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1.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the outcome of vein stenting placement for chronic proximal venous outflow obstruction (PVOO) in a predominantly Asian-American cohort to improve patient selection, enhance technical approach, and better define quality measurements of this emerging vascular intervention. METHODS: A total of 462 consecutive patients, 73% Asian American (n = 336), who underwent iliac vein stenting for chronic PVOO from October 2013 to July 2016 were reviewed. Postoperative outcomes at five follow-up visits were assessed. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were run for demographic and operative variables. Ordered logistic regressions were run for the outcome at each time point, and Chi-squared tests as well as Fisher's exact tests were used for categorical variables. RESULTS: Follow-up was maintained in 90% of patients, with a mean follow-up time of 695 days. Asian-American patients were more likely to present with varicose veins (77.4% vs. 54.8%, P < 0.001), and non-Asian patients were more likely to present with active ulceration (26.2% vs. 5.1%, P < 0.001). Asian-American patients were more likely to have bilateral stents placed (61.6% vs. 50%, P = 0.026) and were less likely to have reinterventions (11.3% vs. 27.8%, P < 0.001), a history of deep vein thrombosis (8.3% vs. 29.4%, P < 0.001), or intraoperative findings of chronic postphlebitic changes (17.6% vs. 33.3%, P < 0.001). Kruskal-Wallis tests were significant for improvement in patients of all the Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, Pathophysiology classes at 30 days (P = 0.041), 90 days (P = 0.045), 6 months (P = 0.041), and 1 year (P < 0.01). The Asian-American population had improved but comparatively lower follow-up scores at the 30-day mark (48% significantly improved or better vs. 63%, P = 0.008) but higher follow-up scores at the >1 year mark (80% significantly improved or better vs. 59%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Asian-American patients undergoing vein stent placement for chronic PVOO had comparatively worse outcomes than non-Asian patients at 30 days and better outcomes after one year. These patient groups had different outcomes postoperatively and outcomes which evolve differently over time.

2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 63: 307-310, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior literature has recommended routine iliac vein stent extension into the inferior vena cava (IVC) to assure adequate outflow for iliac vein stenting procedures. Our bias was that only the lesion should be stented without routine stent extension up to the IVC. We report our experience with this limited stenting technique. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 844 patients (1,216 limbs) underwent iliac vein stenting for nonthrombotic iliac vein lesions (NIVLs). All limbs were evaluated in accordance with the presenting sign of the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) score, and duplex scans and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) showing more than 50% cross-sectional area or diameter reduction. All study patients had failed 3 months of conservative management. The procedures of iliac vein stenting were all office based. Two techniques were compared: (1) placement of the iliac vein stent to cover the lesion and terminating cephalad into the IVC if the lesion involved the common iliac vein and (2) placement of the iliac vein stent to cover the lesion only and not passing the iliocaval confluence if the lesion only involved the external iliac vein. Complications were assessed during 30-day follow-up using the duplex scan technique to look for thrombosis. RESULTS: Of the total 844 patients, 543 (64%) were women. The average age was 66 (±14.2) years (range, 21-99 years). The stent was placed in the left lower limb in 474 patients and bilaterally in 370 patients. The presenting sign in accordance with the CEAP classification was C3 = 626, C4 = 404, C5 = 44, and C6 = 141. The average iliac vein stenosis by IVUS was 62% (±12% standard deviation [SD]). We had 715 patients with the iliac vein stent extending into the IVC, and of these, 8 patients had thrombosis within 30 days after the procedure. On the other hand, 501 patients had the iliac vein stent without crossing the iliocaval confluence, and of these, 4 patients had thrombosis within 30 days of the procedure. There was no difference between these 2 groups in regard to gender (P = 0.1) or age (P = 0.3). Laterality was statistically different (P < 0.0001) with more stents to be extended into the IVC if the lesion is in the left lower limb. Comparing these 2 groups in regard to 30-day thrombosis as a complication was not statistically significant (P = 0.6). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in regard to the presenting sign CEAP (P = 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: These results question the need for routine iliac vein stent extension into the IVC in patients with NIVLs. We were not able to demonstrate a significant risk of thrombosis with just placing the stent to cover the lesion only with short-term follow-up.

