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1.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(1): 1-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, lack of evidence for effective management of decay in primary teeth has caused uncertainty, but there is emerging evidence to support alternative strategies to conventional fillings, which are minimally invasive and prevention orientated. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were (1) to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three strategies for managing caries in primary teeth and (2) to assess quality of life, dental anxiety, the acceptability and experiences of children, parents and dental professionals, and caries development and/or progression. DESIGN: This was a multicentre, three-arm parallel-group, participant-randomised controlled trial. Allocation concealment was achieved by use of a centralised web-based randomisation facility hosted by Newcastle Clinical Trials Unit. SETTING: This trial was set in primary dental care in Scotland, England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were NHS patients aged 3-7 years who were at a high risk of tooth decay and had at least one primary molar tooth with decay into dentine, but no pain/sepsis. INTERVENTIONS: Three interventions were employed: (1) conventional with best-practice prevention (local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal, filling placement), (2) biological with best-practice prevention (sealing-in decay, selective carious tissue removal and fissure sealants) and (3) best-practice prevention alone (dietary and toothbrushing advice, topical fluoride and fissure sealing of permanent teeth). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The clinical effectiveness outcomes were the proportion of children with at least one episode (incidence) and the number of episodes, for each child, of dental pain or dental sepsis or both over the follow-up period. The cost-effectiveness outcomes were the cost per incidence of, and cost per episode of, dental pain and/or dental sepsis avoided over the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 72 dental practices were recruited and 1144 participants were randomised (conventional arm, n = 386; biological arm, n = 381; prevention alone arm, n = 377). Of these, 1058 were included in an intention-to-treat analysis (conventional arm, n = 352; biological arm, n = 352; prevention alone arm, n = 354). The median follow-up time was 33.8 months (interquartile range 23.8-36.7 months). The proportion of children with at least one episode of pain or sepsis or both was 42% (conventional arm), 40% (biological arm) and 45% (prevention alone arm). There was no evidence of a difference in incidence or episodes of pain/sepsis between arms. When comparing the biological arm with the conventional arm, the risk difference was -0.02 (97.5% confidence interval -0.10 to 0.06), which indicates, on average, a 2% reduced risk of dental pain and/or dental sepsis in the biological arm compared with the conventional arm. Comparing the prevention alone arm with the conventional arm, the risk difference was 0.04 (97.5% confidence interval -0.04 to 0.12), which indicates, on average, a 4% increased risk of dental pain and/or dental sepsis in the prevention alone arm compared with the conventional arm. Compared with the conventional arm, there was no evidence of a difference in episodes of pain/sepsis among children in the biological arm (incident rate ratio 0.95, 97.5% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.21, which indicates that there were slightly fewer episodes, on average, in the biological arm than the conventional arm) or in the prevention alone arm (incident rate ratio 1.18, 97.5% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.48, which indicates that there were slightly more episodes in the prevention alone arm than the conventional arm). Over the willingness-to-pay values considered, the probability of the biological treatment approach being considered cost-effective was approximately no higher than 60% to avoid an incidence of dental pain and/or dental sepsis and no higher than 70% to avoid an episode of pain/sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of an overall difference between the three treatment approaches for experience of, or number of episodes of, dental pain or dental sepsis or both over the follow-up period. FUTURE WORK: Recommendations for future work include exploring barriers to the use of conventional techniques for carious lesion detection and diagnosis (e.g. radiographs) and developing and evaluating suitable techniques and strategies for use in young children in primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77044005. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 1. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

