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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0217521, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818103

RESUMO

Mature vinegar culture has usually been used as a type of autochthonous starter for rapidly initiate initiating the next batch of acetic acid fermentation (AAF) and maintaining the batch-to-batch uniformity of AAF in the production of traditional cereal vinegar. However, the vitality and dominance of functional microbes in autochthonous starters remain unclear, which hinders further improvement of fermentation yield and production. Here, based on metagenomic (MG), metatranscriptomic (MT), and 16S rRNA gene sequencings, 11 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significant metabolic activity (MT/MG ratio >1) and dominance (relative abundance >1%) were targeted in the autochthonous vinegar starter, all of which were assigned to 4 species (Acetobacter pasteurianus, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, L. helveticus, Acetilactobacillus jinshanensis). Then, we evaluated the successions and interactions of these 11 bacterial OTUs at different AAF stages. Last, a defined starter was constructed with 4 core species isolated from the autochthonous starter (A. pasteurianus, L. acetotolerans, L. helveticus, Ac. jinshanensis). The defined starter culture could rapidly initiate the AAF in a sterile or unsterilized environment and similar dynamics of metabolites (ethanol, titratable acidity, acetic acid, lactic acid, and volatile compounds) and environmental indexes (temperature, pH) of fermentation were observed as compared with that of autochthonous starter (P > 0.05). This work provides a method to construct a defined microbiota from a complex system while preserving its metabolic function. IMPORTANCE Complex microorganisms are beneficial to the flavor formation in natural food fermentation, but they also pose challenges to the mass production of standardized products. It is attractive to construct a defined starter to rapidly initiate fermentation process and significantly improve fermentation yield. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of vital and dominant species in the autochthonous vinegar starter via multi-omics, and designs a defined microbial community for the efficient fermentation of cereal vinegar.

2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705622

RESUMO

A novel Gram-positive, non-motile, non-flagellated, strictly anaerobic, non-spore-forming and dumbbell-shaped, coccoid- or chain-shaped bacterium, designated strain LZLJ-3T, was isolated from a mud fermentation cellar which has been used for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor for over 100 years. Strain LZLJ-3T grew at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and with NaCl concentrations up to 1 % (w/v; optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic trees established based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain LZLJ-3T belonged to the genus Blautia of the family Lachnospiraceae, with the highest sequence similarity to Blautia stercoris GAM6-1T (91.7 %) and Blautia faecicola KGMB01111T (91.7 %). Comparative genome analysis showed that the orthologous average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI) and genome-to-genome distance (GGD) values between strain LZLJ-3T and B. stercoris GAM6-1T were respectively 69.1 and 22.9 %; the OrthoANI and GGD values between strain LZLJ-3T and B. faecicola KGMB01111T were respectively 70.86 and 36 % . The DNA G+C content of strain LZLJ-3T genome was 42.1 mol%. The predominant celluar fatty acids (>10 %) of strain LZLJ-3T were C16 : 0 FAME (27.9 %), C14 : 0 FAME (17.6 %) and C16 : 0 DMA (13.0 %). Arabinose, glucose and maltose could be utilized by strain LZLJ-3T as sole carbon sources for growth, with weak utilization of raffinose and l-fucose. API ZYM analysis gave positive reactions with α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, α-glucosidase and ß-glucosidase. The major end product of glucose fermentation was acetic acid. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain LZLJ-3T is considered to represent a novel species of Blautia, for which the name Blautia liquoris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LZLJ-3T (=KCTC 25163T=CGMCC 1.5299T=JCM 34225T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499596

