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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e019072, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660526

RESUMO

Background Noninvasive cardiac radioablation is employed to treat ventricular arrhythmia. However, myocardial changes leading to early-period antiarrhythmic effects induced by high-dose irradiation are unknown. This study investigated dose-responsive histologic, ultrastructural, and functional changes within 1 month after irradiation in rat heart. Methods and Results Whole hearts of wild-type Lewis rats (N=95) were irradiated with single fraction 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 Gy and explanted at 1 day or 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks' postirradiation. Microscopic pathologic changes of cardiac structures by light microscope with immunohistopathologic staining, ultrastructure by electron microscopy, and functional evaluation by ECG and echocardiography were studied. Despite high-dose irradiation, no myocardial necrosis and apoptosis were observed. Intercalated discs were widened and disrupted, forming uneven and twisted junctions between adjacent myocytes. Diffuse vacuolization peaked at 3 weeks, suggesting irradiation dose-responsiveness, which was correlated with interstitial and intracellular edema. CD68 immunostaining accompanying vacuolization suggested mononuclear cell infiltration. These changes were prominent in working myocardium but not cardiac conduction tissue. Intracardiac conduction represented by PR and QTc intervals on ECG was delayed compared with baseline measurements. ST segment was initially depressed and gradually elevated. Ventricular chamber dimensions and function remained intact without pericardial effusion. Conclusions Mononuclear cell-related intracellular and extracellular edema with diffuse vacuolization and intercalated disc widening were observed within 1 month after high-dose irradiation. ECG indicated intracardiac conduction delay with prominent ST-segment changes. These observations suggest that early antiarrhythmic effects after cardiac radioablation result from conduction disturbances and membrane potential alterations without necrosis.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1582-1589, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634593

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to elucidate the risk for stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure (HF) according to HF type. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 10 780 patients with atrial fibrillation were enrolled in a multicentre prospective registry and divided according to HF type: no-HF, HF with preserved ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF), HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF), and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). Each group included 237 age-matched and sex-matched patients (age, 69.0 ± 10.3 years; men, 69.6%). The baseline characteristics, cumulative incidence, and hazard ratios for stroke/SE and major bleeding were compared across the groups. Patients with HF accounted for 10.3% of the total population; HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF represented 43.7%, 23.6%, and 32.7% of the patients with HF, respectively. The CHA2 DS2 -VASc score was significantly higher in the HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF groups than in the no-HF group. The annual stroke/SE incidence rates were 2.8%, 0.7%, 1.1%, and 0.9% in the HFpEF, HFmrEF, HFrEF, and no-HF groups, respectively. The cumulative incidence of stroke/SE was significantly highest in the HFpEF group at 22.8 ± 10.0 months (P = 0.020). The stroke/SE risk was higher in the HFpEF group than in the HFmrEF and HFrEF groups (hazard ratio, 3.192; 95% confidence interval, 1.039-9.810; P = 0.043). E/e' value was an independent risk factor for stroke/SE. There were no significant differences in the incidence of major bleeding across the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The stroke/SE risk was the highest in the HFpEF group and comparable between the HFmrEF and HFrEF groups.

3.
Stroke ; 52(2): 511-520, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Limited data support the benefits of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) among atrial fibrillation patients with prior gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NOACs compared with those of warfarin among atrial fibrillation patients with prior GIB. METHODS: Oral anticoagulant-naive individuals with atrial fibrillation and prior GIB between January 2010 and April 2018 were identified from the Korean claims database. NOAC users were compared with warfarin users by balancing covariates using the inverse probability of treatment weighting method. The primary outcomes were ischemic stroke, major bleeding, and the composite outcome (combined ischemic stroke and major bleeding). Fatal events from each outcome were evaluated as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 42 048 patients were included (24 781 in the NOAC group and 17 267 in the warfarin group). The mean time from prior GIB to the initiation of oral anticoagulant was 3.1±2.6 years. After inverse probability of treatment weighting, baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups (mean age, 72 years; men, 56.8%; and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score, 3.7). Lower risks of ischemic stroke, major bleeding, and the composite outcome were associated with NOAC use than with warfarin use (weighted hazard ratio, 0.608 [95% CI, 0.543-0.680]; hazard ratio, 0.731 [95% CI, 0.642-0.832]; and hazard ratio, 0.661 [95% CI, 0.606-0.721], respectively). For all secondary outcomes, NOACs showed greater risk reductions compared with warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: NOACs were associated with lower risks of ischemic stroke and major bleeding than warfarin among atrial fibrillation patients with prior GIB.