2.
Br Dent J ; 227(12): 1051-1057, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873264

RESUMO

Objectives The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) have recently updated nutritional guidelines for a reduced sugar intake. With the increased popularity of online health-food bloggers and 'refined-sugar free' recipes, this review looked to analyse recipes from popular online bloggers to validate the veracity of their 'sugar-free' and 'healthy' claims and assess their adherence to recently implemented nutritional guidelines.Method Four bloggers were randomly selected from the Amazon top 10 booklist and their online blogs were consulted for a selection of recipes which were then nutritionally analysed in relation to their sugar and fat content.Results Eighty percent of the recipes analysed contained more fat than a Mars bar and 70% contained more fat than a popular online cake recipe, while 25% of the recipes contained over half of the recommended daily sugar intake as advised by the SACN and the WHO. None of the bloggers analysed used evidence-based approaches for the advice on their blogs.Conclusion Bloggers offer an invaluable platform to disseminate dietary advice to the public; however the recipes in this analysis were not healthy alternatives. The challenge is for government and health organisations to use this platform to promote alternative healthy eating options that align to current national and international guidance.


Assuntos
Blogging , Alimentos , Recomendações Nutricionais
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and is associated with adverse health and economic consequences for infants and their families. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children have a higher risk of early childhood caries (ECC). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions with pregnant women, new mothers or other primary caregivers of infants in the first year of life, for preventing ECC (from birth to six years of age). SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 14 January 2019), Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (to 22 January 2019), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Register of Studies, to 14 January 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 14 January 2019), Embase Ovid (1980 to 14 January 2019) and CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 14 January 2019). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing one or more interventions with pregnant women, mothers, or other caregivers of infants in the first year of life (intervention types included clinical, oral health education/promotion such as hygiene education, breastfeeding and other dietary advice, and policy or health service), versus standard care or placebo or another intervention. For inclusion, trials had to report at least one caries outcome. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and assessed certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 RCTs (4 cluster-randomised), involving 23,732 caregivers (mainly mothers) and their children. Eleven RCTs assessed four oral health education/promotion interventions against standard care: child diet advice, child diet and feeding practice advice, breastfeeding promotion and support, and oral hygiene with child diet and feeding practice advice. Six trials assessed clinical interventions in mother's dentition, four trials chlorhexidine (CHX, a commonly prescribed antiseptic agent) or iodine-NaF application and prophylaxis versus placebo, and two trials xylitol against CHX or CHX + xylitol. At most, three trials (maximum of 1148 children and 130 mothers) contributed data to any comparison. For many trials, risk of bias was judged unclear due to lack of methodological details reported, and there was high risk of attrition bias in some trials. None of the included trials indicated receiving funding that is likely to have influenced their results. The trials were performed in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In nine trials, participants were socioeconomically disadvantaged. For child diet and feeding practice advice versus standard care, we observed a probable 15 per cent reduced risk of caries presence in primary teeth with the intervention (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.97; 3 trials; 782 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and there may be a lower mean dmfs (decayed, missing, filled primary surfaces) score (MD -0.29, 95% CI -0.58 to 0; 2 trials; 757 participants; low-certainty evidence); however, we are uncertain regarding the difference between the groups in mean dmft (decayed, missing, filled teeth) score (MD -0.90, 95% CI -1.85 to 0.05; 1 trial; 340 participants; very low-certainty evidence). For breastfeeding promotion and support versus standard care, we observed that there may be little or no a difference between groups in the risk of caries presence in primary teeth (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.03; 2 trials; 1148 participants; low-certainty evidence), or mean dmft score (MD -0.12, 95% CI -0.59 to 0.36; 2 trials; 652 participants; low-certainty evidence). Dmfs was not reported for this comparison. We are uncertain whether child diet advice only compared with standard care reduces risk of caries presence in primary teeth (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.34 to 3.37; 1 trial; 148 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Dmfs and dmft were not reported for this comparison. For oral hygiene, child diet and feeding practice advice versus standard care, we observed little or no reduced risk of caries presence in primary teeth (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.10; 2 trials; 365 participants; low-certainty evidence), and are uncertain regarding difference between the groups in mean dmfs score (MD -0.99, 95% CI -2.45 to 0.47; 1 trial; 187 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and dmft score (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.96 to 0.36; 1 trial; 187 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We observed there may be little or no difference in risk of caries presence in primary teeth between antimicrobial and placebo treatment in mother's dentition (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.19; 3 trials; 479 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No trials assessing this comparison reported dmfs or dmft. For xylitol compared with CHX antimicrobial treatment, we observed there may be a lower mean dmft score with xylitol (MD -2.39; 95% CI -4.10 to -0.68; 1 trial, 113 participants; low-certainty evidence); however, we are uncertain regarding the difference between groups in caries presence in primary teeth (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.39; 1 trial, 96 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Neither trial evaluating this comparison reported dmfs. No trials assessed a health policy or service intervention. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that providing advice on diet and feeding to pregnant women, mothers or other caregivers with children up to the age of one year probably leads to a slightly reduced risk of early childhood caries (ECC). The remaining evidence is low to very low certainty and is insufficient for determining which, if any, other interventions types and features may be effective for preventing ECC. Large, high-quality RCTs of oral health education/promotion, clinical, and policy and service access interventions, are warranted to determine effects and relative effects of different interventions and inform practice. We have identified 12 studies currently in progress. Those designing future studies should describe the intervention components, setting and participants, consider if and how effects are modified by intervention features and participant characteristics, and adopt a consistent approach to measuring and reporting ECC.

