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1.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(9): 095001, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160594

RESUMO

Measurement of the blood T 1 time using conventional myocardial T 1 mapping methods has gained clinical significance in the context of extracellular volume (ECV) mapping and synthetic hematocrit (Hct). However, its accuracy is potentially compromised by in-flow of non-inverted/non-saturated spins and in-flow of spins which are not partially saturated from previous imaging pulses. Bloch simulations were used to analyze various flow effects separately. T 1 measurements of gadolinium doped water were performed using a flow phantom with adjustable flow velocities at 3 T. Additionally, in vivo blood T 1 measurements were performed in 6 healthy subjects (26 ± 5 years, 2 female). To study the T 1 time as a function of the instantaneous flow velocity, T 1 times were evaluated in an axial imaging slice of the descending aorta. Velocity encoded cine measurements were performed to quantify the flow velocity throughout the cardiac cycle. Simulation results show more than 30% loss in accuracy for 10% non-prepared in-flowing spins. However, in- and out-flow to the imaging plane only demonstrated minor impact on the T 1 time. Phantom T 1 times were decreased by up to 200 ms in the flow phantom, due to in-flow of non-prepared spins. High flow velocities cause in-flow of spins that lack partial saturation from the imaging pulses but only lead to negligible T 1 time deviation (less than 30 ms). In vivo measurements confirm a substantial variation of the T 1 time depending on the flow velocity. The highest aortic T 1 times are observed at the time point of minimal flow with increased flow velocity leading to reduction of the measured T 1 time by up to [Formula: see text] at peak velocity. In this work we attempt to dissect the effects of flow on T 1 times, by using simulations, well-controlled, simplified phantom setup and the linear flow pattern in the descending aorta in vivo.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Gadolínio/análise , Coração/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Magn Reson Med ; 83(6): 1940-1948, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) for simultaneous quantification of T 1 and T 2 ∗ in a single breath-hold in the kidneys. METHODS: The proposed kidney MRF sequence was based on MRF echo-planar imaging. Thirty-five measurements per slice and overall 4 slices were measured in 15.4 seconds. Group matching was performed for in-line quantification of T 1 and T 2 ∗ . Images were acquired in a phantom and 8 healthy volunteers in coronal orientation. To evaluate our approach, region of interests were drawn in the kidneys to calculate mean values and standard deviations of the T 1 and T 2 ∗ times. Precision was calculated across multiple repeated MRF scans. Gaussian filtering is applied on baseline images to improve SNR and match stability. RESULTS: T 1 and T 2 ∗ times acquired with MRF in the phantom showed good agreement with reference measurements and conventional mapping methods with deviations of less than 5% for T 1 and less than 10% for T 2 ∗ . Baseline images in vivo were free of artifacts and relaxation times yielded good agreement with conventional methods and literature (deviation T 1 : 7 ± 4 % , T 2 ∗ : 6 ± 3 % ). CONCLUSIONS: In this feasibility study, the proposed renal MRF sequence resulted in accurate T 1 and T 2 ∗ quantification in a single breath-hold.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas
3.
Magn Reson Med ; 83(1): 262-270, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of using dissolved hyperpolarized xenon-129 (129 Xe) MRI to study renal physiology in humans at 3 T. METHODS: Using a flexible transceiver RF coil, dynamic and spatially resolved 129 Xe spectroscopy was performed in the abdomen after inhalation of hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas with 3 healthy male volunteers. A transmit-only receive-only RF coil array was purpose-built to focus RF excitation and enhance sensitivity for dynamic imaging of 129 Xe uptake in the kidneys using spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state sequences. RESULTS: Using spatially resolved spectroscopy, different magnitudes of signal from 129 Xe dissolved in red blood cells and tissue/plasma could be identified in the kidneys and the aorta. The spectra from both kidneys showed peaks with similar amplitudes and chemical shift values. Imaging with the purpose-built coil array was shown to provide more than a 3-fold higher SNR in the kidneys when compared with surrounding tissues, while further physiological information from the dissolved 129 Xe in the lungs and in transit to the kidneys was provided with the transceiver coil. The signal of dissolved hyperpolarized 129 Xe could be imaged with both tested sequences for about 40 seconds after inhalation. CONCLUSION: The uptake of 129 Xe dissolved in the human kidneys was measured with spectroscopic and imaging experiments, demonstrating the potential of hyperpolarized 129 Xe MR as a novel, noninvasive technique to image human kidney tissue perfusion.


