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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075815

RESUMO

We describe a lethal combined nervous and reproductive systems disease in three affected siblings of a consanguineous family. The phenotype was characterized by visceroautonomic dysfunction (neonatal bradycardia/apnea, feeding problems, hyperactive startle reflex), severe postnatal progressive neurological abnormalities (including abnormal neonatal cry, hypotonia, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, cerebral gray matter atrophy), visual impairment, testicular dysgenesis in males, and sudden death at infant age by brainstem-mediated cardiorespiratory arrest. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous frameshift variant p.Val242GlufsTer52 in the TSPY-like 1 gene TSPYL1. The truncated TSPYL1 protein that lacks the nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) domain was retained in the Golgi of fibroblasts from the three patients while control fibroblasts express full length TSPYL1 in the nucleus. Proteomic analysis of nuclear extracts from fibroblasts identified 24 up- and 20 down-regulated proteins in the patients compared to five controls with 'regulation of cell cycle' as the highest scored biological pathway affected. TSPYL1 deficient cells had prolonged S and G2 phases with reduced cellular proliferation rates. Tspyl1 depletion in zebrafish mimicked the patients' phenotype with early lethality, defects in neurogenesis and cardiac dilation. In conclusion, this study reports the third pedigree with recessive TSPYL1 variants, confirming that TSPYL1 deficiency leads to a combined nervous and reproductive systems disease, and provides for the first time insights into the disease mechanism.

2.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1142-1155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the phenotypic spectrum of phosphatidylinositol glycan class A protein (PIGA)-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (PIGA-CDG) and evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Our cohort encompasses 40 affected males with a pathogenic PIGA variant. We performed a detailed phenotypic assessment, and in addition, we reviewed the available clinical data of 36 previously published cases and assessed the variant pathogenicity using bioinformatical approaches. RESULTS: Most individuals had hypotonia, moderate to profound global developmental delay, and intractable seizures. We found that PIGA-CDG spans from a pure neurological phenotype at the mild end to a Fryns syndrome-like phenotype. We found a high frequency of cardiac anomalies including structural anomalies and cardiomyopathy, and a high frequency of spontaneous death, especially in childhood. Comparative bioinformatical analysis of common variants, found in the healthy population, and pathogenic variants, identified in affected individuals, revealed a profound physiochemical dissimilarity of the substituted amino acids in variant constrained regions of the protein. SIGNIFICANCE: Our comprehensive analysis of the largest cohort of published and novel PIGA patients broadens the spectrum of PIGA-CDG. Our genotype-phenotype correlation facilitates the estimation on pathogenicity of variants with unknown clinical significance and prognosis for individuals with pathogenic variants in PIGA.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(3): 367-375, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989259

RESUMO

Unilateral facial palsy in a newborn is rarely caused by a developmental defect. It occurs either isolated or in the context of a syndrome. This article describes a multidisciplinary approach towards unilateral, isolated congenital facial palsy along with a literature review. We report six patients, three boys and three girls, who presented with a unilateral facial palsy at birth. Clinical assessment was performed by an ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeon, a pediatric neurologist, and an ophthalmologist. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the posterior fossa and computerized tomography (CT) of the temporal bone were requested to exclude structural anomalies of the facial nerve. Imaging revealed the underlying cause in five patients out of six (80%), showing an ipsilateral facial nerve aplasia or hypoplasia. These findings point towards an underlying developmental defect and underscore the importance of MRI in the diagnostic work-up. Surgical and non-surgical therapies were discussed with the parents.Conclusion: Congenital unilateral facial palsy caused by a developmental defect outside the context of a syndrome is rare. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended to differentiate between various causes and to initiate timely treatment.What is Known:• Congenital facial palsy is mostly caused by environmental/external fcators.• However in rare cases it can be developmental defect.What is New:• This paper describes 6 cases of isolated congenital facial palsy related to a developmental defect and presents the largest case series in the literature caused by aplasia/hypoplasia of the facial nerve.• MRI and CT-imaging allow for an assessment of the facial nerve at the root entry zone of the brainstem and along its course through the middle ear or the face. Moreover, they proved to be helpful in differentiating between several causes of congenital facial palsy.