4.
Europace ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227134

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between alcohol consumption and atrial fibrillation (AF)-related adverse events in the AF population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 9411 patients with nonvalvular AF in a prospective observational registry were categorized into four groups according to the amount of alcohol consumption-abstainer-rare, light (<100 g/week), moderate (100-200 g/week), and heavy (≥200 g/week). Data on adverse events (ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack, systemic embolic event, or AF hospitalization including for AF rate or rhythm control and heart failure management) were collected for 17.4 ± 7.3 months. A Cox proportional hazard models was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), and propensity score matching was conducted to validate the results. The heavy alcohol consumption group showed an increased risk of composite adverse outcomes [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.66] compared with the reference group (abstainer-rare group). However, no significant increased risk for adverse outcomes was observed in the light (aHR 0.88, 95% CI 0.68-1.13) and moderate (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63-1.33) groups. In subgroup analyses, adverse effect of heavy alcohol consumption was significant, especially among patients with low CHA2DS2-VASc score, without hypertension, and in whom ß-blocker were not prescribed. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of adverse events in patients with AF, whereas light or moderate alcohol consumption does not.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frequency domain analysis is a methodology for quantifying the organization of atrial fibrillation (AF) pattern to understand the pathophysiology of the electrical mechanism. We aimed to investigate whether the dominant frequency (DF) and organization index (OI) can indicate left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: This observational, retrospective, single-center cohort study assessed 100 patients with persistent AF. The study population was divided into two groups based on an anterior-posterior LA dimension (LAD of 50 mm) measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The groups were one-to-one propensity score-matched. Frequency domain analysis was performed using signals at leads II and V1 on surface electrocardiogram to calculate the DF and OI. In all patients, the DF was shown to have an inverse relationship with LAD (R = -.369, p < .001 in lead II; R = -.330, p = .001 in lead V1), while the OI was directly associated with LAD (R = .234, p = .190 in lead II; R = .283, p = .004 in lead V1). However, no significant relationship between the signal amplitude and LAD was observed. Compared to patients with LAD ≤ 50 mm, those with LAD > 50 mm had a lower DF (5.057 ± 0.740 vs. 4.542 ± 0.898, p = .002) and higher OI (0.261 ± 0.104 vs. 0.322 ± 0.116, p = .007) in lead V1. These findings were consistent with those found in lead II. CONCLUSION: Patients with persistent AF and a larger LA size had a significantly higher OI and lower DF than those with a smaller LA size. Atrial electrical properties of structural remodeling are associated with increased organization of atrial signals.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057407

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: We investigated the prognostic impact of antithrombotic regimens at 1-year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 13,278 AF patients who underwent PCI from 2009 to 2013 were selected from Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Patients were categorized by antithrombotic regimens at 1-year after PCI: (1) OAC with or without single antiplatelet (OAC±SAPT); (2) triple therapy (TT) and (3) antiplatelets (APT) only. After propensity score matching, composite ischaemia (death, myocardial infarction, and stroke), composite bleeding (intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal bleeding), and a composite clinical outcome (composite ischaemia and bleeding) were compared. Of total population, 1,100 (8.3%), 746 (5.6%), and 11,432 (86.1%) were treated with OAC±SAPT, TT, and APT only, respectively. Compared to OAC±SAPT group, the TT group had significantly higher risk of the composite clinical outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-2.13) attributed to a higher trend in both ischaemia (HR 1.63, 95% CI 0.99-2.67) and bleeding (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.69-2.13). The APT only group showed a higher risk of ischaemia (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.25-2.74), despite a lower risk of bleeding (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.94) compared to OAC±SAPT group. CONCLUSIONS: OAC±SAPT was associated with better clinical outcomes compared to TT or APT only treatments, beyond 1-year after PCI among Asians with AF.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 152: 126-132, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the incidence of cardiac events after chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on baseline cardiovascular risk and the heart substructures' radiation dose. METHODS: From 2008 to 2018, the cardiac events of 258 patients with stage III NSCLC who received definitive chemoradiotherapy were reviewed. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) scoring system. Dose-volume histograms were estimated for each cardiac chamber. A multivariate competing-risk regression analysis was conducted to assess each cardiac event's subhazard function (SHR). RESULTS: The median follow-up was 27.5 months overall and 38.9 months for survivors. Among the 179 deaths, none was definitely related to cardiac conditions. Altogether, 32 cardiovascular events affected 27 patients (10.5%) after chemoradiotherapy. Ten were major cardiac adverse events, including heart failure (N = 6) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS, N = 4). Most cardiovascular events were related to well-known risk factors. However, the volume percentage of the left ventricle (LV) receiving 60 Gy (LV V60) > 0 was significantly associated with ACS (SHR = 9.49, 95% CI = 1.28-70.53, P = 0.028). In patients with high cardiovascular risk (ASCVD score > 7.5%), LV V60 > 0% remained a negative ACS prognostic factor (P = 0.003). Meanwhile, in patients with low cardiovascular risk, the LV radiation dose was not associated with ACS events (P = 0.242). CONCLUSIONS: A high LV radiation dose could increase ACS events in patients with stage III NSCLC and high cardiovascular risk. Pre-treatment cardiac risk evaluation and individualized surveillance may help prevent cardiac events after chemoradiotherapy.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15872, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985552