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain JN500902T, was isolated from the mud in a fermentation cellar used continuously over 30 years for Chinese strong-flavour baijiu production. Colonies were white, circular, convex and smooth-edged. Growth was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 5.0-10 (optimum, pH 7.5), with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and with 0-4 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay demonstrated positive reactions of strain JN500902T in the metabolism of l-fucose and pyruvate. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) consisted of C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The major end metabolites of strain JN500902T were acetic acid and ethanol when incubated anaerobically in liquid reinforced clostridial medium. Acetate was the major organic acid end product. The complete genome size of strain JN500902T was 3 420 321 bp with 3327 identified genes. The G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain JN500902T with the family Lachnospiraceae, having low sequence similarity (92.8 %) to the nearest type strain, Syntrophococcus sucromutans DSM 3224T and forming a clearly distinct branch. Core genome phylogenetic analysis of the isolate and 134 strains belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae also revealed that strain JN500902T was well-separated from other genera of this family as a monophyletic clade. The average nucleotide identity and amino acid identity values between strain JN500902T and 134 Lachnospiraceae strains were less than 74 and 65 %, respectively. Considering its polyphasic characteristics, strain JN500902T represents a novel genus and species within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which the name Novisyntrophococcus fermenticellae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500902T (=CICC 24502T=JCM 33939T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fermentação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110449, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399451

RESUMO

Mud cellars have long been used as anaerobic bioreactors for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavor Baijiu, where starchy raw materials (mainly sorghum) are metabolized to ethanol and various flavor compounds by multi-species microorganisms. Jiupei (fermented grains) and pit mud are two spatially linked microbial habitats in the mud cellar, yet their metabolic division of labor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the changes in environmental variables (e.g., temperature, oxygen, pH), key metabolites (e.g., ethanol, organic acids) and microbial communities in jiupei and pit mud during fermentation. Jiupei (low pH, high ethanol) and pit mud (neutral pH) provided two habitats with distinctly different environmental conditions for microbial growth. Lactic acid accumulated in jiupei, while butyric and hexanoic acids were mainly produced by microbes inhabiting the pit mud. Biomass analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that bacteria dominated the microbial consortia during fermentation, moreover cluster and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis showed that the bacterial communities of jiupei and pit mud were significantly divergent. The bacterial community diversity of jiupei decreased significantly during the fermentation process, and was relatively stable in pit mud. Lactobacillus dominated the jiupei bacterial community, and its relative abundance reached 98.0% at the end of fermentation. Clostridia (relative abundance: 42.9-85.5%) was the most abundant bacteria in pit mud, mainly distributed in the genus Hydrogenispora (5.3-68.4%). Fungal communities of jiupei and pit mud showed a similar succession pattern, and Kazachstania, Aspergillus and Thermoascus were the predominant genera. PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of acetic and lactic acid were mainly enriched in jiupei samples, while the bacterial community in the pit mud displayed greater potential for butyric and hexanoic acid synthesis. Assays from an in vitro simulated fermentation further validated the roles of jiupei microbiota in acetic and lactic acid production, and these acids were subsequently metabolized to butyric and hexanoic acid by the pit mud microbiota. This work has demonstrated the synergistic cooperation between the microbial communities of jiupei and pit mud for the representative flavor formation of strong-flavor Baijiu.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0088521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160281

RESUMO

The mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent research and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice; however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating the pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3% to 64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate, and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5 to 10.4 log10 [lg] copies/g) and archaea (8.3 to 9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by Clostridia (39.7% to 81.2%) and Methanomicrobia (32.8% to 92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial and archaeal genera, Caproiciproducens and Methanosarcina. Correlation analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of Clostridia, and furthermore, the relative abundance of Caproiciproducens (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. IMPORTANCE The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of the pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of the pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups, and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic, and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuous batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of the pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiota , Vinho/análise , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Vinho/microbiologia
6.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875202

RESUMO

Daqu, a brick-shaped product spontaneously fermented under an open environment, has been regarded as the starter of fermentation, raw enzyme preparation and raw materials for baijiu production. However, its contribution in baijiu fermentation has not been fully elaborated yet. Here, the effects of daqu microbiota on baijiu fermentation were investigated under both field-scale and lab-scale conditions. In field-scale baijiu fermentation, the dominant daqu microbes (average relative abundance>10.0%), including unclassified_Leuconostocaceae, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces, tended to dominate the early stage (0-7 d). However, the rare daqu microbes (average relative abundance <0.1%, e.g., Kazachstania) tended to dominate the middle and late stages (11-40 d). In addition, some genera showed differences in species diversity between daqu and fermented grains. The average relative abundance of Lactobacillus was over 75% during baijiu fermentation, and most of them were affiliated with Lactobacillus acetotolerans, while Lactobacillus crustorum dominated the Lactobacillus OTUs in daqu. The similar patterns were also observed during lab-scale baijiu fermentation. The results of function prediction showed the enriched metabolic pathways were associated with glycolysis and long-chain fatty acid esters in baijiu fermentation. These results improved the understanding of daqu microbiota function during baijiu fermentation and provided a basic theory to support the regulation of baijiu production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , China , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética
7.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110037, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648263