3.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(2): 231-236, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Proximal venous outflow obstruction (PVOO) in the iliac veins and superficial venous disease are inter-related in ways not fully understood. We observed among our patients undergoing vein stent placement for PVOO a significant number having had prior endovenous thermal ablations (EVTA) in their history. This study was undertaken to better characterize these patients and develop an algorithm in their management. METHODS: In a combined retrospective and prospective data registry of 682 patients who underwent vein stent placement for chronic PVOO at a single institution from March 2013 to November 2017, 100 limbs of 99 patients (14.5% of all patients) had a history of EVTA or other superficial venous procedures before their vein stenting. Limbs with dilated truncal veins on ultrasound examination or limbs that underwent poststent EVTA or superficial venous procedures were excluded. The mean age of these 99 patients was 60.2 years (range, 28-88 years; standard deviation, 13.855). Fifty-one percent of the patients were male. The most common presenting symptom of the patient cohort was edema (n = 59), followed by venous-related skin changes (n = 22). RESULTS: Bilateral stents were performed in 58%, with a mean number of 2.06 stents per patient. EVTA was the primary superficial vein procedure in 97%. Bilateral EVTA were performed in 53% and unilateral EVTA in 47%. The mean time between the first EVTA to vein stenting was 1202.7 days. Patients were followed at 30 days, 90 days, 6 months, 1 year, and >1 year. The outcome for each patient at each postoperative visit was compared with preoperative parameters (subject's assessment, physical examination, and provider assessment) and was scored as follows: -1 (worse than preoperative), 0 (no change), +1 (mildly improved), +2 (significantly improved), or +3 (completely recovered). The mean outcome score at 30 days was 1.63 (84 patients), 2.05 at 90 days (62 patients), 2.09 at 6 months (74 patients), 1.93 at 1 year (54 patients), and 1.97 at >1 year (39 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 15% of patients undergoing vein stent placement for chronic PVOO have an antecedent history of superficial venous disease and EVTA. PVOO should be considered and the patient evaluated accordingly if symptoms persisted or recurred after EVTA. Vein stent placement among these patients with PVOO will result in further symptomatic relief, but complete symptomatic relief is not observed in everyone. The algorithm for the management of these patients warrants further investigation.

4.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(1): 84-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior literature suggests that routine femoral vein (FV) puncture is necessary for interrogation of the iliac veins for stenosis to avoid missing common femoral vein (CFV) lesions. However, this can be technically challenging and poses small but increased risks. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of stent thrombosis after iliac vein stenting in the treatment of nonthrombotic iliac vein lesions with use of two discrete venous access sites-the CFV and FV. METHODS: During 4 years, we performed 1605 lower extremity venography studies with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). There were 372 men and 689 women with an average age of 66 years (range, 21-99 years; standard deviation [SD], ± 14.3 years). After IVUS interrogation, 1513 procedures resulted in venous stenting; 964 patients received stent placement in the common iliac vein, 513 in the external iliac vein, 24 involving the CFV, and 12 involving the FV. The venous puncture site, accessed by ultrasound guidance, varied between the CFV and FV per the surgeon's choice and was documented on the basis of the most distal vein area measured by IVUS during the procedure. Patients were followed up with iliocaval and lower extremity duplex ultrasound within 2 weeks and every 3 months thereafter for the first year. RESULTS: There were 994 patients who received CFV puncture and 611 patients who received FV puncture. In 39 (4.2%) patients receiving CFV punctures with subsequent stent placement, any stent thrombosis developed within 30 days of the intervention; 27 (69.2%) were complete thromboses. In 21 (3.6%) patients who received FV punctures with subsequent stent placement, any stent thrombosis developed within 30 days of intervention; 17 (81.0%) were complete thromboses. There was no significant difference (P = .57) in ≤30-day thromboses between the CFV and FV cohorts. Any in-stent thrombosis developed >30 days after intervention in 18 patients, 11 in limbs that received CFV puncture and 7 with FV puncture (P = .98). Complete stent occlusion occurred in three cases of CFV puncture. No FV punctures led to >30-day complete stent thromboses. The median time to diagnosis of >30-day thrombosis was 11.1 months (range, 2.6-31.9 months; SD, ± 12.86 months). Median follow-up was 20 months (SD, ± 19.18 months). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference between in-stent thrombosis rate and location of initial venous puncture in the setting of outpatient IVUS-guided venography. Both the CFV and FV can be safely used as puncture sites for lower extremity venography.

