838 Scottish patients recruited soon after a diagnosis of CRC. Survival analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, age, and sex. RESULTS: None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be statistically significantly associated with all-cause or CRC-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that none of the 10 common genetic variants thus far shown to be associated with CRC risk are associated with survival from CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Carcinogenesis ; 31(2): 296-301, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19945968

RESUMO

Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been found to be present in several types of tumours including tumours of the large bowel. However, their role in cancer development and prognosis is still to be resolved. We used 2838 cases from a large Scottish colorectal cancer (CRC) case-control study to examine whether inherited genetic variation at the mtDNA influenced all-cause and CRC-specific mortality. We examined 140 tagging mtDNA variants including nine haplotypes commonly found in European populations. After applying three Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, age and sex, three single nucleotide polymorphisms, two located in the 12S ribosomal RNA region (G752A and G1440A) and one in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 2 region (ND2) region (G4770A), were statistically significantly associated with all-cause (Model I P-values: 0.0001, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively) and CRC-specific mortality (Model I P-values: 5 x 10(-5), 0.0003 and 0.0006, respectively). The H and U haplogroups were associated with an increased and decreased CRC risk, respectively, but with P-values of borderline significance and only after AJCC stage adjustment. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest a link between three common mtDNA variants and CRC prognosis. These findings are interesting and consistent with other biological knowledge but need to be confirmed through replication in independent cohorts.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Nat Genet ; 40(12): 1426-35, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19011631

RESUMO

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). To enhance power to identify additional loci with similar effect sizes, we conducted a meta-analysis of two GWA studies, comprising 13,315 individuals genotyped for 38,710 common tagging SNPs. We undertook replication testing in up to eight independent case-control series comprising 27,418 subjects. We identified four previously unreported CRC risk loci at 14q22.2 (rs4444235, BMP4; P = 8.1 x 10(-10)), 16q22.1 (rs9929218, CDH1; P = 1.2 x 10(-8)), 19q13.1 (rs10411210, RHPN2; P = 4.6 x 10(-9)) and 20p12.3 (rs961253; P = 2.0 x 10(-10)). These findings underscore the value of large sample series for discovery and follow-up of genetic variants contributing to the etiology of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Int J Cancer ; 123(9): 2170-9, 2008 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18709640

RESUMO

Vitamin D has anticarcinogenic properties and might influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. Many mechanisms of action for vitamin D have been proposed, with some of them initiating via its binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using a large Scottish case-control study, we investigated (i) main associations between CRC, vitamin D and calcium dietary intake and 4 VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10735810, rs1544410, rs11568820, rs7975232) and (ii) interaction associations between the VDR variants, vitamin D and calcium intakes. Inverse and dose-dependent associations were found between CRC risk, dietary [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.63, 0.92, p-trend = 0.012] and total vitamin D (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 0.98, p-trend = 0.014) intake in multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, whereas neither calcium intake nor any of the VDR variants were associated with CRC. Additionally, we observed statistically significant interactions (case-control, case-only designs) between vitamin D and calcium intake and rs10735810 (p-interaction 0.02, 0.006, respectively). We conducted meta-analyses of cohort, case-control and serum studies that also showed an inverse association between dietary vitamin D intake and CRC (serum studies: combined OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.56, 0.87). The evidence of interaction we report here further supports the inverse association between vitamin D mediated through binding to the VDR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Risco , Vitamina D/metabolismo
12.
Fam Cancer ; 7(4): 361-6, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18560993

RESUMO

Published guidelines adopted in many countries recommend that women whose family history of breast cancer places them at a risk>or=1.7 times that of the age-matched general population, should be considered for inclusion in special surveillance programmes. However validation of risk assessment models has been called for as a matter of urgency. The databases of the four Scottish Familial Breast Cancer clinics and the Scottish Cancer Registry have been searched to identify breast cancers occurring among 1,125 women aged 40-56, with family histories placing them below the "moderate" level of genetic risk. The observed incidence over 6 years was compared with age-specific data for the Scottish population. Our findings confirm that when there are two affected relatives (one first degree) the relative risk (RR) exceeds 1.7 regardless of their ages at diagnosis. When only one (first degree) relative was affected at any age from 40 to 55, the RR does not reach 1.7 if that relative was a mother but exceeds it if the relative was a sister. The probable explanation is that sisters are more likely than mother/daughter pairs to share homozygosity for a risk allele. Surveillance programmes might therefore accommodate sisters of women affected before age 55. Evidence that "low penetrance" alleles contributing to breast cancer risk may be recessive should be taken into account in strategies for identifying them.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Irmãos
13.
Carcinogenesis ; 29(9): 1774-80, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18375958