4.
Endocr Pract ; 25(12): 1255-1262, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412230

RESUMO

Objective: Differentiated thyroid cancer patients uncommonly present with bone metastasis as the initial manifestation. Their molecular profile is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathology, molecular profiles, and response to radioactive iodine therapy in these patients. Methods: Eight patients presented with symptomatic bone metastasis from an unknown primary tumor. We identified these patients by performing a retrospective chart review. Pathology slides were reviewed and the molecular analysis of 112 thyroid cancer-related genes was performed on bone metastasis specimens using targeted next-generation sequencing. Results: These patients presented with long bone fractures, spinal cord compression, or intractable bone pain. Histopathologic analysis of the bone and thyroid tumor specimens revealed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in 7 patients and tall cell variant papillary carcinoma in 1 patient. Primary tumor size ranged from 0.4 to 7.5 cm. All patients received high dose radioiodine therapy following thyroidectomy. Molecular analysis revealed telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mutations in 7 (88%) tumors, 4 (50%) contained co-occurring TERT and RAS GTPase gene (RAS) mutations, 2 had isolated TERT mutations, and 1 had TERT and proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF) V600E mutations, respectively. Tumors carrying RAS, TERT, or a combination of these mutations were radioiodine-avid, with predictable tumor response and reduction in serum thyroglobulin levels. One patient with radioiodine-refractory disease harbored BRAF and TERT mutations. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that differentiated thyroid cancers presenting with bone metastasis independent of the primary tumor size have a high prevalence of TERT mutations, frequently coexisting with RAS mutations. This molecular signature may predict a favorable response to radioiodine therapy. Abbreviations: BRAF = proto-oncogene B-Raf; DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; DTC = differentiated thyroid cancer; FV = follicular variant; PTC = papillary thyroid carcinoma; RAI = radioactive iodine; RAS = Ras GTPase gene; TERT = telomerase reverse transcriptase; TG = thyroglobulin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 27(2): 107-113, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084060

RESUMO

Interpretative criteria for programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been largely based on data from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, despite the fact that cytologic specimens, especially cell blocks, are often the only or most readily available tissue for testing. Unlike biopsy specimens, however, cytology sample processing methods can vary markedly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of several common preanalytic variables on PD-L1 IHC. Two cell lines with strong expression of PD-L1 (H441) and no expression (MCF7) were cultured in vitro. Harvested cells were collected in PreservCyt, CytoLyt, cell culture media (RPMI), saline, and formalin. Cell blocks were prepared by the plasma-thromboplastin method or Cellient automated system and stained with the FDA-approved 28-8 PD-L1 antibody per protocol. PD-L1 expression was scored manually by 3 pathologists for stain intensity and localization and compared across preparation methods. Several IHC staining patterns were observed: complete membranous, partial membranous, globular, and cytoplasmic, with some overlap. Cellient blocks had the best interobserver agreement and cytomorphology, highest proportion of strong complete membranous staining (82%), and least amount of cytoplasmic (11%) and globular staining (8%). RPMI, saline, and formalin samples demonstrated increased amounts of cytoplasmic and globular staining relative to Cellient, while CytoLyt exhibited the poorest performance overall. Interpretation of PD-L1 IHC on cell blocks is feasible for most processing methods examined, but may require recognition of increased cytoplasmic and globular staining in some sample types. Cellient cell blocks demonstrated superior performance compared with other methods.