5.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(1): 95-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endovenous ablation of the lower extremity veins has become the primary treatment of symptomatic venous reflux disease. Endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) and recanalization are two well-known complications of these venous ablative procedures. Because the elderly represent the fastest growing demographic, our goal was to look at whether there is a difference of these complications and age distribution in octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians vs the younger population. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 10,029 procedures that were performed from March 2012 to September 2018 on 8273 veins across 3218 patients who underwent endovenous ablation for lower extremity venous reflux; 6091 procedures were performed with radiofrequency ablation, and 3938 were performed with endovenous laser ablation. We reviewed charts of all patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation or endovenous laser treatment during this time. Postprocedural venous duplex ultrasound was performed at 3 to 7 days to check for EHIT and recanalization, every 3 months for the first year, and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. The χ2 test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Ages ranged from 15 years to 103 years. The average age of the patients was 61.9 ± 15.2 years. Average overall follow-up for all age groups was 25.8 ± 12.9 months. Of the 3218 patients, 2700 were younger than 80 years, 380 were between 80 and 89 years, 132 were between 90 and 99 years, and 6 were 100 years or older. Of the 10,029 procedures, 8730 were performed on patients younger than 80 years; 1124, on patients 80 to 89 years; 159, on patients 90 to 99 years; and 16, on patients 100 years or older. There were 111 patients who had bilateral procedures in the accessory saphenous vein, 1878 patients who had bilateral procedures in the great saphenous vein, 99 patients who had bilateral procedures in the perforator vein, and 760 patients who had bilateral procedures in the small saphenous vein. There were statistically significant increases in EHIT rates between octogenarians and those in the age group <80 years (P = .047); between nonagenarians and those in the age group <80 years (P = .04); and between the combined group of octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians and the age group <80 years (P = .012). No statistical difference was found in rates of EHIT between octogenarians and nonagenarians (P = .5). Overall age is a risk factor for the development of EHIT (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.04; P < .00001). There were statistically significant increases in recanalization rates between octogenarians and those in the age group <80 years (P = .000013); between nonagenarians and those in the age group <80 years (P = .00022); and between the combined group of octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians and the age group <80 years (P < .00001). No statistical difference was found in rates of recanalization between octogenarians and nonagenarians (P = .48). Statistical analysis of centenarians alone was not done because of zero patients available in the EHIT or recanalization category. Overall age was found to be a risk factor for recanalization (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04; P < .00002). CONCLUSIONS: Whereas there is a relatively higher chance of EHIT and recanalization in the age group >80 years, our study shows that the majority of EHITs were class 1 and class 2. According to our study, venous ablation is safe and effective across all age groups, and age alone should not be used to deny patients venous ablations.

