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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify gait abnormalities in people with Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: Individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of DS were enrolled, and stratified according to knee flexion at initial contact (IC) and range of motion (ROM) during stance (atypical crouch: knee flexion >20° at IC and knee ROM >15° during stance; straight: knee flexion <20° at IC). A 1D ANOVA (α = 0.05) was used to test statistical differences among the joint kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters of the cohort and an age-matched control group. Clinical (neurological and orthopaedic evaluation) and anamnestic data (seizure type, drugs, genetic mutation) were collected; distribution between the two gait phenotypes was assessed with the Fisher exact test and, for mutation, with the chi-squared test (p < 0.05). Linear regression between maximum knee flexion and normalised walking speed was calculated. RESULTS: Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and evaluated with instrumented gait analysis. Fifty-two were included in final analysis (mean age 13.8 ± 7.3; M 26). Two gait patterns were detected: an atypical crouch gait (34.6%) with increased ankle, knee and hip flexion during stance, and reduced walking speed and stride length not associated with muscle-tendon retractions; and a pattern resembling those of healthy age-matched controls, but still showing reduced walking speed and stride length. No differences in clinical or anamnestic data emerged between the two groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Objectively quantified gait in DS shows two gait patterns with no clear-cut relation to clinical data. Kinematics abnormalities may be related to stabilization issues. These findings may guide rehabilitative and preventive measures.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103766, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536827

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a rare infantile-onset progressive encephalopathy caused by biallelic mutations in RARS2 that encodes the mitochondrial arginine-tRNA synthetase enzyme (mtArgRS). The clinical presentation overlaps that of PEHO syndrome (Progressive Encephalopathy with edema, Hypsarrhythmia and Optic atrophy). The proband presented with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy with varying seizure types, optic atrophy, axial hypotonia, acquired microcephaly, dysmorphic features and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and delayed myelination on MRI. The presentation had resemblance to PEHO syndrome but sequencing of ZNHIT3 did not identify pathogenic variants. Subsequent whole genome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants in RARS2, a missense variant affecting a highly conserved amino acid and a frameshift variant with consequent degradation of the transcript resulting in decreased mtArgRS protein level confirming the diagnosis of PCH6. Features distinguishing the proband's phenotype from PEHO syndrome were later appearance of hypotonia and elevated lactate levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. On MRI the proband presented with more severe supratentorial atrophy and lesser degree of abnormal myelination than PEHO syndrome patients. The study highlights the challenges in clinical diagnosis of patients with neonatal and early infantile encephalopathies with overlapping clinical features and brain MRI findings.

4.
Neurotherapeutics ; 16(3): 848-857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054119

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in KCNT1 represent an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy, for which an effective therapy has been elusive. Reports about the effectiveness of quinidine, a candidate precision therapy, have been mixed. We sought to evaluate the treatment responsiveness of patients with KCNT1-related epilepsy. We performed an observational study of 43 patients using a collaborative KCNT1 patient registry. We assessed treatment efficacy based upon clinical seizure reduction, side effects of quinidine therapy, and variant-specific responsiveness to treatment. Quinidine treatment resulted in a > 50% seizure reduction in 20% of patients, with rare patients achieving transient seizure freedom. Multiple other therapies demonstrated some success in reducing seizure frequency, including the ketogenic diet and vigabatrin, the latter particularly in patients with epileptic spasms. Patients with the best quinidine response had variants that clustered distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain of the protein. Half of patients did not receive a quinidine trial. In those who did, nearly half did not achieve therapeutic blood levels. More favorable response to quinidine in patients with KCNT1 variants distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain may suggest a variant-specific response.

5.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(3): 357-367, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet Syndrome is a rare developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterised by epileptic seizures, cognitive impairment and motor disorders. Gait is markedly impaired and could benefit from targeted intervention to improve quality of life for patient and caregivers. OBJECTIVE: To establish the state of the art regarding gait deviations in patients with Dravet Syndrome. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Embase. Studies that assessed gait deviations in patients diagnosed with Dravet Syndrome using clinical observation, video gait analysis or three dimensional (3D) gait analysis and reported gait characteristics, spatiotemporal or kinematic outcomes were included. Screening, quality assessment and data extraction were performed by independent reviewers. RESULTS: Out of a total of 478 citations, nine articles were included. The total study population had an age range from 2.5 to 47 years. Three studies used clinical observation, three studies video analysis and three studies 3D gait analysis. Crouch gait was observed in about half of the population next to a variety of other gait deviations such as parkinsonian and cerebellar gait. Other findings included abnormalities in spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics, passive knee extension deficits, skeletal malalignment and neurological signs. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of gait characteristics was observed with crouch gait being the most reported gait pattern. Inconsistency in methods and findings from clinical and instrumented evaluation impede thorough understanding of the causal mechanism and evolution behind these deviations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017070370.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(8): 950-956, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644536

