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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 79: 121-134, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784438

RESUMO

Air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continually measured at a monitoring site in Shenyang from 20 August to 16 September 2017. The average concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and carbonyls were 28.54, 6.30, 5.59 and 9.78 ppbv, respectively. Seven sources were identified by the Positive Matrix Factorization model based on the measurement data of VOCs and CO. Vehicle exhaust contributed the most (36.15%) to the total propene-equivalent concentration of the measured VOCs, followed by combustion emission (16.92%), vegetation emission and secondary formation (14.33%), solvent usage (10.59%), petrochemical industry emission (9.89%), petrol evaporation (6.28%), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage (5.84%). Vehicle exhaust, solvent usage and combustion emission were found to be the top three VOC sources for O3 formation potential, accounting for 34.52%, 16.55% and 11.94%, respectively. The diurnal variation of the total VOCs from each source could be well explained by their emission characteristics, e.g., the two peaks of VOC concentrations from LPG usage were in line with the cooking times for breakfast and lunch. Wind rose plots of the VOCs from each source could reveal the possible distribution of the sources around the monitoring site. The O3 pollution episodes during the measurement period were found to be coincident with the elevation of VOCs, which was mainly due to the air parcel from the southeast direction where petrochemical industry emission was found to be dominant, suggesting that the petrochemical industry emission from the southeast was probably a significant cause of O3 pollution in Shenyang.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Solventes , Emissões de Veículos
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 71: 150-167, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195674

RESUMO

Continuous observation of isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene was carried out in a typical urban area of Beijing from March 2014 to February 2015, using an AirmoVOC online analyzer. Based on the analysis of the ambient level and variation characteristics of isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene, the chemical reactivity was studied, and their sources were identified. Results showed that the concentrations of isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene in the urban area of Beijing were lower than those in richly vegetated areas; the concentrations of isoprene were at a moderate level compared with those of previous studies of Beijing. Concentrations of isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene showed different seasonal, monthly, daily and diurnal variations, and all of the three species showed higher level at night than those in the daytime as a whole, the variations of isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene mainly influenced by emission of sources, photochemical reaction, and meteorological parameters. Isoprene was the largest contributor to the total OFP values than α-pinene and ß-pinene. α-Pinene was the largest contributor to the total SOAFP values than isoprene and ß-pinene in autumn, while isoprene was the largest one in other seasons. Isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene were derived mainly from biological sources; and α-pinene level were also affected by industrial sources. To reduce the concentrations of isoprene, α-pinene and ß-pinene, it is necessary to scientifically select urban green plant species, and more strict control measures should be taken to reduce the emission of α-pinene from industrial sources, such as artificial flavors and resins synthesis processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Butadienos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hemiterpenos/análise , Pentanos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Atmosfera/química , Pequim
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 71: 188-196, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195677

RESUMO

In order to understand the size distribution and the main kind of heavy metals in particulate matter on the lead and zinc smelting affected area, particulate matter (PM) and the source samples were collected in Zhuzhou, Hunan Province from December 2011 to January 2012 and the results were discussed and interpreted. Atmospheric particles were collected with different sizes by a cascade impactor. The concentrations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles of different sizes, collected from the air and from factories, were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results indicated that the average concentration of PM, chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in PM was 177.3 ±â€¯33.2 µg/m3, 37.3 ±â€¯8.8 ng/m3, 17.3 ±â€¯8.1 ng/m3, 4.8 ±â€¯3.1 ng/m3 and 141.6 ±â€¯49.1 ng/m3, respectively. The size distribution of PM displayed a bimodal distribution; the maximum PM size distribution was at 1.1-2.1 µm, followed by 9-10 µm. The size distribution of As, Cd and Pb in PM was similar to the distribution of the PM mass, with peaks observed at the range of 1.1-2.1 µm and 9-10 µm ranges while for Cr, only a single-mode at 4.7-5.8 µm was observed. PM (64.7%), As (72.5%), Cd (72.2%) and Pb (75.8%) were associated with the fine mode below 2.1 µm, respectively, while Cr (46.6%) was associated with the coarse mode. The size distribution characteristics, enrichment factor, correlation coefficient values, source information and the analysis of source samples showed that As, Cd and Pb in PM were the typical heavy metal in lead and zinc smelting affected areas, which originated mainly from lead and zinc smelting sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metalurgia , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Chumbo/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Zinco/análise
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(9): 4026-4033, 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188042