RESUMO

As a widely used Asian starter culture, the quality of daqu can significantly affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products, yet the microbial metabolic network involved in flavor development remains unclear. This study aims to investigate that network based on the dynamics of physicochemical properties, microbial community, and volatile compounds in medium-temperature daqu (MT-daqu) during spontaneous fermentation. Analyses using the metagenomic data set facilitated the gene repertoire overview of this ecosystem, indicating that Lactobacillales (mainly Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus), Mucorales (mainly Lichtheimia), and Eurotiales (mainly Aspergillus, Rasamsonia and Byssochlamys) were the potential predominant populations successively responsible for the production of lytic enzymes and flavor precursors/compounds in MT-daqu. Flavor-relevant pathways were found to exist in multiple species, but only bacteria showed the potential to participate in butane-2,3-diol (e.g. Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus) and butanoate (Thermoactinomyces) metabolism, and only fungi were potentially involved in biosynthesis of guaiacol (Byssochlamys) and 4-vinylguaiacol (Aspergillus). Furthermore, a combined analysis revealed that the acidic thermal environment present in early phases was mainly due to the catabolic activities of Lactobacillales and Lichtheimia, which could contribute to the effective self-domestication of microbiota. The study helps elucidate the different metabolic roles of microorganisms and disclose the formation mechanism of daqu's partial functions, namely providing various aromatic substances/precursors and enzymes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microbiota/genética , Temperatura
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109070, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503540

RESUMO

Zhejiang Rosy Vinegar (ZRV) is a traditional condiment in Southeast China, produced using semi-solid-state fermentation techniques under an open environment, yet little is known about the functional microbiota involved in the flavor formation of ZRV. In this study, 43 kinds of volatile flavor substances were identified by HS-SPME/GC-MS, mainly including ethyl acetate (relative content at the end of fermentation: 1104.1 mg/L), phenylethyl alcohol (417.6 mg/L) and acetoin (605.2 mg/L). The most abundant organic acid was acetic acid (59.6 g/L), which kept rising during the fermentation, followed by lactic acid (7.0 g/L), which showed a continuously downward trend. Amplicon sequencing analysis revealed that the richness and diversity of bacterial community were the highest at the beginning and then maintained decreasing during the fermentation. The predominant bacteria were scattered in Acetobacter (average relative abundance: 63.7%) and Lactobacillus (19.8%). Both sequencing and culture-dependent analysis showed Lactobacillus dominated the early stage (day 10 to 30), and Acetobacter kept highly abundant from day 40 to the end. Spearman correlation analysis displayed that the potential major groups involved in the formation of flavor compounds were Acetobacter and Lactobacillus, which were also showed strong relationships with other bacteria through co-occurrence network analysis (edges attached to Acetobacter: 61.7%; Lactobacillus: 14.0%). Moreover, structural equation model showed that the contents of ethanol, titratable acid and reducing sugar were the major environmental factors playing essential roles in influencing the succession of bacterial community and their metabolism during the fermentation. Overall, these findings illuminated the dynamic profiles of bacterial community and flavor compounds and the potential functional microbes, which were expected to help us understand the formation of flavor substances in ZRV.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Condimentos/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Acetatos/análise , Acetoína/análise , China , Condimentos/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microbiota , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Paladar
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113815, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444724