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the course of motor development in children with Dravet syndrome. METHOD: Forty-three participants (21 males, 22 females; mean age at last assessment 53.89mo±42.50mo) met the inclusion criteria of having a confirmed diagnosis of Dravet syndrome and presence of data on motor development. All data between 1985 and 2018 were derived retrospectively from their medical records. Gross motor milestones and motor age equivalents were used to describe motor development. Standardized neurodevelopmental assessment and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development defined the overall motor development. Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration were used to describe development in specific motor domains. RESULTS: Children with Dravet syndrome showed a delay in both sitting (seven out of 14) and walking independently (11 out of 25). Overall motor age equivalents revealed a delay in 29 out of 38 assessments (age 9-115mo). All assessments of children older than 2 years (16 out of 16) showed a delay. Gross motor delay was present in seven out of seven and fine motor delay in 10 out of 13 assessments (age 19-167mo). INTERPRETATION: Motor development is delayed in the majority of children with Dravet syndrome older than 2 years and increases with age. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: A delay in motor development is present in most children with Dravet syndrome older than 2 years. Large diversity in early gross motor milestones confirms heterogeneity in Dravet syndrome.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350094

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare oxidative stress and immune biomarkers between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and controls without ADHD. A case-control comparison between 57 paediatric (6-12 years) untreated ADHD patients from the Antwerp University Hospital and 69 controls without ADHD from random schools in Flanders, Belgium, was conducted. Erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) and plasma lipid-soluble antioxidants (retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, ß-carotene, and co-enzyme Q10) were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC with fluorescence detection, plasma cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (INF)-γ) and immunoglobulins (IgE, IgG and IgM) by flow cytometry and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels by ELISA assay. Dietary habits were determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Plasma MDA levels were on average 0.031 µM higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), and a trend for higher urinary 8-OHdG was observed. Erythrocyte GSH and plasma retinyl palmitate levels, as well as IgG and IgE levels, were higher in patients than in controls as well (on average 93.707 µg/ml, 0.006 µg/ml, 301.555 µg/ml and 125.004 µg/ml, resp., p < 0.05). Finally, a trend for lower plasma IL-5 levels was observed. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the difference in GSH levels remained statistically significant (nominally significant for retinyl palmitate), while significance was lost for MDA, IgG and IgE levels. Dietary habits do not appear to cause the observed differences. These results point at the potential involvement of slight oxidative stress and immune disturbances in ADHD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340858

RESUMO

AIM: Sleep problems are often reported in patients with a Dravet Syndrome (DS). In this study we explored the sleep behavior in DS and compared the prevalence of sleep problems with other epilepsy patients. METHODS: An online questionnaire based on the 'Sleep Behavior Questionnaire by Simonds & Parraga (SQ-SP)' was distributed amongst DS parents and a control group (parents from children with epilepsy). Completed questionnaires were evaluated by factor scores and Composite Sleep Index (CSI). RESULTS: Fifty-six responses were recorded in the DS group (42 were ≤18 year). Caregivers reported an overall frequency of sleep problems in 42.3% (22/52). Severe sleep problems, measured by CSI, were found in 28.3% (13/46) mainly related to night waking or daytime sleepiness. In the control group (n = 66, 62 were ≤18 year), sleep problems were reported by 21.2% (14/52) of the parents. Comparison analysis between pediatric DS and epilepsy patients revealed no significant differences between the prevalence of different types of sleep disorders, except for daytime sleepiness (p = 0.042). However, the parent (or caregiver)-reported quality of sleep was significantly lower in the DS group (p = 0.011). INTERPRETATION: Sleep problems are frequent in DS patients and are mainly related to daytime sleepiness and night waking. Compared with other epilepsy patients, severe sleep problems are not more common in patients with a DS. However DS patients tend to have more mild night waking problems, which may explain the worse parental-reported sleep quality in DS patients.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.