RESUMO

Heavy pollution events frequently occur during fall and winter seasons in northern areas. In order to understand the characteristics and chemical composition of PM2.5 during heavy pollution in winter in Liaocheng City, ambient PM2.5 samples were collected between January 7-11,2016. Mass concentration, water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species, and elements were analyzed, as well as the causes of pollution. Results showed that PM2.5 mass concentration was 238.3 µg·m-3 with the trend clearly that of an inverted V; this concentration represents exceedance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB 3095-2012) by more than 2.2 times. NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+(SNA)were the main water-soluble ions. As pollution increased or decreased, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- exhibited the same trend, which contrasted with that of Ca2+. During the peak of pollution, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- concentrations were 48.96, 68.45, and 80.55 µg·m-3, with these representing levels 6.29, 7.31, and 7.84 times those of the initial stage, respectively. During the pollution event, OC and EC concentration variation ranges were 20.8-60.2 µg·m-3, and 3.0-7.5 µg·m-3, respectively. The concentration of OC was significantly higher than that of EC and the variation amplitude was significantly larger. During the event, the mass concentrations of 27 inorganic elements on each day were 10.2, 22.4, 16.0, 19.6, and 8.2 µg·m-3, respectively. Enrichment factors (EF) of all elements were less than 10, indicating lack of enrichment and showing that sources were mainly natural. PM2.5 mass concentration reconstruction results showed that organic matter (OM), SO42-, and NO3- were major components, followed by NH4+, crustal material, and other ions. EC and trace element content was relatively low. As PM2.5 pollution worsened, secondary inorganic salt (NH4+, SO42-, NO3-) concentrations and proportions increased, OM concentration increased but its proportion decreased, while crustal material concentration and proportion both decreased, showing that secondary inorganic conversion was the main cause of this pollution event, mainly driven by coal and motor vehicle emissions.

5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 69: 61-76, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941270

RESUMO

Size-fractioned atmospheric aerosol particles were collected during a typical heavy air pollution event in Beijing. The organic and inorganic components on the surfaces of the samples were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The variation characteristics of the surface chemical composition and influencing factors were studied, and the possible sources of these chemical compositions were identified through principal component analysis. The results showed that inorganic components such as crustal elements and sulfate, and organic components such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing organic groups were present. Some surface components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and fluorides may exert adverse effects on human health. The species and relative percentages of the chemical components varied with particle size, diurnal and pollution progress. During a heavy pollution event, the species and relative percentages of secondary components such as oxygen-containing organic groups and sulfurous compounds increased, indicating that particles aged during this event. The surface chemical composition of the aerosol particles was affected mainly by emissions from coal combustion and motor vehicles. In addition, air pollution, meteorological factors, and air mass transport also exerted a significant effect on the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pequim , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
6.
Environ Int ; 116: 286-299, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704807