RESUMO

In a large Scottish case-control study, we investigated the effects of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) Asp1822Val (rs459552) and APC Glu1317Gln substitutions on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and whether these associations were influenced by lifestyle and dietary factors. We did not observe any associations between the variants and CRC risk in the whole population. Post-menopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and participants who consumed a diet low in total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and trans fatty acids had a lower risk of CRC [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.53 (0.41, 0.68); 0.84 (0.72, 0.98); 0.72 (0.62, 0.85); 0.85 (0.73, 1.00) and 0.78 (0.67, 0.92), respectively]. This risk reduction was stronger in those homozygous for the variant APC 1822 allele with significant interaction relationships for HRT, red meat and MUFA intakes (P for interaction case-only design: 0.02, 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). Low n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake was associated with an increased CRC risk for the wild-type and heterozygous APC 1822 individuals but with a decreased CRC risk in those homozygous for the variant allele (P for interaction case-only design: 0.09). The interaction relationships with the APC 1317 variant were of the same direction though not significant, possibly due to the low frequency of the variant allele. Our results confirm the findings of three recent case-control studies suggesting a number of possible biological mechanisms. However, further large-scale studies are necessary in order to replicate these findings and confirm the role of these APC gene variants and their interaction with dietary and lifestyle exposures in colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Genes APC/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homozigoto , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Genet ; 40(5): 631-7, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18372901

RESUMO

In a genome-wide association study to identify loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we genotyped 555,510 SNPs in 1,012 early-onset Scottish CRC cases and 1,012 controls (phase 1). In phase 2, we genotyped the 15,008 highest-ranked SNPs in 2,057 Scottish cases and 2,111 controls. We then genotyped the five highest-ranked SNPs from the joint phase 1 and 2 analysis in 14,500 cases and 13,294 controls from seven populations, and identified a previously unreported association, rs3802842 on 11q23 (OR = 1.1; P = 5.8 x 10(-10)), showing population differences in risk. We also replicated and fine-mapped associations at 8q24 (rs7014346; OR = 1.19; P = 8.6 x 10(-26)) and 18q21 (rs4939827; OR = 1.2; P = 7.8 x 10(-28)). Risk was greater for rectal than for colon cancer for rs3802842 (P < 0.008) and rs4939827 (P < 0.009). Carrying all six possible risk alleles yielded OR = 2.6 (95% CI = 1.75-3.89) for CRC. These findings extend our understanding of the role of common genetic variation in CRC etiology.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
15.
Fam Cancer ; 7(3): 259-64, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18246448

RESUMO

Some studies have found a deficiency of male, younger and more socially deprived individuals amongst referrals to and/or attendees at cancer genetics clinics. We investigated this inequality of use of genetics services from data on 4,178 Scottish patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (BOC) or colorectal cancer (CRC) referred from 2000--2006. Some 98% BOC and 60% CRC referrals were female. Median age of female referrals was greater in the CRC than the BOC group (45.3 vs. 38.7 years, P < 0.001). Both groups of referrals were less socially deprived than the general population (P < 0.001) and the CRC less deprived than the BOC group (P < 0.001). Some 88% patients attended the first appointment offered. Attendance was greater in the CRC group (P < 0.001) and in older patients (P < 0.001) and in the BOC group was highly significantly lower in more socially deprived patients (P < 0.001). Male relatives may feel counselling is less relevant and relatives of both sexes may delay counselling until approaching the age of onset of cancer in a relative. We suggest that medical professionals and the general public may have more knowledge about the genetics of BOC than of CRC. Thus relatives in CRC families seeking counselling are likely to be those with access to more information. The lower attendance amongst more deprived relatives in BOC families may result from poor understanding of the reason for referral. These findings confirm the need to provide male, younger and more socially deprived relatives with more helpful information on cancer genetics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 17(1): 171-82, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18199722

RESUMO

Vitamin B6, a coenzyme in the folate metabolism pathway, may have anticarcinogenic effects. Laboratory and epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis of its protective effect against colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this large Scottish case-control study, including 2,028 hospital-based cases and 2,722 population-based controls, was to investigate the associations between dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin B6 and CRC. Three logistic regression models adjusted for several confounding factors, including energy, folate, and fiber intake, were applied in the whole sample and after age, sex, cancer site, folate, MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131), MTR A2756G (rs1805087), and MTRR A66G (rs1801394) stratification (analysis on genotypes on 1,001 cases and 1,010 controls < or =55 years old). Moderately strong inverse and dose-dependent associations in the whole sample were found between CRC risk and the intake of dietary and total vitamin B6 in all three models [model III: odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.61-0.98; P for trend = 0.03; OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.69-1.07; P for trend = 0.12]. In addition, meta-analyses of published studies showed inverse associations between vitamin B6 and CRC (combined relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96; test for overall effect P = 0.01; combined odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.75; test for overall effect P < 0.00001). Analysis within the stratified subgroups showed similar associations apart from a stronger effect among < or =55-year-old individuals. Evidence from larger cohort and experimental studies is now required to confirm and define the anticarcinogenic actions of vitamin B6 and to explore the mechanisms by which this effect is mediated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
17.
Community Genet ; 10(4): 252-60, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17895631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a family history of breast cancer increasingly seek genetic advice and screening. In the present study we investigated referral rates and factors associated with long-term attendance for screening in Scotland. METHODS: We investigated referral rates to the genetic service over a 21-month period and long-term attendance for screening amongst the 226 women at increased risk of developing breast cancer. RESULTS: The overall annual referral rate was 0.31 per 1,000 patients on general practitioners' lists. Some 98% of women for whom it was appropriate attended at least one screening appointment and 88% were continuing to attend appointments for surveillance up to 5 years later. Attendance was significantly lower among more socially deprived patients (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that as increasing numbers of women with a positive family history seek risk assessment and screening, current facilities may be inadequate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agendamento de Consultas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da Mulher
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 166(2): 181-95, 2007 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17493949