4.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 24: 148-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-limited (familial) infantile epilepsy (S(F)IE), formerly known as benign (familial) infantile convulsions (B(F)IC), is an infantile cluster epilepsy with in rule a complete recovery. This form of epilepsy is most often caused by variations in the PRRT2 gene (OMIM #605751). AIM: To describe the clinical and genetic spectrum of sudden onset clusters of focal seizures in infancy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all individuals, who presented with unprovoked infantile seizures and selected all infants who had unprovoked clustered focal seizures between 1 and 20 months of age. We described the clinical and genetic spectrum of this cohort. RESULTS: The data of 23 patients from 21 families were collected. All had an initial diagnosis of S(F)IE which was adjusted in 5 individuals. In 12 individuals a pathogenic variation in PRRT2 gene or complete deletion was identified. Pathogenic variants in PCDH19 and KCNQ2 were found in respectively 3 and 1 individuals. One individual had a non-pathogenic variant in ATP1A3 and in 6 others no variants were identified. The mean cluster duration was 2.9 days (range 1-13) (see Table 1). Twelve infants had only one cluster. All patients had focal motor or non-motor seizures, in 12 (52%) followed by bilateral (tonic)clonic seizures. Positive family history was present in 74% of individuals. In 11/12 (92%) tested families, ≥1 family member carried the pathogenic PRRT2 variant. Age of seizure onset (ASO) averaged 6.2 months (range 2-20 months). Age of latest seizure averaged 16 months (range 2-92). In several interictal EEG (electroencephalogram) recordings multifocal spikes or spike-wave abnormalities were detected. Ictal EEG recordings detected primary focal abnormalities. CONCLUSION: We described 23 individuals with unprovoked cluster(s) of focal seizures at infancy. It appears to be a heterogeneous group. Half of them had a pathogenic variation in PRRT2 gene. Most had only one cluster of seizures. When clusters reoccur frequently, when seizures are more therapy-resistant and when seizures persist beyond the age of 2 years, another diagnosis or causative gene is likely.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Convulsões/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(3): 103766, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536827

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a rare infantile-onset progressive encephalopathy caused by biallelic mutations in RARS2 that encodes the mitochondrial arginine-tRNA synthetase enzyme (mtArgRS). The clinical presentation overlaps that of PEHO syndrome (Progressive Encephalopathy with edema, Hypsarrhythmia and Optic atrophy). The proband presented with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy with varying seizure types, optic atrophy, axial hypotonia, acquired microcephaly, dysmorphic features and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and delayed myelination on MRI. The presentation had resemblance to PEHO syndrome but sequencing of ZNHIT3 did not identify pathogenic variants. Subsequent whole genome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants in RARS2, a missense variant affecting a highly conserved amino acid and a frameshift variant with consequent degradation of the transcript resulting in decreased mtArgRS protein level confirming the diagnosis of PCH6. Features distinguishing the proband's phenotype from PEHO syndrome were later appearance of hypotonia and elevated lactate levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. On MRI the proband presented with more severe supratentorial atrophy and lesser degree of abnormal myelination than PEHO syndrome patients. The study highlights the challenges in clinical diagnosis of patients with neonatal and early infantile encephalopathies with overlapping clinical features and brain MRI findings.

7.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814998

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a group of rare, severe neurodevelopmental disorders, where even the most thorough sequencing studies leave 60-65% of patients without a molecular diagnosis. Here, we explore the incompleteness of transcript models used for exome and genome analysis as one potential explanation for a lack of current diagnoses. Therefore, we have updated the GENCODE gene annotation for 191 epilepsy-associated genes, using human brain-derived transcriptomic libraries and other data to build 3,550 putative transcript models. Our annotations increase the transcriptional 'footprint' of these genes by over 674 kb. Using SCN1A as a case study, due to its close phenotype/genotype correlation with Dravet syndrome, we screened 122 people with Dravet syndrome or a similar phenotype with a panel of exon sequences representing eight established genes and identified two de novo SCN1A variants that now - through improved gene annotation - are ascribed to residing among our exons. These two (from 122 screened people, 1.6%) molecular diagnoses carry significant clinical implications. Furthermore, we identified a previously classified SCN1A intronic Dravet syndrome-associated variant that now lies within a deeply conserved exon. Our findings illustrate the potential gains of thorough gene annotation in improving diagnostic yields for genetic disorders.