6.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 46(5): 492-499, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and caries among Malaysian children following the reduction in fluoride concentration from 0.7 to 0.5 parts per million (ppm) in the public water supply. METHODS: This study involved lifelong residents aged 9- and 12-year-olds in fluoridated and nonfluoridated areas in Malaysia (n = 1155). In the fluoridated area, children aged 12 years and 9 years were exposed to 0.7 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, at the times when maxillary central incisors developed. Standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors were blind scored for fluorosis using Dean's criteria. Dental caries was examined using ICDAS-II criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of fluorosis (Dean's score ≥ 2) among children in the fluoridated area (35.7%, 95% CI: 31.9%-39.6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than children in the nonfluoridated area (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.6%-7.4%). Of those in the fluoridated area, the prevalence of fluorosis decreased from 38.4% (95% CI: 33.1%-44.3%) for 12-year-olds to 31.9% (95% CI: 27.6%-38.2%) for 9-year-olds, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.139). The mean caries experience in the permanent dentition was significantly lower in the fluoridated area than in the nonfluoridated area for both age groups (P < 0.05). In the multivariate models, the difference in the differences of caries experience between fluoridated and nonfluoridated areas remained statistically significant. This suggests that caries-preventive effect is still maintained at 0.5 ppm. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that the change in fluoride level from 0.7 to 0.5 ppm has reduced fluorosis and maintains a caries-preventive effect. Although there is a reduction in fluorosis prevalence, the difference was not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Criança , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 7(5): 323-328, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623910

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: EUS guided core biopsy was once rarely performed but is now entering mainstream practice. Neuroendocrine tumors often warrant core biopsy as sufficient tissue must be obtained to allow for special staining to ensure a correct diagnosis. Traditionally these lesions were sampled with FNA needles. We performed a retrospective pilot study to evaluate the clinical value and efficacy of the a new EUS core needle biopsy needle as compared to a standard EUS FNA needle in the evaluation of patients with known or suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the first 10 patients (between January 2015 and April 2016) to undergo EUS-FNA with the SharkCore® needle at the University of Utah School of Medicine/Huntsman Cancer Center with neuroendocrine tumors. Each case was retrospectively reviewed by a board certified cytopathologist (BLW) for the following cytologic parameters on the aspirate smears or touch/squash preparations: overall cellularity [1 (low) to 3 (high)], percentage of obtained cells that were lesional/representative (<25%, 26%-50%, and >50%), relative ease of interpretation [1 (difficult) to 3 (easy)]. Pathologic material and reporting records were also reviewed for each case to confirm the number of needle passes to achieve diagnostic adequacy, the presence or absence diagnostic material on H&E slide (from cell block, if prepared), whether a definitive diagnosis was able to be rendered, and the presence or absence of a true core/core fragments (within the cell block, if prepared). Results: A total of 20 patients underwent EUS-FNA for suspected neuroendocrine lesions. Ten patients underwent either transgastric or transduodenal EUS-FNA with the 22 gauge SharkCore® needle. The comparison cohort of 10 patients underwent either transgastric or transduodenal EUS-FNA with the standard 22 gauge Echotip® needle. The SharkCore® needle required a fewer mean number of needle passes to obtain diagnostic adequacy than the Echotip® (P=0.0074). For cases with cell blocks, the SharkCore® needle produced diagnostic material in 100% of cases, whereas Echotip® produced diagnostic material in 60% of cases. There was no significant difference between specimen cellularity, percentage of lesional material, or ease of interpretation between the two needle types. Conclusion: Our pilot investigation targeting patients with known or suspected pancreatic NETs indicates that the SharkCore® needle shows promise in obtaining suitable tissue for ancillary testing that can allow for more definitive pathologic interpretations on EUS FNA specimens. Fewer passes were needed with the core needle when compared to a standard needle.

