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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(87): 13300-3, 2014 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227948

RESUMO

Both convergent and divergent strategies for the synthesis of "onion peel" glycodendrimers are reported which resulted in one of the best multivalent ligands known against the virulent factor from a bacterial lectin isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Dendrímeros/síntese química , Glicerídeos/química , Glicerídeos/síntese química , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Glicerídeos/farmacologia , Lectinas/química , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Fatores de Virulência/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 10: 1524-35, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25165490

RESUMO

This paper describes the synthesis of three closely related families of mannopyranoside-containing dendrimers for the purpose of studying subtle structural parameters involved in the measurements of multivalent carbohydrate-protein binding interactions. Toward this goal, two trimers 5 and 9, three 9-mers 12, 17, 21, and one 27-mer 23, varying by the number of atoms separating the anomeric and the core carbons, were synthesized using azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc). Compound 23 was prepared by an efficient convergent strategy. The sugar precursors consisted of either a 2-azidoethyl (3) or a prop-2-ynyl α-D-mannopyranoside (7) derivative. The solvodynamic diameters of 9-mer 12, 17, and 21 were determined by pulsed-field-gradient-stimulated echo (PFG-STE) NMR experiments and were found to be 3.0, 2.5, and 3.4 nm, respectively.

3.
Biochemistry ; 53(27): 4445-54, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24950232

RESUMO

The glycan epitopes of natural and synthetic glycoconjugates exist as covalent attachments of well-defined inner structures or scaffolds. Macromolecules such as proteins, peptides, lipids, and saccharides and synthetic structures serve as scaffolds of glycoconjugates. It is generally perceived that the biological activities of glycoconjugates are determined mainly by the attached glycans, while the seemingly inert inner scaffolds play a passive role by providing physical support to the attached glycan epitopes. However, our data show that scaffolds actively influence lectin recognition and can potentially modulate lectin-mediated signaling properties of glycoconjugates. Through in vitro experiments, we found that the scaffolds significantly altered the thermodynamic binding properties of the covalently attached glycan epitopes. When a free glycan was attached to a scaffold, its lectin binding entropy became more positive. The level of positive entropic gain was dependent on the types of scaffolds tested. For example, protein scaffolds of glycoproteins were found to generate more positive entropy of binding than synthetic scaffolds. Certain scaffolds were found to have limiting effects on glycoconjugate affinity. We also found that scaffold-bearing glycans with a similar affinity or an identical valence demonstrated different kinetics of lattice formation with lectins, when the scaffold structures were different. Our data support the view that scaffolds of glycoconjugates (i) help the covalently attached glycans become more spontaneous in lectin binding and (ii) help diversify the lattice forming or cross-linking properties of glycoconjugates.


Assuntos
Concanavalina A/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Manose/análogos & derivados , Manose/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Dendrímeros/química , Cinética , Termodinâmica
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(16): 1983-5, 2014 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24416763

RESUMO

An orthogonal coupling strategy was developed by combining thiol-ene and SN2 reactions, which was subsequently applied to the accelerated synthesis of multifunctional dendrimers using carbohydrate building blocks. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies, the ß-d-galactopyranoside-coated dendrimer exhibited nM binding affinity with the bacterial LecA lectin extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Adesinas Bacterianas/química , Dendrímeros/química , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(24): 9055-77, 2013 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23692629