RESUMO

There is a paucity of information as to whether chromosomal abnormalities, including Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome, and Klinefelter Syndrome, have an association with atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischemic stroke development. Data from 3660 patients with Down Syndrome, 2408 with Turner Syndrome, and 851 with Klinefelter Syndrome without a history of AF and ischemic stroke were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (2007-2014). These patients were followed-up for new-onset AF and ischemic stroke. Age- and sex-matched control subjects (at a ratio of 1:10) were selected and compared with the patients with chromosomal abnormalities. Down Syndrome patients showed a higher incidence of AF and ischemic stroke than controls. Turner Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome patients showed a higher incidence of AF than did the control group, but not of stroke. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that three chromosomal abnormalities were independent risk factors for AF, and Down Syndrome was independently associated with the risk of stroke. In conclusion, Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome, and Klinefelter Syndrome showed an increased risk of AF. Down Syndrome patients only showed an increased risk of stroke. Therefore, AF surveillance and active stroke prevention would be beneficial in patients with these chromosomal abnormalities.

9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(10): 2616-2625, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) is used as a treatment to restore and maintain sinus rhythm in patients with AF. However, limited data exist regarding the temporal trends of AF ablation in Asia. This study aimed to describe the temporal trends of CA for AF in Korean over 11 years. METHODS: The nationwide claims database in Korea was utilized. Patients underwent CA for AF were identified using combinations of diagnostic codes, claims history, and procedure codes. Comorbidities and complications were also identified, and their temporal trends were evaluated. RESULTS: The numbers of patients underwent CA for AF were observed to gradually increased over 11 years (452 patients in 2007 vs. 3035 patients in 2017). Mean age of the study population increased (55.4 in 2007-2010 vs. 58.9 in 2015-2017); and mean CHA2 DS2 -VASc score also increased (1.9 in 2007-2010 vs. 2.2 in 2015-2017). Risks of complications decreased during the study period but risks of all-cause deaths did not changed significantly. Older age, women, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, general anesthesia, and small procedure volume were independent predictors of complications but, only diabetes and occurrence of any complication were associated with mortality after CA. CONCLUSION: CA for AF has become an increasingly important treatment option. Although the proportion of high-risk patients increased, risks of complications decreased over time. Performing procedure without complications and prompt managements are essential to improve the outcome of the patients with AF underwent CA.

10.
J Pathol Transl Med ; 54(5): 396-410, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The definitive pathologic diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis requires observation of a granuloma in the myocardial tissue. It is common, however, to receive a "negative" report for a clinically probable case. We would like to advise pathologists and clinicians on how to interpret "negative" biopsies. METHODS: Our study samples were 27 endomyocardial biopsies from 25 patients, three cardiac transplantation and an autopsied heart with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. Pathologic, radiologic, and clinical features were compared. RESULTS: The presence of micro-granulomas or increased histiocytic infiltration was always (6/6 or 100%) associated with fatty infiltration and confluent fibrosis, and they showed radiological features of sarcoidosis. Three of five cases (60%) with fatty change and confluent fibrosis were probable for cardiac sarcoidosis on radiology. When either confluent fibrosis or fatty change was present, one-third (3/9) were radiologically probable for cardiac sarcoidosis. We interpreted cases with micro-granuloma as positive for cardiac sarcoidosis (five of 25, 20%). Cases with both confluent fibrosis and fatty change were interpreted as probable for cardiac sarcoidosis (seven of 25, 28%). Another 13 cases, including eight cases with either confluent fibrosis or fatty change, were interpreted as low probability based on endomyocardial biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of micro-granuloma could be an evidence for positive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. Presence of both confluent fibrosis and fatty change is necessary for probable cardiac sarcoidosis in the absence of granuloma. Either of confluent fibrosis or fatty change may be an indirect pathological evidence but they are interpreted as nonspecific findings.