8.
J Dent ; 72: 1-7, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522787

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to review patterns of restoration placement and replacement. A previous study had been carried out in the late 1990s and this study sought to update the literature in this important aspect of dental practice. METHOD: Studies based on the protocol of Mjör (1981) were selected. Such studies involved participating dentists completing a proforma each time a patient presented for a new or replacement restoration. RESULTS: Twenty-five papers were included in this study, of which 12 were included in the original review. The pre-1998 review reported on the placement of 32,697 restorations, of which 14,391 (44%) were initial placements and 18,306 (56%) were replacements. The new studies included in the post-1998 review reported on an additional 54,023 restorations, of which 22,625 (41.9%) were initial placements and 31,398 (58.1%) were replacements. Therefore, across all studies considered, information is available on 86,720 restorations, of which 37,016 (42.7%) were new placements and 49,704 (57.3%) were replacements. Comparing review periods, there was a reduction in the placement of amalgam restorations from 56.7% (pre-1998 review) to 31.2% (post-1998 review), with a corresponding increase in the placement of resin composites from 36.7% to 48.5%. The most common use of amalgam was seen in Nigeria (71% of restorations), Jordan (59% of restorations) and the UK (47% of restorations). The most frequent use of resin composite was seen in Australia (55% of restorations), Iceland (53% of restorations) and Scandinavia (52% of restorations). Secondary caries was the most common reason for replacing restorations (up to 59% of replacement restorations). CONCLUSION: In the years subsequent to the initial review, replacement of restorations still accounts for more than half of restorations placed by dentists, and the proportion of replacement restorations continues to increase. Trends towards the increased use of resin composites is noted in recent years. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Further research is required in this area to investigate changes in the approaches to the restoration of teeth, especially with increased understanding of the concept of restoration repair as an alternate to replacement.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/uso terapêutico , Amálgama Dentário/uso terapêutico , Restauração Dentária Permanente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Reparação de Restauração Dentária , Odontólogos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Retratamento
9.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 46(5): 443-446, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218797