RESUMO

The modular synthesis of 7 libraries containing 51 self-assembling amphiphilic Janus dendrimers with the monosaccharides D-mannose and D-galactose and the disaccharide D-lactose in their hydrophilic part is reported. These unprecedented sugar-containing dendrimers are named amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers. Their self-assembly by simple injection of THF or ethanol solution into water or buffer and by hydration was analyzed by a combination of methods including dynamic light scattering, confocal microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform analysis, and micropipet-aspiration experiments to assess mechanical properties. These libraries revealed a diversity of hard and soft assemblies, including unilamellar spherical, polygonal, and tubular vesicles denoted glycodendrimersomes, aggregates of Janus glycodendrimers and rodlike micelles named glycodendrimer aggregates and glycodendrimermicelles, cubosomes denoted glycodendrimercubosomes, and solid lamellae. These assemblies are stable over time in water and in buffer, exhibit narrow molecular-weight distribution, and display dimensions that are programmable by the concentration of the solution from which they are injected. This study elaborated the molecular principles leading to single-type soft glycodendrimersomes assembled from amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers. The multivalency of glycodendrimersomes with different sizes and their ligand bioactivity were demonstrated by selective agglutination with a diversity of sugar-binding protein receptors such as the plant lectins concanavalin A and the highly toxic mistletoe Viscum album L. agglutinin, the bacterial lectin PA-IL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and, of special biomedical relevance, human adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-3 and galectin-4. These results demonstrated the candidacy of glycodendrimersomes as new mimics of biological membranes with programmable glycan ligand presentations, as supramolecular lectin blockers, vaccines, and targeted delivery devices.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Galactose/química , Lactose/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Manose/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Azidas/síntese química , Azidas/química , Azidas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Dendrímeros/síntese química , Dendrímeros/metabolismo , Galactose/síntese química , Galactose/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactose/síntese química , Lactose/metabolismo , Manose/síntese química , Manose/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Tensoativos/síntese química , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/metabolismo
6.
Chem Soc Rev ; 42(11): 4823-41, 2013 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23629761

RESUMO

Sulfur-containing glycodendrimers have steadily emerged over a few decades and this review describes the first survey of this field. Although the contribution of sulfur chemistry to glycodendrimers could be seen at the moment as a development of various linking strategies, there is more than synthesis because the presence of sulfur itself modulates unique photophysical and electrochemical properties. This fact has long been recognized in materials science, for instance. Emphasis on the numerous advantages of sulfur in glycosylated dendrimers is thus put forward in this review. The synergy between sulfur, dendrimers, and carbohydrate chemistry conveys novel synthetic avenues, properties, and applications toward innovative perspectives in chemistry, glycobiology, materials science and nanoscience, with a particular significance for biosensors.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Glicoconjugados/química , Enxofre/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Glicoconjugados/síntese química , Glicoconjugados/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Porfirinas/química , Tioglicosídeos/química
7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 42(11): 4657-708, 2013 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23400414

RESUMO

Glycan-protein interactions are of utmost importance in several biological phenomena. Although the variety of carbohydrate residues in mammalian cells is limited to less than a dozen different sugars, their spatial topographical presentation in what is now associated as the "glycocodes" provides the fundamental keys for specific and high affinity "lock-in" recognition events associated with a wide range of pathologies. Toward deciphering our understanding of these glycocodes, chemists have developed new creative tools that included dendrimer chemistry in order to provide monodisperse multivalent glycoconjugates. This review provides a survey of the numerous aromatic architectures generated for the multivalent presentation of relevant carbohydrates using covalent attachment or supramolecular self-assemblies. The basic concepts toward their controlled syntheses will be described using modern synthetic procedures with a particular emphasis on powerful organometallic methodologies. The large variety of dendritic aromatic scaffolds, together with a brief survey of their unique biophysical and biological properties will be critically reviewed. The distinctiveness of the resulting multivalent glycoarchitectures, encompassing glycoclusters, glycodendrimers and molecularly defined self-assemblies, in forming well organized cross-linked lattices with multivalent carbohydrate binding proteins (lectins) together with their photophysical, medical, and imaging properties will also be briefly highlighted. The topic will be presented in increasing order of aromatic backbone complexities and will end with fullerenes together with self-assembled nanostructures, thus complementing the various scaffolds described in this special thematic issue dedicated to multivalent glycoscience.


Assuntos
Glicoconjugados/química , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Crisenos/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fulerenos/química , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Tiofenos/química
8.
Eur Biophys J ; 41(6): 535-44, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22526464