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Erzhi formula (EZF) consists of Ecliptae herba (EH) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) at a ratio 1:1, and constitutes a well-known formula in China that is commonly used for treating menopausal diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we explored the pharmacologic actions and potential molecular mechanisms underlying EZF's action in preventing and treating osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active components and related targets of EZF's anti-osteoporotic effects were predicted by network pharmacology, and functional enrichment analysis was also performed. We then used an osteoporosis model of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to detect the effects of EZF on osteoporosis. RESULTS: The results from network pharmacology identified a total of 10 active ingredients from EH and 13 active ingredients from FLL that might affect 65 potential therapeutic targets. GO enrichment analysis revealed that EZF affected bone tissue primarily via hormone (particularly estradiol)-related pathways and bone resorption by osteoclast differentiation. KEGG analysis demonstrated that bone-related factors such as Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Ca2, estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), androgen receptors (AR), and TNFα served as the primary targets during osteoclastic differentiation. In vivo experiments showed that the formula significantly improved the diminution in estrogen and the subsequent uterine atrophy induced by ovariectomy (P < 0.01 or 0.05), implying that the EZF exerted its actions via regulation of estradiol and the nourishing effects of the uterus in OVX mice. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-CT showed that EZF significantly inhibited bone loss and improved bone micro-architecture by statistically increasing the number of bone trabeculae and decreasing the separation of bone trabeculae in OVX mice (P < 0.01 or 0.05); EZF also inhibited bone loss and enhanced bone-fracture load. Furthermore, we confirmed that EZF reduced the calcium concentrations, augmented protein and mRNA levels for Runx2 in the bone marrow, and reduced PPARγ levels. RANKL-a key downstream regulatory protein of many targets that was referred to in our results of network pharmacology as being involved in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis-was significantly diminished by EZF; it also elevated OPG content. In addition, we used monocytes of bone-marrow origin to detect the effects of the potential components of EZF on osteoclast differentiation and found that wedelolactone, oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, luteolin, and luteolin-7-o-glucoside significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation from monocytes induced by 25 ng/mL MCSF and 50 ng/mL RANKL (P < 0.01 or 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our present study indicated that EZF significantly inhibited the bone loss induced by OVX in mice by its regulation of estradiol combined with the nourishing effect of the uterus, and that it also attenuated bone resorption by decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio so as to inhibit osteoclast maturation.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Eclipta/química , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ligustrum/química , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Brain Res ; 1751: 147185, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129805

RESUMO

The combined use of two or more different drugs can better promote nerve recovery and its prognosis for treatment of stroke. The salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) and Xueshuantong Injection (XST) are two standardized Chinese medicine injections which have been widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) is respectively one of the active constituents of SLI and XST, which have certain effects on stroke. In this study, we established a co-culture of endothelial cells and pericytes for oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury model to study the effects of SLI and Sal B or XST and NR1 alone, or with their combinations (1S1X) in regulation of BBB function. The results showed that compared with the OGD/R group, treatment with SLI, XST and SalB and NR1 can significantly increase the TEER, reduce the permeability of Na-Flu, enhance the expression of tight junctions (TJs) between cells, and stabilize the basement membrane (BM) composition. In addition, the combination of 1S1X is superior to the XST or SLI alone in enhancing the TJs between cells and stabilizing the BM. And the active components SalB and NR1 can play a strong role in these two aspects, even with the whole effects. Furthermore, the study showed that XST, Sal B and NR1 increases in Ang-1and Tie2, while decrease in Ang-2 and VEGF protein expressions. Overall, these findings suggest that SLI combined with XST (1X1S) has protective effects on co-culture of endothelial cells and pericytes after OGD/R. Moreover, its protective effect might be associated with increase of TJs and BMs through activation of Ang/Tie-2 system signaling pathway.