14.
Epilepsia ; 59(10): 1881-1888, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a drug-resistant, childhood onset electroclinical epilepsy syndrome with multiple seizure types and diagnostic electroencephalogram findings. ZX008 (fenfluramine HCl oral solution) was well tolerated and reduced seizure frequency in Dravet syndrome, prompting this phase 2, open-label, dose-finding study of add-on ZX008 in patients with LGS (NCT02655198). METHODS: Eligible treatment-refractory patients with LGS aged 3-18 years with ≥4 documented convulsive seizures (CS) in the prior 4 weeks were administered adjunctive ZX008 twice daily at an initial dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d, with incremental dose escalations up to 0.8 mg/kg/d or 30 mg/d (maximum dose) every 4 weeks in nonresponders (<50% reduction in CS frequency). After 20 weeks (core study), responders were offered entry into a long-term extension study. Seizures were captured via diary. Cardiac safety was monitored by Doppler echocardiography and electrocardiogram. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were enrolled (mean age = 11.7 years, range = 3-17). Ten (77%) patients completed 20 weeks of ZX008 treatment. During the core study, there was a 53% median reduction (N = 13) in CS; median reduction was 60% in the 10 completers. Eight patients (62%) had a ≥50% CS reduction; three (23%) patients had a ≥75% reduction. Nine (69%) patients entered the long-term extension study. At 15 months (n = 9), median reduction in CS was 58%; six (67%) patients had a ≥50% reduction, and three (33%) patients had a ≥75% reduction. The most common adverse events were decreased appetite (n = 4, 31%) and decreased alertness (n = 2, 15%). No echocardiographic signs of cardiac valvulopathy or pulmonary hypertension were observed. SIGNIFICANCE: ZX008 provided clinically meaningful reduction (≥50%) in CS frequency in the majority of patients with LGS in this pilot study and was generally well tolerated. A phase 3, randomized, controlled study is ongoing.

15.
Seizure ; 59: 48-53, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Automated seizure detection at home is mostly done using either patient-independent algorithms or manually personalized algorithms. Patient-independent algorithms, however, lead to too many false alarms, whereas the manually personalized algorithms typically require manual input from an experienced clinician for each patient, which is a costly and unscalable procedure and it can only be applied when the patient had a sufficient amount of seizures. We therefore propose a nocturnal heart rate based seizure detection algorithm that automatically adapts to the patient without requiring seizure labels. METHODS: The proposed method initially starts with a patient-independent algorithm. After a very short initialization period, the algorithm already adapts to the patients' characteristics by using a low-complex novelty detection classifier. The algorithm is evaluated on 28 pediatric patients with 107 convulsive and clinical subtle seizures during 695 h of nocturnal multicenter data in a retrospective study that mimics a real-time analysis. RESULTS: By using the adaptive seizure detection algorithm, the overall performance was 77.6% sensitivity with on average 2.56 false alarms per night. This is 57% less false alarms than a patient-independent algorithm with a similar sensitivity. Patients with tonic-clonic seizures showed a 96% sensitivity with on average 1.84 false alarms per night. CONCLUSION: The proposed method shows a strongly improved detection performance over patient-independent performance, without requiring manual adaptation by a clinician. Due to the low-complexity of the algorithm, it can be easily implemented on wearables as part of a (multimodal) seizure alarm system.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Frequência Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Coração/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Fotoperíodo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 319-332, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243349

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive microcephaly or microcephaly primary hereditary (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a reduction in brain volume, indirectly measured by an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 2 standard deviations or more below the age- and sex-matched mean (-2SD) at birth and -3SD after 6 months, and leading to intellectual disability of variable severity. The abnormal spindle-like microcephaly gene (ASPM), the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster "abnormal spindle" gene (asp), encodes ASPM, a protein localized at the centrosome of apical neuroprogenitor cells and involved in spindle pole positioning during neurogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in ASPM cause MCPH5, which affects the majority of all MCPH patients worldwide. Here, we report 47 unpublished patients from 39 families carrying 28 new ASPM mutations, and conduct an exhaustive review of the molecular, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological features of the 282 families previously reported (with 161 distinct ASPM mutations). Furthermore, we show that ASPM-related microcephaly is not systematically associated with intellectual deficiency and discuss the association between the structural brain defects (strong reduction in cortical volume and surface area) that modify the cortical map of these patients and their cognitive abilities.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 127(9): 3543-3556, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783042

RESUMO

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes chickenpox upon primary infection. In rare cases, VZV can give rise to life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy people, but the immunological basis for this remains unexplained. We report 4 cases of acute severe VZV infection affecting the central nervous system or the lungs in unrelated, otherwise healthy children who are heterozygous for rare missense mutations in POLR3A (one patient), POLR3C (one patient), or both (two patients). POLR3A and POLR3C encode subunits of RNA polymerase III. Leukocytes from all 4 patients tested exhibited poor IFN induction in response to synthetic or VZV-derived DNA. Moreover, leukocytes from 3 of the patients displayed defective IFN production upon VZV infection and reduced control of VZV replication. These phenotypes were rescued by transduction with relevant WT alleles. This work demonstrates that monogenic or digenic POLR3A and POLR3C deficiencies confer increased susceptibility to severe VZV disease in otherwise healthy children, providing evidence for an essential role of a DNA sensor in human immunity.