6.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 62: 263-267, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovenous thermal ablation has become the procedure of choice in the treatment of superficial venous reflux disease. The current armamentarium of devices and techniques aimed at the elimination of saphenous reflux offers surgeons and interventionalists a variety of treatment options; however, there is a lack of data comparing the safety of these products. The most concerning complication after endovenous thermal ablation is endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) due to the risk of progression to deep venous thrombosis. This study aimed to compare the incidence rate of EHIT between radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and endovenous laser therapy (EVLT). METHODS: This was a single-center, office-based, retrospective study over the course of 5 years, in which 3,218 consecutive patients underwent 10,029 endovenous saphenous ablations. The patient cohort was 66.2% female, with an average age of 61.9 years. At the time of each individual intervention, 24, 212, 3,620, 4,806, 200, and 1,167 patients had Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology disease 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. RESULTS: There was a total of 3,983 EVLT and 6,091 RFA procedures. The most common vessel treated was the great saphenous vein, 63.6% of the time, followed by the small saphenous vein (25.6%), accessory saphenous vein (6.1%), and perforator vein (4.6%). There were 186 cases of EHIT, with 137 (73.6%) identified as type 1 as per the Kabnick classification. Endovenous ablation performed via RFA resulted in significantly more cases of EHIT than of EVLT (109 vs. 77; P = 0.034; odds ratio = 1.52), which was confirmed by a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest single-center study of endovenous saphenous ablations to date, RFA was shown to pose a significantly higher risk of EHIT than of EVLT.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Radiofrequência/efeitos adversos , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Insuficiência Venosa/cirurgia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Veia Safena/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(1): 106-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whereas the commonly described manifestations of venous insufficiency include telangiectasia, varicose veins (VVs), edema, skin changes, and ulcers, we have noted some patients who present with external hemorrhage from lower extremity VVs. Because there are few recent data examining this entity, we herein describe our experience. METHODS: During 29 months, we had 32 patients present with hemorrhage from lower extremity VVs. There were 15 men and 17 women with a mean age of 60.2 years (range, 38-89 years; standard deviation [SD], ±14.9 years). Interestingly, 16 of these patients presented after coming into contact with warm water; 28 patients, 19 patients, and 1 patient presented with reflux >500 milliseconds in the great, small, and accessory saphenous veins, respectively. Eight patients and six patients had reflux >1 second in the femoral and popliteal veins, respectively. RESULTS: All patients were treated with weekly Unna boots. Mean ulcer healing time was 2.12 weeks (range, 1-8 weeks; SD, ± 2.15 weeks). Patients with VV hemorrhage after contact with warm water had a mean healing time of 1.75 weeks, whereas those who bled without such exposure took an average of 3.5 weeks (P = .0426). Twenty patients underwent at least one endovenous thermal ablation procedure, with the average patient in the cohort receiving 2.16 procedures (range, 0-9; SD, ± 2.37). There was no significant difference between laterality, age, or sex between patients who bled after warm water contact and those who bled spontaneously. The ulcers recurred in three of the patients, and Unna boot treatment was reapplied until wounds healed once more. Patients had an average follow up of 7.2 months (range, 26 months; SD, ± 8.9 months), and we noted no recurrent bleeding episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous hemorrhage of VVs, although relatively under-reported, is not a rare occurrence. Risk factors are unknown; however, half of our patient cohort reported VV hemorrhage during or directly after coming into contact with warm water. Furthermore, these patients demonstrated a significantly shorter wound healing time compared with the rest of the cohort. Basic first aid, wound care, and hemostasis control education should be provided to all patients with VVs. Further investigation surrounding the risk factors associated with VV hemorrhage is warranted.