8.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2243-2254, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a rare, treatment-resistant developmental epileptic encephalopathy characterised by multiple types of frequent, disabling seizures. Fenfluramine has been reported to have antiseizure activity in observational studies of photosensitive epilepsy and Dravet syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of fenfluramine in patients with Dravet syndrome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we enrolled children and young adults with Dravet syndrome. After a 6-week observation period to establish baseline monthly convulsive seizure frequency (MCSF; convulsive seizures were defined as hemiclonic, tonic, clonic, tonic-atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, and focal with clearly observable motor signs), patients were randomly assigned through an interactive web response system in a 1:1:1 ratio to placebo, fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg per day, or fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg per day, added to existing antiepileptic agents for 14 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in mean monthly frequency of convulsive seizures during the treatment period compared with baseline in the 0·7 mg/kg per day group versus placebo; 0·2 mg/kg per day versus placebo was assessed as a key secondary outcome. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. Safety analyses included all participants who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov with two identical protocols NCT02682927 and NCT02826863. FINDINGS: Between Jan 15, 2016, and Aug 14, 2017, we assessed 173 patients, of whom 119 patients (mean age 9·0 years, 64 [54%] male) were randomly assigned to receive either fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg per day (39), fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg per day (40) or placebo (40). During treatment, the median reduction in seizure frequency was 74·9% in the fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg group (from median 20·7 seizures per 28 days to 4·7 seizures per 28 days), 42·3% in the fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg group (from median 17·5 seizures per 28 days to 12·6 per 28 days), and 19·2% in the placebo group (from median 27·3 per 28 days to 22·0 per 28 days). The study met its primary efficacy endpoint, with fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg per day showing a 62·3% greater reduction in mean MCSF compared with placebo (95% CI 47·7-72·8, p<0·0001); fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg per day showed a 32·4% reduction in mean MCSF compared with placebo (95% CI 6·2-52·3, p=0·0209). The most common adverse events (occurring in at least 10% of patients and more frequently in the fenfluramine groups) were decreased appetite, diarrhoea, fatigue, lethargy, somnolence, and decreased weight. Echocardiographic examinations revealed valve function within the normal physiological range in all patients during the trial and no signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension. INTERPRETATION: In Dravet syndrome, fenfluramine provided significantly greater reduction in convulsive seizure frequency compared with placebo and was generally well tolerated, with no observed valvular heart disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fenfluramine could be an important new treatment option for patients with Dravet syndrome. FUNDING: Zogenix.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fenfluramina/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fenfluramina/administração & dosagem , Fenfluramina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Placebos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(12): 2354-2367, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (EIEE) 52 have inherited, homozygous variants in the gene SCN1B, encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) ß1 and ß1B non-pore-forming subunits. METHODS: Here, we describe the detailed electroclinical features of a biallelic SCN1B patient with a previously unreported variant, p.Arg85Cys. RESULTS: The female proband showed hypotonia from birth, multifocal myoclonus at 2.5 months, then focal seizures and myoclonic status epilepticus (SE) at 3 months, triggered by fever. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed bilateral hearing loss. Epilepsy was refractory and the patient had virtually no development. Administration of fenfluramine resulted in a significant reduction in seizure frequency and resolution of SE episodes that persisted after a 2-year follow-up. The patient phenotype is more compatible with early infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) than with typical Dravet syndrome (DS), as previously diagnosed for other patients with homozygous SCN1B variants. Biochemical and electrophysiological analyses of the SCN1B variant expressed in heterologous cells showed cell surface expression of the mutant ß1 subunit, similar to wild-type (WT), but with loss of normal ß1-mediated modification of human Nav 1.1-generated sodium current, suggesting that SCN1B-p.Arg85Cys is a loss-of-function (LOF) variant. INTERPRETATION: Importantly, a review of the literature in light of our results suggests that the term, early infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, is more appropriate than either EIEE or DS to describe biallelic SCN1B patients.