Assuntos
Varicela/genética , Herpes Zoster/genética , Mutação , RNA Polimerase III/genética , RNA Polimerase III/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
18.
J Neurodev Disord ; 9(1): 26, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system deficits are integral to the pathophysiologic development of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Ganaxolone, a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, is hypothesized to improve symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and attention deficits in children with FXS. METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of ganaxolone in children with FXS, aged 6-17 years. RESULTS: Sixty-one participants were assessed for eligibility, and 59 were randomized to the study. Fifty-five participants completed at least the first arm and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis; 51 participants completed both treatment arms. There were no statistically significant improvements observed on the primary outcome measure (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement), the key secondary outcome measure (Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale-R), or any other secondary outcome measures in the overall study population. However, post-hoc analyses revealed positive trends in areas of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity in participants with higher baseline anxiety and low full-scale IQ scores. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred, although there was a significant increase in the frequency and severity of AEs related to ganaxolone compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: While ganaxolone was found to be safe, there were no significant improvements in the outcome measures in the overall study population. However, ganaxolone in subgroups of children with FXS, including those with higher anxiety or lower cognitive abilities, might have beneficial effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01725152.

19.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 33(10): 1773-1781, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare, treatment-resistant epilepsy syndrome for which current treatment regimens are often ineffective. Fenfluramine is currently in development for treatment of DS, based on reports in the 1980s and 1990s of its anti-epileptic activity in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. However, fenfluramine was withdrawn from global markets in 1997 following reports of its association with pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease in adult patients treated for obesity. This review was conducted to assess cardiac safety of fenfluramine when used at lower doses for treatment of DS. METHODS: Pubmed was searched for clinical studies of fenfluramine in obese adults who reported incidence of heart valve disease. These data were reviewed against published results from Belgian patients with DS who have been treated with low-dose fenfluramine for up to 28 years. RESULTS: Nine controlled studies of fenfluramine and related compounds (dexfenfluramine and/or phentermine) which assessed incidence and severity of cardiac valve disease in 3,268 treated patients and 2,017 control subjects have been reported. Mild or greater aortic valve regurgitation was found in 9.6% of treated patients compared with 3.9% of control subjects, and moderate or greater mitral valve regurgitation was found in 3.1% of treated patients and 2.5% of control subjects. Nineteen DS patients have been treated for up to 28 years with 10-20 mg/day fenfluramine, with no clinical signs or symptoms of cardiac valve disease or pulmonary hypertension. Slight and clinically unimportant changes in valve structure have been seen on echocardiography in five patients at some time during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: A different benefit-risk relationship appears to be emerging when fenfluramine is used at low doses for extended periods in young patients with DS. Continued cardiac assessments during ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials will provide additional safety information for this potential new and effective treatment.


Assuntos
Depressores do Apetite/administração & dosagem , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fenfluramina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Depressores do Apetite/efeitos adversos , Dexfenfluramina/administração & dosagem , Dexfenfluramina/efeitos adversos , Fenfluramina/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Incidência , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fentermina/administração & dosagem , Fentermina/efeitos adversos
20.
J Med Genet ; 54(9): 613-623, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) cause intellectual disability (ID) and specific language impairment (SLI), with or without autistic features (MIM: 613670). Despite multiple case reports no specific phenotype emerged so far. METHODS: We correlate clinical and molecular data of 25 novel and 23 previously reported patients with FOXP1 defects. We evaluated FOXP1 activity by an in vitro luciferase model and assessed protein stability in vitro by western blotting. RESULTS: Patients show ID, SLI, neuromotor delay (NMD) and recurrent facial features including a high broad forehead, bent downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis and/or blepharophimosis and a bulbous nasal tip. Behavioural problems and autistic features are common. Brain, cardiac and urogenital malformations can be associated. More severe ID and NMD, sensorineural hearing loss and feeding difficulties are more common in patients with interstitial 3p deletions (14 patients) versus patients with monogenic FOXP1 defects (34 patients). Mutations result in impaired transcriptional repression and/or reduced protein stability. CONCLUSIONS: FOXP1-related ID syndrome is a recognisable entity with a wide clinical spectrum and frequent systemic involvement. Our data will be helpful to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations when interpreting next-generation sequencing data obtained in patients with ID and/or SLI and will guide clinical management.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética
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