11.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt A): 109737, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292931

RESUMO

Acetoin, giving a creamy yogurt aroma and buttery taste, exists in cereal vinegar as an important flavor substance and is mainly produced by the metabolism of Lactobacillus and Acetobacter during multispecies solid-state acetic acid fermentation. However, the impacts of Lactobacillus-Acetobacter interactions on acetoin accumulation and the microbial metabolism during acetic acid fermentation are not completely clear. Here, six strains isolated from vinegar fermentation culture and associated with acetoin metabolism, namely, Lactobacillus reuteri L-0, L. buchneri F2-6, L. brevis 4-20, L. fermentum M10-7, L. casei M1-6 and Acetobacter pasteurianus G3-2, were selected for microbial growth and metabolism analysis in monoculture and coculture fermentations. Lactobacillus sp. and A. pasteurianus G3-2 respectively utilized glucose and ethanol preferentially. In monocultures, L. casei M1-6 (183.7 mg/L) and A. pasteurianus G3-2 (121.0 mg/L) showed better acetoin-producing capacity than the others. In the bicultures with Lactobacillus sp. and A. pasteurianus G3-2, biomass analysis in the stationary phase demonstrated that significant growth depressions of Lactobacillus sp. occurred compared with monocultures, possibly due to intolerance to acetic acid produced by A. pasteurianus G3-2. Synergistic effect between Lactobacillus sp. and A. pasteurianus G3-2 on enhanced acetoin accumulation was identified, however, cocultures of two Lactobacillus strains could not apparently facilitate acetoin accumulation. Coculture of L. casei M1-6 and A. pasteurianus G3-2 showed the best performance in acetoin production amongst all mono-, bi- and triculture combinations, and the yield of acetoin increased from 1827.7 to 7529.8 mg/L following optimization of culture conditions. Moreover, the interactions of L. casei M1-6 and A. pasteurianus G3-2 regulated the global metabolism of vinegar microbiota during fermentation through performing in situ bioaugmentation, which could accelerate the production of acetic acid, lactic acid, acetoin, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, ligustrazine and other important flavoring substances. This work provides a promising strategy for the production of acetoin-rich vinegar through Lactobacillus sp.-A. pasteurianus joint bioaugmentation.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Lactobacillus casei , Microbiota , Ácido Acético/análise , Acetoína , Grão Comestível/química , Fermentação
12.
Food Microbiol ; 92: 103559, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950153

RESUMO

Symphony orchestra of multi-microorganisms characterizes the solid-state acetic acid fermentation process of Chinese cereal vinegars. Lactate is the predominant non-volatile acid and plays indispensable roles in flavor formation. This study investigated the microbial consortia driving the metabolism of D-/l-lactate during fermentation. Sequencing analysis based on D-/l-lactate dehydrogenase genes demonstrated that Lactobacillus (relative abundance: > 95%) dominated the production of both d-lactate and l-lactate, showing species-specific features between the two types. Lactobacillus helveticus (>65%) and L. reuteri (~80%) respectively dominated l- and d-lactate-producing communities. D-/l-lactate production and utilization capabilities of eight predominant Lactobacillus strains were determined by culture-dependent approach. Subsequently, D-/l-lactate producer L. plantarum M10-1 (d:l ≈ 1:1), l-lactate producer L. casei 21M3-1 (D:L ≈ 0.2:9.8) and D-/l-lactate utilizer Acetobacter pasteurianus G3-2 were selected to modulate the metabolic flux of D-/l-lactate of microbial consortia. The production ratio of D-/l-lactate was correspondingly shifted coupling with microbial consortia changes. Bioaugmentation with L.casei 21M3-1 merely enhanced l-lactate production, displaying ~4-fold elevation at the end of fermentation. Addition of L.plantarum M10-1 twice increased both D- and l-lactate production, while A. pasteurianus G3-2 decreased the content of D-/l-isomer. Our results provided an alternative strategy to specifically manipulate the metabolic flux within microbial consortia of certain ecological niches.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Microbiota , Ácido Acético/análise , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo
13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(11): 825-832, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ameliorate effect and underlying mechanism of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized, , XST) in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) model was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetic rats were randomized into 3 groups (n=10) according to a random number table, including DM, XST50 and XST100 groups. XST treatment groups were daily i.p. injected with 50 or 100 mg/kg XST for 60 days, respectively. The control and DM groups were given i.p. injection with saline. Blood glucose level and body weight were recorded every week. Histological changes in the retina tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis and inflammation related factors, including cleaved caspase-3, glial fifibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by Western blot or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Then, the levels of advanced glycation end product (AGE) and its receptor (RAGE) were investigated. Tight junctions proteins (Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Occludin and Claudin-5) of blood-retinal barrier were detected by Western blot. The levels of retinal fifibrosis, transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-Smad2/3 signaling pathway were evaluated at last. RESULTS: There was no signifificant difference in the body weight and blood glucose level between XST and DM groups (P>0.05). Compared with the DM group, XST treatment signifificantly increased the retinal thickness of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression (P<0.01). XST increased the protein expressions of ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin-5 and decreased the mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, XST signifificantly reduced the productions of AGE and RAGE proteins in the retina of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01), suppressed the over-expression of TNF-α, and decreased the elevated level of ICAM-1 in retina of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). XST signifificantly reduced the levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), TGF-ß1 and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 protein in rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: XST had protective effects on DR with possible mechanisms of inhibiting the inflammation and apoptosis, up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins, suppressing the productions of AGE and RAGE proteins, and blocking the TGF-ß/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. XST treatment might play a role for the future therapeutic strategy against DR.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303548