RESUMO

Native fullerene is notoriously insoluble in water and forms aggregates toxic to cell membranes, thus limiting its use in nanomedicine. In contrast, water-soluble fullerenol is compatible with biological systems and shows low in vivo toxicity on human cell lines. The interaction mechanism between these hydrophilic nanoparticles and biological membranes is however not well understood. Therefore, in this work, the effect of fullerenol on model eukaryotic and bacterial membranes was investigated using (31)P- and (2)H solid-state NMR as well as FTIR spectroscopy. DPPC/cholesterol and DPPC/DPPG bilayers were used to mimic eukaryotic and bacterial cell membranes, respectively. Our results show low affinity of fullerenol for DPPC/cholesterol bilayers but a clear interaction with model bacterial membranes. A preferential affinity of fullerenol for the anionic phospholipids DPPG in DPPC/DPPG membranes is also observed. Our data suggest that fullerenol remains at the water/bilayer interface of eukaryote-like membranes. They also indicate that the presence of a polar group such as DPPG's hydroxyl moiety at the bilayer surface plays a key role in the interaction of fullerenol with membranes. Hydrogen bonding of fullerenol nanoparticles with DPPGs' OH groups is most likely responsible for inducing lipid segregation in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, the location of the nanoparticles in the polar region of DPPG-rich regions appears to disturb the acyl chain packing and increase the membrane fluidity. The preferential interaction of fullerenol with lipids mostly found in bacterial membranes is of great interest for the design of new antibiotics.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/análise , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Fulerenos/análise , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Bicamadas Lipídicas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fluidez de Membrana , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/análise , Fosfatidilgliceróis/análise , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
9.
Chemistry ; 17(23): 6545-62, 2011 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21523837

RESUMO

As part of ongoing activities toward the design of potent and selective ligands against galactoside-binding proteins from animal, bacterial, and plant lectins, a systematic investigation involving the synthesis and binding evaluations of a series of original ß-C-galactopyranoside mimetics is described. The multivalent presentation of partly optimized candidates on various dendritic scaffolds through Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc) has also been achieved. Biophysical investigations based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have indicated a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range for the best optimized monovalent conjugate (K(d)=37 µM). The results thus confirmed that stable C-galactosides could represent efficient synthetic glycomimetics of natural α-linked oligosaccharidic inhibitors of PA-IL lectin (Lec A) from the pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Striking enhancements in the avidity of the glycoconjugates were also observed for tri-, hexa-, and nonavalent derivatives, among which the most potent exhibited dissociation constants below 500 nM, corresponding to a 400-fold increase in affinity compared with the ß-D-Gal-O-Me used as reference. To deepen our understanding of the binding mode of the best glycomimetics involved in the recognition process, molecular modeling studies, docking calculations, and NMR diffusion measurements have been performed. Although favorable complementary interactions induced by the addition of the hydrophobic aglycon might explain the affinity enhancement, experimental determination of the size and the topology of the multivalent conjugates further supported the formation of aggregative complexes as a major multivalent binding mode. This work represents a systematic and comprehensive study towards a thorough understanding of the protein-carbohydrate interactions involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and as such should prove useful for the development of stable and optimized anti-adhesive agents.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cobre/química , Glicoconjugados/química , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/química , Lectinas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Calorimetria , Catálise , Lectinas/metabolismo , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica
10.
J Org Chem ; 76(2): 724-7, 2011 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21190367

RESUMO

Original glycodendrimers emanating from propargylated hexaphenylbenzene cores and containing up to 54 peripheral sugar ligands have been synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed [1,3]-dipolar cycloadditions using both convergent and divergent approaches.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/síntese química , Glicoconjugados/química , Glicoconjugados/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Pargilina/química , Carboidratos/química , Catálise , Cobre/química , Glicosilação , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
11.
Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem ; 63: 165-393, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20381707

RESUMO

From the authors' opinion, this chapter constitutes a modest extension of the seminal and inspiring contribution of Stowell and Lee on neoglycoconjugates published in this series [C. P. Stowell and Y. C. Lee, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem., 37 (1980) 225-281]. The outstanding progresses achieved since then in the field of the "glycoside cluster effect" has witnessed considerable creativity in the design and synthetic strategies toward a vast array of novel carbohydrate structures and reflects the dynamic activity in the field even since the recent chapter by the Nicotra group in this series [F. Nicotra, L. Cipolla, F. Peri, B. La Ferla, and C. Radaelli, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem., 61 (2007) 353-398]. Beyond the more classical neoglycoproteins and glycopolymers (not covered in this work) a wide range of unprecedented and often artistically beautiful multivalent and monodisperse nanostructures, termed glycodendrimers for the first time in 1993, has been created. This chapter briefly surveys the concept of multivalency involved in carbohydrate-protein interactions. The topic is also discussed in regard to recent steps undertaken in glycobiology toward identification of lead candidates using microarrays and modern analytical tools. A systematic description of glycocluster and glycodendrimer synthesis follows, starting from the simplest architectures and ending in the most complex ones. Presentation of multivalent glycostructures of intermediate size and comprising, calix[n]arene, porphyrin, cyclodextrin, peptide, and carbohydrate scaffolds, has also been intercalated to better appreciate the growing synthetic complexity involved. A subsection describing novel all-carbon-based glycoconjugates such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes is inserted, followed by a promising strategy involving dendrons self-assembling around metal chelates. The chapter then ends with those glycodendrimers that have been prepared using commercially available dendrimers possessing varied functionalities, or systematically synthesized using either divergent or convergent strategies.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Glicoconjugados/síntese química , Animais , Carbono/química , Dendrímeros/química , Glicoconjugados/química , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos
12.
Org Lett ; 11(17): 3846-9, 2009 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19670852