RESUMO

Over the past decade, a range of sensor technologies became available on the market, enabling a revolutionary shift in air pollution monitoring and assessment. With their cost of up to three orders of magnitude lower than standard/reference instruments, many avenues for applications have opened up. In particular, broader participation in air quality discussion and utilisation of information on air pollution by communities has become possible. However, many questions have been also asked about the actual benefits of these technologies. To address this issue, we conducted a comprehensive literature search including both the scientific and grey literature. We focused upon two questions: (1) Are these technologies fit for the various purposes envisaged? and (2) How far have these technologies and their applications progressed to provide answers and solutions? Regarding the former, we concluded that there is no clear answer to the question, due to a lack of: sensor/monitor manufacturers' quantitative specifications of performance, consensus regarding recommended end-use and associated minimal performance targets of these technologies, and the ability of the prospective users to formulate the requirements for their applications, or conditions of the intended use. Numerous studies have assessed and reported sensor/monitor performance under a range of specific conditions, and in many cases the performance was concluded to be satisfactory. The specific use cases for sensors/monitors included outdoor in a stationary mode, outdoor in a mobile mode, indoor environments and personal monitoring. Under certain conditions of application, project goals, and monitoring environments, some sensors/monitors were fit for a specific purpose. Based on analysis of 17 large projects, which reached applied outcome stage, and typically conducted by consortia of organizations, we observed that a sizable fraction of them (~ 30%) were commercial and/or crowd-funded. This fact by itself signals a paradigm change in air quality monitoring, which previously had been primarily implemented by government organizations. An additional paradigm-shift indicator is the growing use of machine learning or other advanced data processing approaches to improve sensor/monitor agreement with reference monitors. There is still some way to go in enhancing application of the technologies for source apportionment, which is of particular necessity and urgency in developing countries. Also, there has been somewhat less progress in wide-scale monitoring of personal exposures. However, it can be argued that with a significant future expansion of monitoring networks, including indoor environments, there may be less need for wearable or portable sensors/monitors to assess personal exposure. Traditional personal monitoring would still be valuable where spatial variability of pollutants of interest is at a finer resolution than the monitoring network can resolve.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 64: 72-81, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478663

RESUMO

Gaseous peroxides play important roles in atmospheric chemistry. To understand the pathways of the formation and removal of peroxides, atmospheric peroxide concentrations and their controlling factors were measured from 7:00 to 20:00 in September, October, and November 2013 at a heavily trafficked residential site in Beijing, China, with average concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methyl hydroperoxide (MHP) at 0.55ppb and 0.063ppb, respectively. H2O2 concentrations were higher in the afternoon and lower in the morning and evening, while MHP concentrations did not exhibit a regular diurnal pattern. Both H2O2 and MHP concentrations increased at dusk in most cases. Both peroxides displayed monthly variations with higher concentrations in September. These results suggested that photochemical activity was the main controlling factor on variations of H2O2 concentrations during the measurement period. Increasing concentrations of volatile organic compounds emitted by motor vehicles were important contributors to H2O2 and MHP enrichment. High levels of H2O2 and MHP concentrations which occurred during the measurement period probably resulted from the transport of a polluted air mass with high water vapor content passing over the Bohai Bay, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peróxidos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera/química , Pequim , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 791-804, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455129

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can react with atmospheric radicals while being transported after being emitted, resulting in substantial losses. Using only observed VOC mixing ratios to assess VOC pollution, is therefore problematic. The observed mixing ratios and initial mixing ratios taking chemical loss into consideration were performed using data for 90 VOCs in the atmosphere in a typical urban area in Beijing in winter 2013 to gain a more accurate view of VOC pollution. The VOC sources, ambient VOC mixing ratios and compositions, variability and influencing factors, contributions to near-ground-ozone and health risks posed were assessed. Source apportionment should be conducted using initial mixing ratios, but health risks should be assessed using observed mixing ratios. The daytime daily mean initial mixing ratio (72.62ppbv) was 7.72ppbv higher than the daytime daily mean observed mixing ratio (64.90ppbv). Alkenes contributed >70% of the consumed VOCs. The nighttime daily mean observed mixing ratio was 71.66ppbv, 6.76ppbv higher than the daytime mixing ratio. The observed mixing ratio for 66 VOCs was 40.31% higher in Beijing than New York. The OFPs of Ini-D (266.54ppbv) was underestimated 23.41% compared to the OFP of Obs-D (204.14ppbv), improving emission control of ethylene and propene would be an effective way of controlling O3. Health risk assessments performed for 28 hazardous VOCs show that benzene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, and acetaldehyde pose carcinogenic risk and acrolein poses non-carcinogenic risks. Source apportionment results indicated that vehicle exhausts, solvent usage and industrial processes were the main VOC source during the study.