11.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(12): 2086-2092, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption is related to atrial fibrillation (AF) development in the general population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on new-onset AF development in asymptomatic healthy individuals. METHODS: Asymptomatic healthy adults (age <75 years; body mass index <30 kg/m2) undergoing routine health examinations from 2007 to 2015 were screened. Those with sinus rhythm and without any previously diagnosed medical or surgical illness were recruited for analysis. The primary outcome was new-onset AF. Secondary outcomes were a composite of non-AF cardiac events, including clinically significant tachy- or bradyarrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or cardiac death. RESULTS: Among 19,634 individuals (50% male; age 19-74 years), 199 cardiac events were recorded, including new-onset AF (n = 160), acute myocardial infarction (n = 30), and clinically significant tachy- or bradyarrhythmia (n =19), during mean follow-up of 7.0 ± 2.8 years. The incidence of new-onset AF was higher in drinkers (hazard ratio [HR] 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-3.14; P <.001), whereas composite non-AF cardiac events were not correlated to alcohol. There was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of AF according to the amount of alcohol consumed, and the risk increased more abruptly in men than in women. The risk of AF was highest in frequent binge drinkers (HR 3.15; 95% CI 1.98-4.99; P <.001), compared to infrequent light drinkers. CONCLUSION: In the asymptomatic healthy population, drinking increases the risk of new-onset AF in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of sex. Frequent binge drinking should be avoided.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423155

RESUMO

We aimed to describe temporal trends in emergency department (ED) visits of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) over 12 years. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of ED visits in AF patients using the Korean nationwide claims database between 2006 and 2017 were conducted. We identified AF patients who had ≥1 ED visits. The incidence of ED visits among total AF population, cause of ED visit, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. During 12 years, the annual numbers of AF patients who attended ED at least once a year continuously increased (40,425 to 99,763). However, the annual incidence of ED visits of AF patients was stationary at about 30% because the number of total AF patients also increased during the same period. The most common cause of ED visits was cerebral infarction. Although patients had a higher risk profile over time, the 30-day and 90-day mortality after ED visit decreased over time. ED visits due to ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and myocardial infarction decreased, whereas ED visits due to AF, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other major bleeding slightly increased among total AF population over 12 years. A substantial proportion of AF patients attended ED every year, and the annual numbers of AF patients who visited the ED significantly increased over 12 years. Optimized management approaches in a holistic and integrated manner should be provided to reduce ED visits of AF patients.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6762, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317679

RESUMO

Anemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but its impact on new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) levels and their changes on the risk of AF development in the general population of Korea. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database and identified 9,686,314 subjects (49.8% male) without a history of AF, aged ≥40 years, and with Hb levels available for both first (2009-2010) and second (2011-2012) health checkups. These subjects were followed up until 2017 to determine AF development. The presence of anemia (Hb level <13 g/dL in men and <12 g/dL in women) was a significant risk factor for AF development. However, Hb levels showed a U-shaped association with incident AF after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. AF incidence was lowest at Hb levels of 14-14.9 g/dL in men and 12-12.9 g/dL in women. Among individuals with Hb levels within normal ranges (13-15.9 g/dL in men and 12-14.9 g/dL in women), both decrease and increase in Hb levels at the second measurement outside the normal ranges showed an elevation of AF risk by 11% and 21% for men and 3% and 36% for women, respectively, compared with those who maintained normal Hb levels. In conclusion, low or high Hb levels are associated with an increased risk of incident AF. This study suggests that maintaining Hb levels within the normal ranges confers a low risk of AF development.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(3): e005894, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160790