10.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(6): 808-818, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify gait abnormalities in people with Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: Individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of DS were enrolled, and stratified according to knee flexion at initial contact (IC) and range of motion (ROM) during stance (atypical crouch: knee flexion >20° at IC and knee ROM >15° during stance; straight: knee flexion <20° at IC). A 1D ANOVA (α = 0.05) was used to test statistical differences among the joint kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters of the cohort and an age-matched control group. Clinical (neurological and orthopaedic evaluation) and anamnestic data (seizure type, drugs, genetic mutation) were collected; distribution between the two gait phenotypes was assessed with the Fisher exact test and, for mutation, with the chi-squared test (p < 0.05). Linear regression between maximum knee flexion and normalised walking speed was calculated. RESULTS: Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and evaluated with instrumented gait analysis. Fifty-two were included in final analysis (mean age 13.8 ± 7.3; M 26). Two gait patterns were detected: an atypical crouch gait (34.6%) with increased ankle, knee and hip flexion during stance, and reduced walking speed and stride length not associated with muscle-tendon retractions; and a pattern resembling those of healthy age-matched controls, but still showing reduced walking speed and stride length. No differences in clinical or anamnestic data emerged between the two groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Objectively quantified gait in DS shows two gait patterns with no clear-cut relation to clinical data. Kinematics abnormalities may be related to stabilization issues. These findings may guide rehabilitative and preventive measures.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino
11.
Neurotherapeutics ; 16(3): 848-857, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054119

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in KCNT1 represent an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy, for which an effective therapy has been elusive. Reports about the effectiveness of quinidine, a candidate precision therapy, have been mixed. We sought to evaluate the treatment responsiveness of patients with KCNT1-related epilepsy. We performed an observational study of 43 patients using a collaborative KCNT1 patient registry. We assessed treatment efficacy based upon clinical seizure reduction, side effects of quinidine therapy, and variant-specific responsiveness to treatment. Quinidine treatment resulted in a > 50% seizure reduction in 20% of patients, with rare patients achieving transient seizure freedom. Multiple other therapies demonstrated some success in reducing seizure frequency, including the ketogenic diet and vigabatrin, the latter particularly in patients with epileptic spasms. Patients with the best quinidine response had variants that clustered distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain of the protein. Half of patients did not receive a quinidine trial. In those who did, nearly half did not achieve therapeutic blood levels. More favorable response to quinidine in patients with KCNT1 variants distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain may suggest a variant-specific response.

13.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(3): 357-367, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet Syndrome is a rare developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterised by epileptic seizures, cognitive impairment and motor disorders. Gait is markedly impaired and could benefit from targeted intervention to improve quality of life for patient and caregivers. OBJECTIVE: To establish the state of the art regarding gait deviations in patients with Dravet Syndrome. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Embase. Studies that assessed gait deviations in patients diagnosed with Dravet Syndrome using clinical observation, video gait analysis or three dimensional (3D) gait analysis and reported gait characteristics, spatiotemporal or kinematic outcomes were included. Screening, quality assessment and data extraction were performed by independent reviewers. RESULTS: Out of a total of 478 citations, nine articles were included. The total study population had an age range from 2.5 to 47 years. Three studies used clinical observation, three studies video analysis and three studies 3D gait analysis. Crouch gait was observed in about half of the population next to a variety of other gait deviations such as parkinsonian and cerebellar gait. Other findings included abnormalities in spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics, passive knee extension deficits, skeletal malalignment and neurological signs. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of gait characteristics was observed with crouch gait being the most reported gait pattern. Inconsistency in methods and findings from clinical and instrumented evaluation impede thorough understanding of the causal mechanism and evolution behind these deviations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017070370.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Comorbidade , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/complicações , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
15.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(8): 950-956, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644536