9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 57: 383-390, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647259

RESUMO

The national Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan required significant decreases in PM2.5 levels over China. To explore more effective emission abatement strategies in industrial cities, a case study was conducted in Baotou to evaluate the current national control measures. The total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in Baotou were 211.2Gg, 156.1Gg, 28.8Gg, and 48.5Gg, respectively in 2013, and they would experience a reduction of 30.4%, 26.6%, 15.1%, and 8.7%, respectively in 2017 and 39.0%, 32.0%, 24.4%, and 12.9%, respectively in 2020. The SO2, NOX and PM2.5 emissions from the industrial sector would experience a greater decrease, with reductions of 37%, 32.7 and 24.3%, respectively. From 2013 to 2020, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 are expected to decline by approximately 30%, 10% and 14.5%, respectively. The reduction rate of SNA (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) concentrations was significantly higher than that of PM2.5 in 2017, implying that the current key strategy toward controlling air pollutants from the industrial sector is more powerful for SNA. Although air pollution control measures implemented in the industrial sector could greatly reduce total emissions, constraining the emissions from lower sources such as residential coal combustion would be more effective in decreasing the concentration of PM2.5 from 2017 to 2020. These results suggest that even for a typical industrial city, the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations not only requires decreases in emissions from the industrial sector, but also from the low emission sources. The seasonal variation in sulfate concentration also showed that emission from coal-burning is the key factor to control during the heating season.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Cidades , Calefação , Habitação , Indústrias , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Melhoria de Qualidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 55: 69-75, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28477835

RESUMO

Owing to rapid economic and industrial development, China has been suffering from degraded air quality and visibility. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone and hence photochemical smog. Some VOCs adversely affect human health. Therefore, VOCs have recently elicited public concern and given new impetus to scientific interest. China is now implementing a series of polices to control VOCs pollution. The key to formulating policy is understanding the ambient VOCs pollution status. This paper mainly analyzes the species, levels, sources, and spatial distributions of VOCs in ambient air. The results show that the concentrations of ambient VOCs in China are much higher than those of developed countries such as the United States and Japan, especial benzene, which exceeds available standards. At the same time, the ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP) of various VOCs are calculated. Aromatics and alkenes have much higher OFPs, while aromatics have higher SOAFP. The OFPs of ambient VOCs in the cities of Beijing, Guangzhou and Changchun are very high, and the SOAFP of ambient VOCs in the cities of Hangzhou, Guangzhou and Changchun are higher.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aerossóis , Benzeno , China , Cidades , Ozônio , Estações do Ano
11.
Environ Pollut ; 224: 559-571, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245949

RESUMO

This study examines size-resolved heavy metal data for particles sampled near an urban site affected by non-ferrous metal smelting in China with a focus on how particle sizes impact regional respiratory deposition behavior. Particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.43 and 9 µm were collected during winter haze episodes from December 2011 to January 2012. The results showed that concentrations of individual trace elements ranged from ∼10-2-∼104 ng/m3. Mass size distributions exhibit that Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, TI, and Pb have unimodal peak in fine particles range (<2.1 µm); Al, Ti, Fe, Sr, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo, and U have unimodal peak in coarse range (>2.1 µm), and Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Ba, Th, V, Mn, Sn, Sb, and K have bimodal profiles with a dominant peak in the fine range and a smaller peak in the coarse range. The total deposition fluxes of trace elements were estimated at 2.1 × 10-2 - 4.1 × 103 ng/h by the MPPD model, and the region with the highest contribution was the head region (42% ± 13%), followed by the tracheobronchial region (11% ± 3%) and pulmonary region (6% ± 1%). The daily intake of individual element for humans occurs via three main exposure pathways: ingestion (2.3 × 10-4 mg/kg/day), dermal contact (2.3 × 10-5 mg/kg/day), and inhalation (9.0 × 10-6 mg/kg/day). A further health risk assessment revealed that the risk values for humans were all above the guidelines of the hazard quotient (1) and cancer risk (10-6), indicating that there are potential non-cancer effects and cancer risks in this area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Metalurgia , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacocinética , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Medição de Risco , Distribuição Tecidual , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Saúde da População Urbana
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(8): 3130-3138, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964918