8.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 7(6): 773-780, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Catheter-directed thrombolysis in the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (IFDVT) often requires more than one interventional session to yield successful outcomes. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is generally expensive, requiring prolonged hospital stay that may be associated with increased local and systemic hemorrhagic complications. We developed the fast-track thrombolysis protocol (FTTP) to address these issues. The goal of FTTP is to restore patency during the initial session of thrombolysis, thereby minimizing costs and complications associated with prolonged thrombolysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 38 patients treated for acute IFDVT using FTTP at our institution from January 2014 to February 2019 was performed. The protocol includes periadventitial injection of lidocaine at the venipuncture site under ultrasound guidance, contrast venography of the entire target segment, pharmacomechanical rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded venous segment, tissue plasminogen activator infusion along the occluded segment, balloon maceration of the thrombus, and, if indicated, venous stent placement in areas of significant (≥50%) stenosis refractory to thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty. Once the thrombus was cleared, patients were prescribed oral antithrombotic therapy. RESULTS: Thirty-eight primary FTTPs (45 total interventions) were performed in 38 patients. The median age was 66 years (range, 39-93 years); 60.5% were female. Initial venous access was most often obtained through the popliteal vein, followed by the femoral and great saphenous veins. The mean operative time was 122 minutes (range, 59-249 minutes), and the median volume of tissue plasminogen activator infused was 10 mg (range, 4-20 mg). The median cost per procedure, including devices and medication, was $5374.45. Median postoperative length of stay was 1 day (range, 1-45 days). Successful single-session FTTP, as determined by completion venography, was accomplished in 81.5% (n = 31/38) of cases. The remaining seven cases (18.5%) required one additional session. Of the 38 patients, 30 (79%) required iliac vein stenting. Periprocedural complications consisted of one patient with retroperitoneal hemorrhage that was managed conservatively. No patients experienced rethrombosis within 30 days of FTTP. During the 5-year study period, there were no cases of pulmonary embolism, significant local or systemic hemorrhage, limb loss, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: FTTP, as presented herein, appears to be a safe, effective, and cost-effective technique in the resolution of acute IFDVT.

9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 61: 470.e1-470.e4, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382002

RESUMO

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare cause of intermittent claudication in young patients. Unlike the atherosclerotic and degenerative etiologies typically associated with arterial disease, PAES is primarily of anatomic origin. PAES is rarely associated with aneurysmal disease. We present a case and subsequent surgical management of a 47-year-old male who experienced acute limb ischemia secondary to thrombosis of a popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA), who was found to have bilateral PAES and PAAs.