RESUMO

Background Since the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) were introduced, oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription patterns have rapidly changed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the evolving trends of OAC use in a large nationwide cohort and specifically examine the changes in patient profiles treated with warfarin or DOAC and whether the time trends in OAC use affected clinical outcomes. Methods and Results Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database, we divided OAC naive patients with AF into 3 groups according to the enrollment period between January 2015 and December 2017 (n=35 353 in cohort 1, n=36 631 in cohort 2, and n=44 819 in cohort 3). DOAC use increased from 59% to 89%, whereas warfarin use has decreased from 41% to 11% during the study period. Patients treated with warfarin were increasingly younger from cohort 1 to cohort 3 (mean age 68-65 years, P<0.001) with lower mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (3.3-2.9, P<0.001), whereas those with DOAC did not show a significant difference in clinical characteristics over the study period. Warfarin group had improved clinical outcomes over time, reflecting dynamic changes in patient characteristics. Compared with warfarin group, unadjusted hazard ratios of composite outcome for DOAC group have changed over time (hazard ratio 0.77 [95% CI, 0.69-0.85] in cohort 1, hazard ratio 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.97] in cohort 2, and hazard ratio 1.00 [95% CI, 0.78-1.25] in cohort 3). After propensity score weighting between warfarin and DOAC groups in each cohort, DOAC showed consistently lower risks of the composite outcome by approximately 23% to 25% compared with warfarin across 3 different periods. Conclusions In contemporary clinical practice, OAC prescription patterns and characteristics of patients treated warfarin or DOAC have dynamically changed. Despite these changes, DOAC showed a consistent better net clinical benefit compared with warfarin across different periods.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
15.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(2): 120-128, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997620

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is influenced by many factors. Using a contemporary registry, we evaluated variables associated with the use of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (OACs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the prospective multicenter CODE-AF registry, 10529 patients with AF were evaluated. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with the use of anticoagulants. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 66.9±14.4 years, and 64.9% were men. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores were 2.6±1.7 and 1.8±1.1, respectively. In patients with high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2), OACs were used in 83.2%, including direct OAC in 68.8%. The most important factors for non-OAC treatment were end-stage renal disease [odds ratio (OR) 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.40], myocardial infarct (OR 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40-0.72), and major bleeding (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.84). Female sex (OR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.21-1.61), cancer (OR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.38-2.29), and smoking (OR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.15-2.24) were factors favoring direct OAC use over warfarin. Among patients receiving OACs, the rate of combined antiplatelet agents was 7.8%. However, 73.6% of patients did not have any indication for a combination of antiplatelet agents. CONCLUSION: Renal disease and history of valvular heart disease were associated with warfarin use, while cancer and smoking status were associated with direct OAC use in high stroke risk patients. The combination of antiplatelet agents with OAC was prescribed in 73.6% of patients without definite indications recommended by guidelines.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
16.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 309-315, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838903

RESUMO

Blood pressure variability is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but its association with atrial fibrillation (AF) is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and incident AF. This population-based cohort study used database from the Health Screening Cohort, which contained a complete set of medical claims and a biannual health checkup information of the Koran population. A total of 8 063 922 individuals who had at least 3 health checkups with blood pressure measurement between 2004 and 2010 were collected after excluding subjects with preexisting AF. Blood pressure variability was defined as variability independence of the mean and was divided into 4 quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 6.8 years, 140 086 subjects were newly diagnosed with AF. The highest blood pressure variability (fourth quartile) was associated with an increased risk of AF (hazard ratio, 95% CI; systolic blood pressure: 1.06, 1.05-1.08; diastolic blood pressure: 1.07, 1.05-1.08) compared with the lowest (first quartile). Among subjects in the fourth quartile in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability, the risk of AF was 7.6% higher than those in the first quartile. Moreover, this result was consistent in both patients with or without prevalent hypertension. In subgroup analysis, the impact of high blood pressure variability on AF development was stronger in high-risk subjects, who were older (≥65 years), with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. Our findings demonstrated that higher blood pressure variability was associated with a modestly increased risk of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Medição de Risco/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Variância , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(3): 365-371, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and weight gain are established risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bodyweight variability is also a risk factor for AF development. METHODS: A nationwide population-based cohort of 8,091,401 adults from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database without a history of AF and with ≥3 measurements of bodyweight over a 5-year period were followed up for incident AF. Intraindividual bodyweight variability was calculated using variability independent of mean, and high bodyweight variability was defined as the quartile with the highest variability (Q4) with Q1-Q3 as reference. RESULTS: During median 8.1 years of follow-up, each increase of 1 SD in bodyweight variability was associated with a 5% increased risk of AF development, and the quartile with the highest bodyweight variability showed 14% increased risk of AF development compared to the quartile with the lowest variability (hazard ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.15), after adjustment for baseline bodyweight, height, age, sex, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. High bodyweight variability was significantly associated with AF development in all baseline body mass index (BMI) groups except the very obese (BMI ≥30), and this association was stronger in subjects with lower bodyweight. High bodyweight variability was associated with increased risk of incident AF in all weight change groups, with a stronger association in those who lost weight. CONCLUSION: Bodyweight fluctuation was independently associated with an increased risk of AF development, especially in individuals with low bodyweight, and regardless of weight gain or loss.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 68-75, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699363