RESUMO

To study the concentration characteristics as well as sources of elements and heavy metal pollution in atmospheric dust fall in Zhuzhou City, 144 samples from 12 sites in the Zhuzhou urban area were collected from January to December in 2012 and 28 kinds of elements in the samples were analyzed. The results showed that the dust fall quantities of the industrial areas and mixed commercial and residential (MCR) areas were, respectively, 89.46 g·m-2 and 33.20 g·m-2 and the range of all sample points was 23.14-114.67 g·m-2. There were 10 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb) in the industrial areas as well as 8 elements in the MCR areas, for which the contents greatly exceeded 1000 mg·m-1 in the atmospheric dust fall. The Zn and Pb contents exceeded 10000 mg·kg-1 in the dust fall of the industrial areas, which were far higher than those in the Earth's crust. The main sources of dust fall in Zhuzhou City were metal smelting, shallow ground dust, vehicle emissions, construction dust, and industrial production with specific elements (Mo, Ba). Correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and analysis of transportation characteristics showed that 13 elements (Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb) in dust fall mainly came from waste gas emissions of industrial areas in Zhuzhou, in which 7 heavy metal elements (Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sb, Pb) caused serious pollution. The contents of heavy metals in the industrial areas were 7.4 to 4079.4 times the contents defined in China soil elements background values, whereas those in the MCR areas were 3.6 to 1413.4 times the soil background values. Cd was the highest background ratio element. The degree of contamination was clearly higher in the industrial areas than in the MCR areas.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(5): 1769-1774, 2017 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965079

RESUMO

Simultaneous collections of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at 15 sampling sites including urban, suburb and potential pollution areas in Cangzhou City in spring 2015. The results showed that NMHCs were generally higher in urban areas than those in suburb and rural areas; the highest concentration of NMHCs was observed at Cangzhou High-tech zone (urban area); the concentrations of NMHCs were significantly lower at rural sites than in most urban sites except Hejian site; vehicular emissions were the main sources of NMHCs in Cangzhou; Cangzhou chemical fertilizer plant and Cangzhou oil refinery had no significant influence on urban NMHCs during their shutdown period; Dagang Oilfield, with better oil and gas recovery systems, did not have a significant impact on urban NMHCs. In general, alkanes, alkenes and aromatics accounted for 65%, 16% and 19% of NMHCs in Cangzhou City, respectively; xylene (19%), ethylene (14%), toluene(11%), propylene (5%), isopentane (5%) and isopentene (5%) were the most dominant contributors to ozone formation potential; aerosol formation potential was mainly derived from toluene (28%), pinene (28%), xylene(16%), ethylbenzene (9%) and benzene (9%).

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 579: 1446-1459, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27908628

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence supports the positive association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and lung cancer risk with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to be the major causal factors involved in mediating PM effects on both cardiovascular and pulmonary health outcomes. However, the mechanism whereby PM causes the health effects is not fully elucidated. To evaluate and investigate human exposure to PM, it is essential to have a specific, sensitive and robust characterization of individual exposure to PM. Biomarkers may mark important intermediate steps leading to overt health effects after PM exposure. Thus biomarkers are promising indicators, which could serve as representative measures of the exposure to PM for assessing the health impacts and understanding the mechanism. Indeed, a number of biomarkers are already in use in the field of epidemiological studies and toxicological research. However, we are facing now the challenges to select robust, specific and sensitive biomarkers, which can be employed in large-scale of population to assess the health risk and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions. In this review, we describe a range of biomarkers that are associated with air pollution exposure, particularly markers of oxidative stress, inflammatory factors, and microRNAs, as well as markers of pollutants metabolites. Understanding the nature of the association of these biomarkers with PM exposure may shed some light on the process of selecting biomarkers for large-scale population studies, developing novel preventative and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pulmão , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/metabolismo
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 48: 193-199, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27745664

RESUMO

The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gás Natural , Emissões de Veículos/análise , China , Cidades , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(21): 11779-11786, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27652607