RESUMO

Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare variant of cervical squamous cell carcinoma with unclear HPV and EBV association. Due to the accompanying and often obscuring lymphocytic inflammation, malignant cells may be difficult to recognize on cytologic samples and can mimic several more common benign and atypical cervical lesions. In this case report, we describe the cytomorphologic findings of LELC by liquid-based cytology in a 59-year-old Caucasian woman who was positive for high risk HPV but had no visible cervical lesions. We also discuss the differential diagnosis, diagnostic pitfalls, and practical considerations for diagnosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Citodiagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
10.
Health Technol Assess ; 21(21): 1-256, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fissure sealant (FS) and fluoride varnish (FV) have been shown to be effective in preventing dental caries when tested against a no-treatment control. However, the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars (FPMs) in 6- and 7-year-olds and to determine their acceptability. DESIGN: A randomised controlled allocation-blinded clinical trial with two parallel arms. SETTING: A targeted population programme using mobile dental clinics (MDCs) in schools located in areas of high social and economic deprivation in South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1016 children were randomised, but one parent subsequently withdrew permission and so the analysis was based on 1015 children. The randomisation of participants was stratified by school and balanced for sex and primary dentition baseline caries levels using minimisation in a 1 : 1 ratio for treatments. A random component was added to the minimisation algorithm, such that it was not completely deterministic. Of the participants, 514 were randomised to receive FS and 502 were randomised to receive FV. INTERVENTIONS: Resin-based FS was applied to caries-free FPMs and maintained at 6-monthly intervals. FV was applied at baseline and at 6-month intervals over the course of 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of children developing caries into dentine (decayed, missing, filled teeth in permanent dentition, i.e. D4-6MFT) on any one of up to four treated FPMs after 36 months. The assessors were blinded to treatment allocation; however, the presence or absence of FS at assessment would obviously indicate the probable treatment received. Economic measures established the costs and budget impact of FS and FV and the relative cost-effectiveness of these technologies. Qualitative interviews determined the acceptability of the interventions. RESULTS: At 36 months, 835 (82%) children remained in the trial: 417 in the FS arm and 418 in the FV arm. The proportion of children who developed caries into dentine on a least one FPM was lower in the FV arm (73; 17.5%) than in the FS arm (82, 19.6%) [odds ratio (OR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.21; p = 0.35] but the difference was not statistically significant. The results were similar when the numbers of newly decayed teeth (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.22) and tooth surfaces (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.21) were examined. Trial fidelity was high: 95% of participants received five or six of the six scheduled treatments. Between 74% and 93% of sealants (upper and lower teeth) were intact at 36 months. The costs of the two technologies showed a small but statistically significant difference; the mean cost to the NHS (including intervention costs) per child was £500 for FS, compared with £432 for FV, a difference of £68.13 (95% CI £5.63 to £130.63; p = 0.033) in favour of FV. The budget impact analysis suggests that there is a cost saving of £68.13 (95% CI £5.63 to £130.63; p = 0.033) per child treated if using FV compared with the application of FS over this time period. An acceptability score completed by the children immediately after treatment and subsequent interviews demonstrated that both interventions were acceptable to the children. No adverse effects were reported. LIMITATIONS: There are no important limitations to this study. CONCLUSIONS: In a community oral health programme utilising MDCs and targeted at children with high caries risk, the twice-yearly application of FV resulted in caries prevention that is not significantly different from that obtained by applying and maintaining FSs after 36 months. FV proved less expensive. FUTURE WORK: The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FS and FV following the cessation of active intervention merits investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2010-023476-23, Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17029222 and UKCRN reference 9273. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 21, No. 21. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cariostáticos/economia , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos Tópicos/economia , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/economia , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Orçamentos , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/economia , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Medicina Estatal/economia , Reino Unido
11.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 45(4): 330-336, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295476

RESUMO

AIMS: Whilst there is a considerable body of literature examining the pharmacology of conscious sedation, the social tasks required to successfully provide conscious sedation have not been reported. This paper discusses data regarding the interpersonal work integral to effective conscious sedation provision, from a larger qualitative study exploring how patients and clinicians engage with secondary care conscious sedation provided within the UK. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 conscious sedation providers and nine patients within UK-based secondary care sedation settings. Digital audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analysed using a constant comparative method within NVivo Data Analysis Software. RESULTS: Four main themes of interpersonal work were reported by participants: displaying care, containing emotions, demonstrating competence and maximizing the effect. CONCLUSION: This study shows that performing conscious sedation requires more than technical delivery, and involves the projection of attributes in a literal "performance." The importance of managing outward emotional appearance reflects previous dental research. The need to manage outward appearance, and the emotional impact this has, is of relevance to all clinicians.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária , Sedação Consciente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Anestesia Dentária/psicologia , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Sedação Consciente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Am Soc Cytopathol ; 6(1): 24-27, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because of consistent demand for identification of molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment, ancillary tests are increasingly being developed for cytology specimens. One time-consuming step in this procedure is glass coverslip removal by xylene. Here we describe a method for rapid coverslip removal using liquid nitrogen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct smears were prepared from residual pleural fluid, Diff-Quik stained, then covered with a glass coverslip. Coverslips were then removed by either immersing the slides in xylene for 3 to 4 days, or by a razor blade after rapidly freezing the slides in liquid nitrogen. The DNA or RNA was extracted, and the quantities of DNA and RNA were evaluated. The amplifiability of the DNA and RNA was also evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. RESULTS: The concentrations of DNA isolated using the two procedures are not significantly different (2.79 µg/mL with liquid nitrogen method versus 2.56 µg/mL with xylene method, n = 5). Similar results were observed for RNA concentration (13.28 µg/mL versus 12.22 µg/mL). The DNA extracted from the two procedures can be amplified without significant difference. Similar results were obtained from real time RT-PCR for RNA samples. CONCLUSIONS: By removing the coverslip from the cytology slides using the liquid nitrogen method, DNA and RNA can be extracted from the slides without affecting the quantity and quality of the nucleic acids, and is equivalent to the xylene coverslip removal method.