RESUMO

Fatty acid effects on colorectal cancer risk were examined in a national prospective case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006), including 1,455 incident cases and 1,455 matched controls. Three conditional logistic regression models adjusted for energy (residual method) and for other risk factors were applied in the whole sample and were stratified by sex, cancer site, age, and tumor staging. Total and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids and palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids were dose-dependently associated with colorectal cancer risk, but these effects did not persist after further energy adjustment. Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated with increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (highest vs. lowest quartile of intake: odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.80; p < 0.0005 for trend) and of eicosapentaenoic (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.75; p < 0.0005 for trend) and docosahexaenoic (odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.80; p < 0.0005 for trend) acids. These associations persisted after including energy with the nutrient-energy-adjusted term or total fatty acid intake (energy adjusted). The observed different effects of different types of fatty acids underline the importance of type of fat in the etiology and prevention of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 16(4): 684-93, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17416758

RESUMO

In vitro and in vivo laboratory data point to chemoprotective effects of flavonoids on colorectal cancer. However, there has been limited epidemiologic research on the dietary intake of flavonoids and risk of colorectal cancer. Recent expansions of dietary databases to include flavonoid data now make such studies feasible. Association between the six main classes of flavonoids and the risk of colorectal cancer was examined using data from a national prospective case-control study in Scotland, including 1,456 incident cases and 1,456 population-based controls matched on age, sex, and residence area. Dietary, including flavonoid data, were obtained from a validated, self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Risk of colorectal cancer was estimated using conditional logistic regression models in the whole sample and stratified by sex, smoking status, and cancer site and adjusted for established and putative risk factors. After energy adjustment, reductions in colorectal cancer risk associated with the highest quartiles of intake (versus the lowest quartile) were 27% for flavonols [odds ratio (OR), 0.73; P(trend) = 0.012], 32% for quercetin (OR, 0.68; P(trend) = 0.001), 32% for catechin (OR, 0.68; P(trend) < 0.0005); 26% for epicatechin (OR, 0.74; P(trend) = 0.019), and 22% for procyanidins (OR, 0.78; P(trend) = 0.031). The significant dose-dependent reductions in colorectal cancer risk that were associated with increased consumption of flavonols, quercetin, catechin, and epicatechin remained robust after controlling for overall fruit and vegetable consumption or for other flavonoid intake. The risk reductions were greater among nonsmokers, but no interaction beyond a multiplicative effect was present. Sex-specific or cancer-type differences were not observed. No risk reductions were associated with intake of flavones (P(trend) = 0.64), flavonones (P(trend) = 0.22), and phytoestrogens (P(trend) = 0.26). This was the first of several a priori hypotheses to be tested in this large study and showed strong and linear inverse associations of flavonoids with colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
N Engl J Med ; 354(26): 2751-63, 2006 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16807412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of mutations in germ-line DNA mismatch-repair genes at the time of diagnosis of colorectal cancer is important in the management of the disease. METHODS: Without preselection and regardless of family history, we recruited 870 patients under the age of 55 years soon after they received a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We studied these patients for germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 and developed a two-stage model by multivariate logistic regression for the prediction of the presence of mutations in these genes. Stage 1 of the model incorporated only clinical variables; stage 2 comprised analysis of the tumor by immunohistochemical staining and tests for microsatellite instability. The model was validated in an independent population of patients. We analyzed 2938 patient-years of follow-up to determine whether genotype influenced survival. RESULTS: There were 38 mutations among the 870 participants (4 percent): 15 mutations in MLH1, 16 in MSH2, and 7 in MSH6. Carrier frequencies in men (6 percent) and women (3 percent) differed significantly (P<0.04). The addition of immunohistochemical analysis in stage 2 of the model had a sensitivity of 62 percent and a positive predictive value of 80 percent. There were 35 mutations in the validation series of 155 patients (23 percent): 19 mutations in MLH1, 13 in MSH2, and 3 in MSH6. The performance of the model was robust among a wide range of cutoff probabilities and was superior to that of the Bethesda and Amsterdam criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Survival among carriers was not significantly different from that among noncarriers. CONCLUSIONS: We devised and validated a method of identifying patients with colorectal cancer who are carriers of mutations in DNA repair genes. Survival was similar among carriers and noncarriers.


Assuntos
Pareamento Incorreto de Bases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
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