RESUMO

It is unknown whether heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) carry a similar risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) and other outcomes in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). A prospective, multicenter outpatient registry with echocardiographic data which enrolled 10,589 patients from June 2016 to May 2019 was analyzed. In this registry, 935 (8.8%) patients had HF, and the proportions of patients with HFpEF and HFrEF were 43.2% and 56.8%, respectively. During follow-up over 1.33 years, 11 (2.07 per 100 person-years [PYR]) and 5 (0.76 per 100 PYR) patients had stroke/SE in the HFpEF and HFrEF groups, respectively, whereas 102 patients (0.84 per 100 PYR) had these sequelae in the no-HF group. The HFpEF group had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of stroke/SE (p = 0.004) and risk of stroke/SE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19 to 4.18) than the no-HF group. The risk of stroke/SE in the HFpEF group compared with that in the no-HF group was consistently increased even in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy (adjusted HR 2.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.96). There was a correlation between larger left atrial size and risk of stroke/SE (adjusted HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.29), but not between reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and this risk. In conclusion, these results suggest that strict oral anticoagulation therapy helps reduce the risk of stroke/SE in patients with nonvalvular AF and HFpEF, especially in those with a larger left atrial size.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Embolia/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Ecocardiografia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
19.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(1): 99-108, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Efforts to reduce stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have focused on increasing physician adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) guidelines; however, the high early discontinuation rate of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is a limitation. Although non-VKA OACs (NOACs) are more convenient to administer than warfarin, their lack of monitoring may predispose patients to nonpersistence. We compared the persistence of NOAC and VKA treatment for AF in real-world practice. METHODS: In a prospective observational registry (COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry), 7,013 patients with nonvalvular AF (mean age 67.2 ± 10.9 years, women 36.4%) were consecutively enrolled between June 2016 and June 2017 from 10 tertiary hospitals in Korea. This study included 3,381 patients who started OAC 30 days before enrollment (maintenance group) and 572 patients who newly started OAC (new-starter group). The persistence rate of OAC was evaluated. RESULTS: In the maintenance group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 88.3% for VKA and 95.5% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). However, the persistence rate was not different among NOACs. In the new-starter group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 78.9% for VKA and 92.1% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). The persistence rate was lower for rivaroxaban (83.7%) than apixaban (94.6%) and edoxaban (94.1%, p < 0.001). In the new-starter group, diabetes, valve disease, and cancer were related to nonpersistence of OAC. CONCLUSION: Nonpersistence was significantly lower with NOAC than VKA in both the maintenance and new-starter groups. In only the new-starter group, apixaban or edoxaban showed higher persistence rates than rivaroxaban.

20.
Stroke ; 51(2): 416-423, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813363

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Warfarin is associated with a better net clinical benefit compared with no treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and history of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There are limited data on nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in these patients, especially in the Asian population. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of NOACs to warfarin in a large-scale nationwide Asian population with AF and a history of ICH. Methods- Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database from January 2010 to April 2018, we identified patients with oral anticoagulant naïve nonvalvular AF with a prior spontaneous ICH. For the comparisons, warfarin and NOAC groups were balanced using propensity score weighting. Ischemic stroke, ICH, composite outcome (ischemic stroke+ICH), fatal ischemic stroke, fatal ICH, death from composite outcome, and all-cause death were evaluated as clinical outcomes. Results- Among 5712 patients with AF with prior ICH, 2434 were treated with warfarin and 3278 were treated with NOAC. Baseline characteristics were well-balanced after propensity score weighting (mean age 72.5 years and CHA2DS2-VASc score 4.0). Compared with warfarin, NOAC was associated with lower risks of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.97]), ICH (HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.47-0.92]), and composite outcome (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). NOAC was associated with lower risks of fatal stroke (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.32-0.89]), death from composite outcome (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.34-0.81]), and all-cause death (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]) than warfarin. NOAC showed nonsignificant trends toward to reduce fatal ICH compared with warfarin (HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.20-1.03]). Conclusions- NOAC was associated with a significant lower risk of ICH and ischemic stroke compared with warfarin. NOAC might be a more effective and safer treatment option for Asian patients with nonvalvular AF and a prior history of ICH.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
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