13.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 5(3): 178-83, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27386475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Standard endoscopic ultrasound-fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) needles are in widespread use. Meaningful differences between the available needles have been difficult to identify. Recently, a new EUS needle (Shark Core®, Covidien, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland), has been introduced in an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, tissue yield, and to potentially obtain a core tissue sample. We performed a pilot study prospectively to evaluate this new needle when compared to a standard EUS-FNA needle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of the first 15 patients undergoing EUS-FNA with the Shark Core needle was performed and it was compared to EUS-FNA in 15 patients who underwent EUS-FNA with a standard needle. RESULTS: The Shark Core needle required fewer needle passes to obtain diagnostic adequacy than the standard needle [(χ(2)(1) = 11.3, P < 0.001]. The Shark Core needle required 1.5 passes to reach adequacy, whereas the standard needle required three passes. For cases with cell blocks, the Shark Core needle produced diagnostic material in 85% of cases [95% confidence interval (CI): 54-98], whereas the standard needle produced diagnostic material in 38% of the cases (95% CI: 9-76). The Shark Core needle produced actual tissue cores 82% of the time (95% CI: 48-98) and the standard needle produced no tissue cores (95% CI: 0-71) (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: This pilot study found that the Shark Core needle had a high rate of producing adequate cytologic material for the diagnosis of pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions sampled by EUS with fewer passes required to obtain a definitive diagnosis and with a high rate of tissue cores being obtained when compared to a standard FNA needle.

14.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 44(2): 73-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy and reproducibility of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. METHODS: Fifty cases of NSCLC diagnosed by FNA having either concurrent core biopsies or resection as a diagnostic reference standard were selected. FNA slides were reviewed independently by five blinded observers. Two rounds of review were performed. Cases were initially categorized as SCC, favor SCC, NSCLC (type indeterminate), favor ADC, or ADC; while the indeterminate category was eliminated in the second round of review. RESULTS: The interobserver agreement was 0.22 and 0.1 with and without the indeterminate category, respectively. The overall accuracy for differentiating between SCC and ADC of the lung was 65% with the indeterminate category and 66% without. CONCLUSION: Overall, the low interobserver agreement in our study indicates that accurate subclassification between the NSCLCs often cannot be made by cytomorphology alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/normas , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 43(10): 797-801, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26153872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines which include a diagnostic scheme with the categories "atypical" and "suspicious for malignancy." These intermediate categories may help stratify risk of malignancy for samples obtained from the bile and pancreatic ducts. However, the reproducibility of these intermediate categories is currently unknown. METHODS: Twenty sequential brushing specimens of bile or pancreatic ducts from each of the categories "atypical" and "suspicious for malignancy" were identified and the slides retrieved. All 40 cases were reviewed independently by four cytopathologists blinded to the original diagnoses. Resulting review diagnoses were statistically analyzed for agreement and the Kappa statistic calculated. Agreement of the observers' diagnoses with original diagnoses was also evaluated. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was graded as slight to fair with observers agreeing in about 50% of cases. The corresponding kappa statistic for the category "atypical" was 0.21 and 0.18 for the category "suspicious for malignancy." Reviewer agreement with the original reference diagnosis occurred in approximately one half of review diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Analysis of agreement shows that interobserver agreement was only slight to fair. Despite the categories "atypical" and "suspicious for malignancy" having distinct risks of malignancy (62% versus 74%), the reproducibility of these categories is relatively poor. A single intermediate category may improve reproducibility over the scheme proposed by the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology while maintaining an ability to stratify risk of malignancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biópsia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Prim Dent J ; 4(4): 67-73, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26966776