RESUMO

Humans have used high salinity for the production of bean-based fermented foods over thousands of years. Although high salinity can inhibit the growth of harmful microbes and select functional microbiota in an open environment, it also affects fermentation efficiency of bean-based fermented foods and has a negative impact on people's health. Therefore, it is imperative to develop novel defined starter cultures for reduced-salt fermentation in a sterile environment. Here, we explored the microbial assembly and function in the fermentation of traditional Chinese broad bean paste with 12% salinity. The results revealed that the salinity and microbial interactions together drove the dynamic of community and pointed out that five dominant genera (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Weissella, Aspergillus, and Zygosaccharomyces) may play different key roles in different fermentation stages. Then, core species were isolated from broad bean paste, and their salinity tolerance, interactions, and metabolic characteristics were evaluated. The results provided an opportunity to validate in situ predictions through in vitro dissection of microbial assembly and function. Last, we reconstructed the synthetic microbial community with five strains (Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Weissella confusa, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii) under different salinities and realized efficient fermentation of broad bean paste for 6 weeks in a sterile environment with 6% salinity. In general, this work provided a bottom-up approach for the development of a simplified microbial community model with desired functions to improve the fermentation efficiency of bean-based fermented foods by deconstructing and reconstructing the microbial structure and function.IMPORTANCE Humans have mastered high-salinity fermentation techniques for bean-based fermented product preparation over thousands of years. High salinity was used to select the functional microbiota and conducted food fermentation production with unique flavor. Although a high-salinity environment is beneficial for suppressing harmful microbes in the open fermentation environment, the fermentation efficiency of functional microbes is partially inhibited. Therefore, application of defined starter cultures for reduced-salt fermentation in a sterile environment is an alternative approach to improve the fermentation efficiency of bean-based fermented foods and guide the transformation of traditional industry. However, the assembly and function of self-organized microbiota in an open fermentation environment are still unclear. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of microbial function and the mechanism of community succession in a high-salinity environment during the fermentation of broad bean paste so as to reconstruct the microbial community and realize efficient fermentation of broad bean paste in a sterile environment.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Salinidade , Vicia faba/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fungos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(1): 43-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407135

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, designated strain HSLZ-75T, was isolated from the solid-state vinegar culture of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Strain HSLZ-75T grew at 20-40 °C (optimum 35 °C), pH 3.0-5.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and 0-5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0%). Heterolactic fermentation characterised the metabolism of strain HSLZ-75T. D- and L-lactic acid were produced from glucose in a ratio of 91:9. The major cellular fatty acids ( > 10%) consisted of C16:0, C18:1ω9c, summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c) and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid and six unknown lipids. The cell wall was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain HSLZ-75T showed the highest similarity of 88.0% with Lactobacillus fructivorans DSM 20203T. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain HSLZ-75T belonged to family Lactobacillaceae and formed a distinct lineage with the type strain of Lactobacillus caviae. The complete genome of strain HSLZ-75T contained a circular chromosome of 1,616,430 bp with 1570 genes and 39.7 mol% G + C content. The average nucleotide identity values between strain HSLZ-75T and the reference type strains Lactobacillus fructivorans DSM 20203T and Lactobacillus rossiae DSM 15814T were 66.4% and 65.7%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and genotypic characteristics, strain HSLZ-75T should be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus in the family Lactobacillaceae of the order Lactobacillales, for which the name Lactobacillus jinshani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HSLZ-75T ( = CICC 6269T = JCM 33270T).