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the course of motor development in children with Dravet syndrome. METHOD: Forty-three participants (21 males, 22 females; mean age at last assessment 53.89mo±42.50mo) met the inclusion criteria of having a confirmed diagnosis of Dravet syndrome and presence of data on motor development. All data between 1985 and 2018 were derived retrospectively from their medical records. Gross motor milestones and motor age equivalents were used to describe motor development. Standardized neurodevelopmental assessment and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development defined the overall motor development. Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration were used to describe development in specific motor domains. RESULTS: Children with Dravet syndrome showed a delay in both sitting (seven out of 14) and walking independently (11 out of 25). Overall motor age equivalents revealed a delay in 29 out of 38 assessments (age 9-115mo). All assessments of children older than 2 years (16 out of 16) showed a delay. Gross motor delay was present in seven out of seven and fine motor delay in 10 out of 13 assessments (age 19-167mo). INTERPRETATION: Motor development is delayed in the majority of children with Dravet syndrome older than 2 years and increases with age. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: A delay in motor development is present in most children with Dravet syndrome older than 2 years. Large diversity in early gross motor milestones confirms heterogeneity in Dravet syndrome.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 837-849, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Convulsões/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(5): 719-729, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350094

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare oxidative stress and immune biomarkers between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and controls without ADHD. A case-control comparison between 57 paediatric (6-12 years) untreated ADHD patients from the Antwerp University Hospital and 69 controls without ADHD from random schools in Flanders, Belgium, was conducted. Erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) and plasma lipid-soluble antioxidants (retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, ß-carotene, and co-enzyme Q10) were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC with fluorescence detection, plasma cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (INF)-γ) and immunoglobulins (IgE, IgG and IgM) by flow cytometry and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels by ELISA assay. Dietary habits were determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Plasma MDA levels were on average 0.031 µM higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), and a trend for higher urinary 8-OHdG was observed. Erythrocyte GSH and plasma retinyl palmitate levels, as well as IgG and IgE levels, were higher in patients than in controls as well (on average 93.707 µg/ml, 0.006 µg/ml, 301.555 µg/ml and 125.004 µg/ml, resp., p < 0.05). Finally, a trend for lower plasma IL-5 levels was observed. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the difference in GSH levels remained statistically significant (nominally significant for retinyl palmitate), while significance was lost for MDA, IgG and IgE levels. Dietary habits do not appear to cause the observed differences. These results point at the potential involvement of slight oxidative stress and immune disturbances in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Dieta/métodos , Imunidade/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(1): 61-69, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340858

RESUMO

AIM: Sleep problems are often reported in patients with a Dravet Syndrome (DS). In this study we explored the sleep behavior in DS and compared the prevalence of sleep problems with other epilepsy patients. METHODS: An online questionnaire based on the 'Sleep Behavior Questionnaire by Simonds & Parraga (SQ-SP)' was distributed amongst DS parents and a control group (parents from children with epilepsy). Completed questionnaires were evaluated by factor scores and Composite Sleep Index (CSI). RESULTS: Fifty-six responses were recorded in the DS group (42 were ≤18 year). Caregivers reported an overall frequency of sleep problems in 42.3% (22/52). Severe sleep problems, measured by CSI, were found in 28.3% (13/46) mainly related to night waking or daytime sleepiness. In the control group (n = 66, 62 were ≤18 year), sleep problems were reported by 21.2% (14/52) of the parents. Comparison analysis between pediatric DS and epilepsy patients revealed no significant differences between the prevalence of different types of sleep disorders, except for daytime sleepiness (p = 0.042). However, the parent (or caregiver)-reported quality of sleep was significantly lower in the DS group (p = 0.011). INTERPRETATION: Sleep problems are frequent in DS patients and are mainly related to daytime sleepiness and night waking. Compared with other epilepsy patients, severe sleep problems are not more common in patients with a DS. However DS patients tend to have more mild night waking problems, which may explain the worse parental-reported sleep quality in DS patients.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Sonolência , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
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