RESUMO

The management of carious primary teeth is a challenge for patients, parents and clinicians. Most evidence supporting different management strategies originates from a specialist setting and therefore its relevance to the primary care setting is questionable. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has commissioned the FiCTION (Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated Or Not?) trial; a multi-centre primary dental care randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the most clinically and cost- effective approach to managing caries in the primary dentition in the UK. This large trial began in 2012, is due to be completed in late 2017 and involves 72 practices and 1,124 children initially aged three to seven years with dentine caries, following randomisation to one of three caries management strategies. Clinical, radiographic, quality of life, treatment acceptability and health economics data are collected during the three-year follow up period. This article provides an overview of the development and conduct of FiCTION and discusses some approaches adopted to manage challenges and achieve the patient recruitment target.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/terapia , Odontologia Geral , Projetos de Pesquisa , Dente Decíduo , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Odontologia Estatal , Reino Unido
19.
Dig Dis Sci ; 59(9): 2320-4, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24748183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is very often an adulthood disease with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as one of the risk factors. It is rarely seen in the pediatric population, and when it is diagnosed before adulthood, it can be associated with PSC as well as HIV infection, biliary atresia, radiation therapy, and choledochal cyst. Although there have been some case reports of pediatric CCA, cases of childhood CCA associated with PSC are still relatively rare. AIM: To describe the clinical and pathologic features of CCA in pediatric patients with previously diagnosed PSC. METHODS: Retrospective study RESULTS: Four patients with PSC (age range 15-18, mean 17 years) were included in this study. All patients underwent ERCP for diagnosis. Tissue samples obtained included routine cytology and FISH. ERCP was used to target sites for tissue acquisition in all patients. 3/4 of patients have inflammatory bowel disease (two Crohn's disease and one ulcerative colitis). Alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 3/4 patients, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase were elevated in 2/4 patients, and total bilirubin/direct bilirubin were elevated in 2/4 patients. 4/4 patients had positive FISH studies, and 3/4 patients had brush cytology concerning for CCA. 2/4 patients received chemotherapy, one patient underwent orthotopic liver transplant, and one patient underwent Whipple procedure. Two patients died soon after being diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with PSC can develop CCA. This finding has implications for both screening and surveillance for cancer in pediatric patients with PSC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/secundário , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Colangite Esclerosante/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/complicações , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/terapia , Colangiocarcinoma/complicações , Colangiocarcinoma/terapia , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Dent ; 42(3): 229-39, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24140926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neglect of a child's oral health can lead to pain, poor growth and impaired quality of life. In populations where there is a high prevalence of dental caries, the determination of which children are experiencing dental neglect is challenging. This systematic review aims to identify the features of oral neglect in children. METHODS: Fifteen databases spanning 1947-2012 were searched; these were supplemented by hand searching of 4 specialist journals, 5 websites and references of full texts. Included: studies of children 0-18 years with confirmed oral neglect undergoing a standardised dental examination; excluded: physical/sexual abuse. All relevant studies underwent two independent reviews (+/- 3rd review) using standardised critical appraisal. RESULTS: Of 3863 potential studies screened, 83 studies were reviewed and 9 included (representing 1595 children). Features included: failure or delay in seeking dental treatment; failure to comply with/complete treatment; failure to provide basic oral care; co-existent adverse impact on the child e.g. pain and swelling. Two studies developed and implemented 'dental neglect' screening tools with success. The importance of Quality of Life tools to identify impact of neglected dental care are also highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: A small body of literature addresses this topic, using varying definitions of neglect, and standards of oral examination. While failure/delay in seeking care with adverse dental consequences were highlighted, differentiating dental caries from dental neglect is difficult, and there is a paucity of data on precise clinical features to aid in this distinction. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Diagnosing dental neglect can be challenging, influencing a reluctance to report cases. Published evidence does exist to support these referrals when conditions as above are described, although further quality case control studies defining distinguishing patterns of dental caries would be welcome.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Bucal
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