Assuntos
Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Perfusão , Isótopos de Xenônio , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Gases , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ondas de Rádio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 59: 97-104, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880113

RESUMO

Sodium (23Na) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially brain applications are increasingly interesting since sodium MRI can provide additional information about tissue viability and vitality. In order to include sodium MRI in the clinical routine, a single RF setup is preferable which provides high sodium sensitivity and full proton performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and parallel imaging performance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a double resonant receive (Rx) coil array for proton and sodium head MRI. The coil was designed to provide high sodium SNR and full proton performance comparable to commercial coils which are optimized for sodium MRI or for proton MRI, respectively. A measurement setup was built which comprised an 8-channel Rx degenerate Birdcage for sodium imaging and an 8-channel Rx array for proton imaging. The performance of the coil was evaluated against commercial sodium and proton coils using phantom and in-vivo measurements of two healthy volunteers.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Estudos de Viabilidade , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Prótons , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Sódio
5.
Z Med Phys ; 29(4): 359-367, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765196

RESUMO

Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human abdomen is of increasing clinical interest for e.g. kidney, intervertebral disks, prostate and tumor monitoring examinations in the abdomen. To overcome the low MR sensitivity of sodium, optimal radio frequency (RF) structures should be used. A common approach is to combine a volumetric transmit coil for homogeneous excitation with an array of sensitive receive coils adapted to the human shape. Additionally, proton imaging is required to match the physiological sodium images to the morphological proton images. In this work, we demonstrated the feasibility of a double resonant proton/sodium RF setup for abdominal MRI at 3T, providing a high sodium sensitivity. After extensive simulations, a 16-channel sodium receive array was built and used in combination with a volumetric sodium transmit coil. Additionally, a local proton coil was included in the setup for anatomical localizations. The setup was investigated using electromagnetic field simulations, phantom measurements and final in-vivo measurements of a healthy volunteer. A 3 to 6-fold sensitivity improvement of the sodium receive array compared to the volumetric sodium coil was achieved using the phantom simulations and measurements. Safety assessments of the local proton transmit/receive coil were performed using specific absorption rate simulations. Finally, the feasibility of such a setup was proven by in-vivo measurements.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Radiografia Abdominal/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Hidrogênio/química , Sódio/química
6.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 53: 164-172, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053430

RESUMO

Prostate MRI is an important tool to diagnose and characterize cancer. High local sensitivity and good parallel imaging performance are of paramount importance for diagnostic quality and efficiency. The purpose of this work was to evaluate stacked resonators as part of a surface receiver array for prostate MRI at 3 Tesla. A base array of 6-channels consisting of a flexible anterior and a rigid posterior part were built each with three loop coils. A pair of stacked resonators was added concentrically to the center loops (anterior and posterior) of the base array. The evaluated stacked resonators were butterflies, composites and dipoles which yielded a total of three 8-channel arrays. The arrays were compared using noise correlations and single-channel signal-to-noise ratio maps in a phantom. Combined signal-to-noise ratio maps and parallel imaging performances were measured and compared in vivo in 6 healthy volunteers. The results were compared to the base and a commercial array. The SNR values in the prostate yielded by all the arrays were not statistically different using fully sampled k-space. However, significant differences were found in the parallel imaging performance of the arrays. More specifically, up to 88% geometric factor reduction was found compared to the commercial array and up to 83% reduction compared to the base array using butterfly coils. Thus, signal-to-noise ratio improvements were observed with stacked resonators when using parallel imaging. The use of stacked elements, in particular butterfly coils, can improve the performance of a base array consisting solely of single loops when using parallel imaging. We expect prostate MRI at 3 Tesla to benefit from using combinations of single loops and stacked resonators.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Razão Sinal-Ruído
7.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 53: 7-13, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958868

RESUMO

Specific absorption rate (SAR) simulations are performed for most clinical and research transmit coil configurations. Such simulations allow the determination of limits in transmit power for patient safety. Different human models and coil configurations have been previously investigated using these simulations. However, only a few works have accounted for the effect of the receive (Rx) arrays in the SAR calculations and they have used very specialized setups or simplified detuning modeling of the Rx elements. In this work, we performed electromagnetic simulations using a clinical alike setup for whole-body scans at 3 T and head scans at 7 T. SAR simulations are performed for both setups with and without Rx arrays. A difference below 10% percent was found for max SAR. The maximum difference for the mean SAR values of the 3 T setups remained within 8% and within 15% of the 7 T setup.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Cabeça , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ondas de Rádio , Razão Sinal-Ruído
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3943, 2017 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638107

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to observe the effects of strophanthin induced inhibition of the Na-/K-ATPase in liver cells using a magnetic resonance (MR) compatible bioreactor. A microcavity array with a high density three-dimensional cell culture served as a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom for sodium multi quantum (MQ) spectroscopy. Direct contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI revealed the homogenous distribution of biochemical substances inside the bioreactor. NMR experiments using advanced bioreactors have advantages with respect to having full control over a variety of physiological parameters such as temperature, gas composition and fluid flow. Simultaneous detection of single quantum (SQ) and triple quantum (TQ) MR signals improves accuracy and was achieved by application of a pulse sequence with a time proportional phase increment (TQTPPI). The time course of the Na-/K-ATPase inhibition in the cell culture was demonstrated by the corresponding alterations of sodium TQ/SQ MR signals.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estrofantinas/administração & dosagem
9.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 313(3): F576-F584, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490528