RESUMO

Open biomass burning plays an important role in atmospheric pollution and in climate change. However, the current emission inventory of open biomass burning is generally of highly uncertainty because of missing small fire data and limited resolution because of the lack of localized vegetation data. In this study, the MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) burned area product MCD64Al combined with the active fire product MCD14 ML, as well as a high-resolution land cover data set, were applied to develop a high-resolution emission inventory of open biomass burning in China in 2013. Total CO, CH4, NOx, NMVOC (nonmethane volatile organic compounds), SO2, NH3, PM2.5, PM10, OC (organic carbon), BC (black carbon), and CO2 emissions were estimated to be 1.03 × 104, 666, 536, 1.91 × 103, 87, 138, 1.45 × 103, 2.09 × 103, 741, 137, and 2.45 × 105 Gg, respectively. The provinces that contributed the most emissions included Heilongjiang, Henan, Shandong, and Jilin. The major source for all pollutants was cropland burning, whereas Xizang, Xinjiang, and Heilongjiang had greater emissions from natural vegetation. The temporal distribution of average provincial emissions showed that the peaks were in June and October. This study updated the emission information that may support future research and policy-making on air pollution control and GHG emission abatement.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Biomassa , China , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Imagens de Satélites
17.
Chemosphere ; 155: 234-242, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115848

RESUMO

Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Aerossóis , Pequim , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Fuligem/química
18.
Chemosphere ; 154: 454-462, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085059

RESUMO

Using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), the chemical composition and size distributions of lead (Pb)-containing particles with diameter from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm in Beijing were analyzed in the spring of 2011 during clear, hazy, and dusty days. Based on mass spectral features of particles, cluster analysis was applied to Pb-containing particles, and six major classes were acquired consisting of K-rich, carboneous, Fe-rich, dust, Pb-rich, and Cl-rich particles. Pb-containing particles accounted for 4.2-5.3%, 21.8-22.7%, and 3.2% of total particle number during clear, hazy and dusty days, respectively. K-rich particles are a major contribution to Pb-containing particles, varying from 30.8% to 82.1% of total number of Pb-containing particles, lowest during dusty days and highest during hazy days. The results reflect that the chemical composition and amount of Pb-containing particles has been affected by meteorological conditions as well as the emissions of natural and anthropogenic sources. K-rich particles and carbonaceous particles could be mainly assigned to the emissions of coal combustion. Other classes of Pb-containing particles may be associated with metallurgical processes, coal combustion, dust, and waste incineration etc. In addition, Pb-containing particles during dusty days were first time studied by SPAMS. This method could provide a powerful tool for monitoring and controlling of Pb pollution in real time.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Chumbo/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Pequim , Incineração , Chumbo/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 40: 75-83, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969547

RESUMO

To elucidate the air pollution characteristics of northern China, airborne PM10 (atmospheric dynamic equivalent diameter ≤ 10 µm) and PM2.5 (atmospheric dynamic equivalent diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) were sampled in three different functional areas (Yuzhong County, Xigu District and Chengguan District) of Lanzhou, and their chemical composition (elements, ions, carbonaceous species) was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the highest seasonal mean concentrations of PM10 (369.48 µg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (295.42 µg/m(3)) were detected in Xigu District in the winter, the lowest concentration of PM2.5 (53.15 µg/m(3)) was observed in Yuzhong District in the fall and PM10 (89.60 µg/m(3)) in Xigu District in the fall. The overall average OC/EC (organic carbon/elemental carbon) value was close to the representative OC/EC ratio for coal consumption, implying that the pollution of Lanzhou could be attributed to the burning of coal. The content of SNA (the sum of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SNA) in PM2.5 in Yuzhong County was generally lower than that at other sites in all seasons. The content of SNA in PM2.5 and PM10 in Yuzhong County was generally lower than that at other sites in all seasons (0.24-0.38), indicating that the conversion ratios from precursors to secondary aerosols in the low concentration area was slower than in the area with high and intense pollutants. Six primary particulate matter sources were chosen based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, and emissions from dust, secondary aerosols, and coal burning were identified to be the primary sources responsible for the particle pollution in Lanzhou.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nitratos/análise , Estações do Ano , Sulfatos/análise
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