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Lactobacillus/genética , Diamino Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Lactobacillus/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1397, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316481

RESUMO

Butyrate, one of the key aroma compounds in Luzhou-flavor baijiu, is synthesized through two alternative pathways: butyrate kinase (buk) and butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but). A lack of knowledge of butyrate-producing microorganisms hinders our ability to understand the flavor formation mechanism of baijiu. Here, temporal dynamics of microbial metabolic profiling in fermented grains (FG) was explored via PICRUSt based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. We found Bacilli and Bacteroidia were the major potential butyrate producers in buk pathway at the beginning of fermentation, while later Clostridia dominated the two pathways. Clone library analysis also revealed that Clostridia (~73% OTUs) was predominant in buk pathway throughout fermentation, followed by Bacilli and Bacteroidia, and but pathway was merely possessed by Clostridia. Afterward, Clostridia-specific 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated Clostridium might be the major butyrate-producing genus in two pathways, which was subsequently evaluated using culture approach. Seventeen Clostridium species were isolated from FG based on 16S rRNA gene sequence-guided medium prediction method. Profiles of short-chain fatty acids and but and buk genes in these species demonstrated phylogenetic and functional diversities of butyrate-producing Clostridium in FG. These findings add to illustrate the diversity of potential butyrate producers during brewing and provide a workflow for targeting functional microbes in complex microbial community.

17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 297: 41-50, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878841

RESUMO

Butyrate and its derivates pertain to the key aroma contributors of strong-flavour baijiu, a kind of Chinese liquors, that is produced from grains by solid-state multispecies anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar. Microbes inhabiting in the fermentation pit mud largely determines baijiu's flavour and quality. In order to shed light on the microbial functional groups driving butyrate production in pit mud, clone library analysis was firstly performed and the results demonstrated that Clostridia (relative abundance: 50%) and Bacilli (37%) were major groups possessing butyrate kinase (buk) pathway and Clostridia (98%) dominated butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) pathway. According to Clostridial specific-16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we found the resilience character of Clostridial community in pit mud. Amongst Clostridial groups, 32.0% of the sequences were grouped into Clostridiales incertae sedis, followed by Heliobacteriaceae (18.3%) and Clostridiaceae 1 (8.4%). Moreover, Hydrogenispora, Sedimentibacter and Clostridium were the top three abundant genera. Relative abundance of Hydrogenispora was higher in the late days of fermentation, while Sedimentibacter exhibited higher proportion in the early days. Different from the previous studies using universal bacterial primer sets, Hydrogenispora was first reported as one dominant genus in pit mud. As for the reported potential butyrate producer Clostridium, nineteen species were obtained and ten of them were first isolated from the pit mud. Amongst them, buk was identified in eleven species by PCR analysis, while but was identified in the other seven, indicating the species-specific butyrate synthesis pathways of Clostridium. This study provides a perspective on targeting and isolating specific functional microbes in baijiu microbiota with the gene sequence-based medium prediction method.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Clostridium/enzimologia , Clostridium/genética , Fermentação , Microbiologia do Solo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bacillus/enzimologia , Bacillus/genética , Butiratos/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(3): 859-865, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735112