RESUMO

Recently, new methods for assessing renal function in conscious mice (transcutaneous assessment) and for counting and sizing all glomeruli in whole kidneys (MRI) have been described. In the present study, these methods were used to assess renal structure and function in aging mice, and in mice born with a congenital low-nephron endowment. Age-related nephron loss was analyzed in adult C57BL/6 mice (10-50 wk of age), and congenital nephron deficit was assessed in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous (GDNF HET)-null mutant mice. Renal function was measured through the transcutaneous quantitation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin half-life (t1/2) in conscious mice. MRI was used to image, count, and size cationic-ferritin labeled glomeruli in whole kidneys ex vivo. Design-based stereology was used to validate the MRI measurements of glomerular number and mean volume. In adult C57BL/6 mice, older age was associated with fewer and larger glomeruli, and a rightward shift in the glomerular size distribution. These changes coincided with a decrease in renal function. GNDF HET mice had a congenital nephron deficit that was associated with glomerular hypertrophy and exacerbated by aging. These findings suggest that glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration are compensatory processes that can occur in conjunction with both age-related nephron loss and congenital nephron deficiency. The combination of measurement of renal function in conscious animals and quantitation of glomerular number, volume, and volume distribution provides a powerful new tool for investigating aspects of renal aging and functional changes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/deficiência , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Néfrons/anormalidades , Fatores Etários , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoresceínas/administração & dosagem , Fluoresceínas/farmacocinética , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Meia-Vida , Heterozigoto , Hipertrofia , Nefropatias/congênito , Glomérulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/farmacocinética , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
10.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42347, 2017 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186135

RESUMO

Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

11.
Z Med Phys ; 26(1): 54-62, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26777317

RESUMO

A method to measure total glomerular number (Nglom) in whole mouse kidneys using MRI is presented. The method relies on efficient acquisition times. A 9.4 T preclinical MRI system with a surface cryogenic coil and a 3D gradient echo sequence were used to image nine whole ex vivo BALB/c mouse kidneys labelled with cationized-ferritin (CF). A novel method to segment the glomeruli was developed. The quantification of glomeruli was achieved by identifying and fitting the probability distribution of glomeruli thus reducing variations due to noise. For validation, Nglom of the same kidneys were also obtained using the gold standard: design-based stereology. Excellent agreement was found between the MRI and stereological measurements of Nglom, with values differing by less than 4%: (mean ± SD) MRI = 15 606±1 178; stereology = 16 273±1 523. Using a robust segmentation method and a reliable quantification method, it was possible to acquire Nglom with a scanning time of 33minutes and 20seconds. This was more than 8 times faster than previously presented MRI-based methods. Thus, an efficient approach to measure Nglom ex vivo in health and disease is provided.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Glomérulos Renais/citologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Animais , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 44(8): 1861-1866, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26631543

RESUMO

This work examines the variation of longitudinal relaxation rate R1(= 1/T1) of the 19F-CF3-resonance of semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) with oxygen tension (pO2), temperature (T) and pH in vitro. Contrary to their related perfluorocarbons (PFCs), SFA are amphiphilic and facilitate stable emulsions, a prerequisite for clinical use. A linear relationship between R1 and pO2 was confirmed for the observed SFAs at different temperatures. Using a standard saturation recovery sequence, T1 has been successfully measured using fluorine 19F-MRI with a self-constructed birdcage resonator at 9.4 T. A calibration curve to calculate pO2 depending on T and R1 was found for each SFA used. In contrast to the commonly used PFC, SFAs are less sensitive to changes in pO2, but more sensitive to changes in temperature. The influence of pH to R1 was found to be negligible.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética de Flúor-19/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Oximetria/métodos , Animais , Humanos
13.
Z Med Phys ; 24(4): 286-306, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24931712

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. In Europe alone, at least 8% of the population currently has some degree of CKD. CKD is associated with serious comorbidity, reduced life expectancy, and high economic costs; hence, the early detection and adequate treatment of kidney disease is important. Pre-clinical research can not only give insights into the mechanisms of the various kidney diseases but it also allows for investigating the outcome of new drugs developed to treat kidney disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive access to tissue and organ function in animal models. Advantages over classical animal research approaches are numerous: the same animal might be repeatedly imaged to investigate a progress or a treatment of disease over time. This has also a direct impact on animal welfare and the refinement of classical animal experiments as the number of animals in the studies might be reduced. In this paper, we review current state of the art in functional magnetic resonance imaging with a focus on pre-clinical kidney imaging.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Ratos
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