RESUMO

One of the shortest and most efficient routes toward a series of functionalized pentahelicenes is reported. Benzylic (dibromo)methine coupling is an important entry into functional helicene chemistry. It allowed a mono- or a double functionalization by some metal-catalyzed Ar-C, Ar-S, Ar-CN, and Ar-I bond formations. Those functions offer new avenues for further applications. For instance, helicene (4) can be supported on a Ag(001) surface, which was characterized by high-resolution NC-AFM imaging.

13.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 8(14): 1237-85, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18855708

RESUMO

Carbohydrate protein interactions are at the front of several biological interactions spanning from cell growth and differentiation, cell signaling, apoptosis, cancer, and microbial infections. Classical medicinal glycochemistry has so far concentrated on designing glycosyl transferase and glycohydrolase inhibitors for which only handful candidates have emerged. Added to the complexity of drug resistances, drugs in development have rapidly witnessed this limitation as well. New approaches are therefore highly encouraged. Amongst these, blocking pathogen adhesions to host tissues as an early preventive mechanism is a foreseeable potentiality. It has the clear advantage that the pathogens are unlikely to mutate their anchoring motifs without upsetting their own binding to host tissues. An added dilemma is that these binding interactions are usually too weak to provide suitable drug candidates. As a consequence, the community has successfully come up with multivalent glycoconjugates having greatly enhanced avidity. An alternative strategy in which both monovalent ligands as well as the multivalent scaffolds undergoing QSAR improvement is thus suggested. This review will highlight recent trends toward the design of multivalent glycodendrimers and their biological applications.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Glicoconjugados/química , Animais , Dendrímeros/administração & dosagem , Dendrímeros/síntese química , Desenho de Fármacos , Glicoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Glicoconjugados/síntese química , Glicopeptídeos/química , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Poliaminas/química , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Chemistry ; 14(25): 7490-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18618537

RESUMO

Adhesion to epithelial surface is often the first step in bacterial and viral infection. In this process, the microbes use a variety of proteins for interaction with host carbohydrates presented as glycoconjugates on cell surfaces. Crystal structures of adhesin and lectin binding sites in complexes with oligosaccharide open the route for design and synthesis of glycomimetics, glycodendrimers, and glycopolymers that are able to block infection at an early stage.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Lectinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/farmacologia , Adesinas Bacterianas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Dendrímeros/síntese química , Dendrímeros/química , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Mimetismo Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Org Chem ; 73(14): 5602-5, 2008 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18572921

RESUMO

A new family of glycodendrimer scaffolds containing 12 and 18 peripheral alpha-d-mannopyranosidic units has been synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed [1,3]-dipolar cycloadditions using sulfurated dendritic scaffolds bearing alkyne functionalities and novel TRIS derivatives.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/síntese química , Manosídeos/química , Trometamina/química , Acetilação , Dendrímeros/química , Glicosilação , Estrutura Molecular , Propano/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 46(7): 1010-7, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17195264
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 45(11): 1686-712, 2006 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16511821

RESUMO

Persulfurated arenes have been known for about 50 years but they were underexploited in chemistry in spite of facile, mild, and high-yielding syntheses. Their properties (redox potentials, UV/Vis absorption, conductivity, nonlinear optical properties, etc.) are mainly due to the aromaticity of the ring with sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and to the electronic contribution from numerous divalent sulfur ligands, which also stabilize negative or positive charges. The characteristic conformational patterns of the sulfur ligands often facilitate preorganization in supramolecular assemblies, with or without thiophilic metal cations, for designing redox sensors, ion-selective membranes, clathrates, organic conductors, nonlinear optical materials, liquid crystals, coordination polymers, and bioinorganic systems. A new class of supramolecules with various molecular shapes such as asterisks, chains, wheels, and windmills were reported.

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