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile, spore-forming and binary fission encapsulated bacterium, designated strain JN500901T, was isolated from a mud cellar which has been continuously used for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavour baijiu for over 100 years. Growth of JN500901Toccurred at pH 4.5-8.0 (optimum, pH 5.0), 20-40 °C (37 °C), 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and 0-10 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay revealed that strain JN500901T metabolized d-fructose, l-fucose, isomaltulose and l-rhamnose among the 95 studied carbon sources. p-Cresol was the predominant volatile metabolite in the fermentation broth of strain JN500901T incubated in liquid reinforced clostridial medium under anaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JN500901T belongs to Clostridiumsensu stricto, and shared the highest sequence similarity to Clostridiumcarboxidivorans DSM 15243T (94.2 %), followed by Clostridiumscatologenes DSM 757T (94.1 %). The dominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0 FAME (36.6 %), C19 : 0 cyc 9,10 DMA (19.8 %) and C16 : 1 cis 9 DMA (11.8 %). The complete genome of strain JN500901T contained a circular chromosome of 2.812 Mb with 2611 genes and 31.0 mol% G+C content. Comparative genome analysis of the strain JN500901T, Clostridiumcarboxidivorans DSM 15243T and Clostridiumscatologenes DSM 757T revealed 74.5 and 74.8 % average nucleotide identity, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses presented here, strain JN500901T is considered to be a novel species of the genus Clostridiumsensustricto, for which the name Clostridium fermenticellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500901T (=CICC 24501T=JCM 32827T).


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Clostridium/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(5): 783-793, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688264

RESUMO

Shuxuetong injection composed of leech (Hirudo nipponica Whitman) and earthworm (Pheretima aspergillum) has been used for the clinical treatment of acute stroke for many years in China. However, the precise neuroprotective mechanism of Shuxuetong injection remains poorly understood. Here, cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3) were incubated in glucose-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 95% N2/5% CO2 for 6 hours, followed by high-glucose medium containing 95% O2 and 5% CO2 for 18 hours to establish an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion model. This in vitro cell model was administered Shuxuetong injection at 1/32, 1/64, and 1/128 concentrations (diluted 32-, 64-, and 128-times). Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to evaluate cell viability. A fluorescence method was used to measure lactate dehydrogenase, and a fluorescence microplate reader used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species. A fluorescent probe was also used to measure mitochondrial superoxide production. A cell resistance meter was used to measure transepithelial resistance and examine integrity of monolayer cells. The fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran test was performed to examine blood-brain barrier permeability. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Western blot assay was performed to analyze expression of caspase-3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, occludin, vascular endothelial growth factor, cleaved caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB p65, I kappa B alpha, phosphorylated I kappa B alpha, I kappa B kinase, phosphorylated I kappa B kinase, claudin-5, and zonula occludens-1. Our results show that Shuxuetong injection increases bEnd.3 cell viability and B-cell lymphoma 2 expression, reduces cleaved caspase-3 expression, inhibits production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide, suppresses expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, markedly increases transepithelial resistance, decreases blood-brain barrier permeability, upregulates claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 expression, reduces nuclear factor-κB p65 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and reduces I kappa B alpha, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, and I kappa B kinase phosphorylation levels. Overall, these findings suggest that Shuxuetong injection has protective effects on brain microvascular endothelial cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. Moreover, its protective effect is associated with reduction of mitochondrial superoxide production, inhibition of the inflammatory response, and inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, and the nuclear factor-κB p65 signaling pathway.

20.
Chin J Integr Med ; 25(10): 757-762, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27025925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the role of psoralidin in human liver cancer HepG2 cells in vitro. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolum bromide assay and apoptotic cells were labeled by annexin V then sorted by flow cytometry. Protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were examined by western blot while activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also determined. RESULTS: Psoralidin reduces cell viability greatly in a time dependent manner (64%, 40%, 21%, 12% at 2, 6, 24 and 48 h treatment with 64 µmol/L psoralidin respectively) and up-regulates activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 in a concentration dependent manner (between 4 to 64 µmol/L). Psoralidin also increases the expression of pro-apoptosis genes Bax, Bid and p53 while decreases the expression of pro-survival genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, both in a concentration dependent manner between 4 and 64 µmol/L (P<0.05 at 16 and 64 µmol/L). Caspase-3 inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO at concentrations between 10 to 20 µmol/L), p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α at 5 µmol/L) and cyclosporin A can attenuate the apoptotic effect of psoralidin. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxic role of psoralidin might work through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/farmacocinética , Psoralea/química , Sementes/química , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cumarínicos/efeitos adversos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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