10.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 53(7): 558-562, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thrombolytic therapy is widely used in the treatment of arterial occlusions causing acute limb ischemia (ALI); however, knowledge regarding the efficacy of the different catheter systems available is scarce. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 catheter-directed infusion systems for intra-arterial thrombolysis in the setting of ALI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted to study all catheter-directed thrombolysis procedures performed over 32 months in patients diagnosed with ALI. Patients with thrombosis in both native arteries and bypass grafts were included. Patients with contraindications to thrombolysis, or those receiving thrombolysis for deep venous thrombosis, were excluded. The duration of thrombolysis, amount of thrombolytic agent, and technical success rate were recorded. Technical success was defined as complete or near-complete resolution of thrombus burden, allowing for further intervention. Data were stratified to include location of thrombus, procedural complications, mortality, and rates of limb loss. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients met inclusion criteria. Among them, Uni-Fuse and EKOS catheters were used in 69 and 22 patients, respectively. The mean age of the population was 71 (standard deviation [SD]: ±1.5) for patients treated with the EKOS catheter and 70 years (SD: ±2.6) for patients receiving thrombolysis with Uni-Fuse. There was no significant difference in the mean infusion duration (1.65 vs 1.9 days), volume of tissue plasminogen activator (44.6 vs 48.2 mg), or technical success rate (72% vs 86%) between the Uni-Fuse and EKOS cohorts (P > .3). Furthermore, there was no difference in major limb loss or compartment syndrome between each group (P > .4). The overall complication rate was 14% in both groups, with a 30-day mortality rate of 4% when treated with either catheter system. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a standard multi-hole infusion catheter demonstrates similar clinical safety and efficacy as the ultrasound-accelerated EKOS system in the treatment of ALI.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Isquemia/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/terapia , Terapia por Ultrassom , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Amputação , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/instrumentação , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia por Ultrassom/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular
11.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 7(5): 665-669, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Iliac vein stenting of nonthrombotic iliac vein lesions is an evolving treatment course for management of chronic venous insufficiency. To characterize these lesions, we examined our experience treating these lesions with balloon venoplasty before stenting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to study all patients who underwent venograms with venoplasty and stenting of iliac veins from February 2013 to July 2016. All patients included in the study were treated with a trial conservative management for 3 consecutive months before venogram and, if indicated, venoplasty was performed. If a greater than 50% reduction in cross-sectional area or diameter was observed on intravascular ultrasound examination, the stenotic area was treated with balloon angioplasty, sized to nonstenotic distal vein segment (range, 10 × 40 mm to 16 × 60 mm). Intravascular ultrasound examination was also used to measure the area of stenotic iliofemoral veins before and after balloon angioplasty. RESULTS: A total of 1021 venograms with venoplasty and stenting of iliac veins were performed in 713 patients from February 2013 to July 2016. The mean age of the study population age was 64.88 years (range, 21-99 years; standard deviation [SD], 14.57), with 451 female and 262 male patients. Before angioplasty, the mean cross-sectional stenotic area was 67.97 mm2 (range, 6-318 mm2; SD, 34.87). After balloon angioplasty, the mean stenotic area increased to 78.80 (range, 6-334 mm2; SD, 44.50; P < .001). The targeted stenotic areas were categorized into three categories: group A, increased (>10% of baseline before venoplasty); group B, decreased (<10% of baseline), and group C, no area change (±10% of baseline). In 500 limbs (48.9%), the stenotic areas improved after venoplasty (average 36.99%), with a prevenoplasty average area of 60.81 mm2 (SD, 32.80 mm2) and a postvenoplasty average of 96.52 mm2 (SD, 49.85 mm2). In 294 limbs (28.8%), the area decreased (average 28.90%), with a prevenoplasty average area of 76.43 mm2 (SD, 38.80 mm2) and a postvenoplasty average of 53.22 mm2 (SD, 26.61 mm2). There were 227 patients (22.2%) who had the same area before and after venoplasty. Left-sided lesions had a greater increase in area than right-sided lesions (51.3% vs 46.2%, respectively; P = .048). No significant correlation of stenotic area response with age, presenting symptoms of Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (C2-C6), gender, or location of targeted lesion was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show there is a highly variable response after venoplasty of stenotic area of nonthrombotic iliac vein lesions. Balloon venoplasty showed greater improvement in improving the area of stenotic left-sided lesions. However, stenting of the lesions should be performed routinely owing to recoil and spasm in lesions.

13.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 53(6): 452-457, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin is the most commonly used drug for type 2 diabetes. Research has shown that metformin also has a protective effect on endothelium by decreasing endothelial vascular reactivity. We hypothesize that metformin will decrease restenosis/reintervention rates in patients receiving lower extremity non-drug-eluting stents (nDESs) in the superficial femoral artery(SFA) and/or popliteal artery. MATERIALS/METHODS: Retrospective study was performed on 187 patients from October 2012 to December 2015 who received an nDES in the SFA and/or popliteal artery. Patients were divided into 3 groups (Table 1) and compared against for duplex based restenosis (>60%) rates, limb loss rates, and reintervention rates. Each patient's Trans-Atlantic-Inter-Society-Consensus II (TASC-II) class was collected. Postoperative duplex was performed 1 week after the procedure, then every 3 months for the first year, then, every 6 months to check for patency. IBM-SPSS-22 was used for all analyses. RESULTS: Average age of the patients was 64.65 ± 73.4 years. 101 patients had 101 procedures performed on the left lower extremity; 86 patients had 86 procedures performed on the right lower extremity; 123 patients were male and 64 were female. Average length of follow-up was 13.1±9.7 months. Most common indication for intervention was claudication, followed by critical limb threatening ischemia. Restenosis and reintervention by groups can be seen in Table 1. No patients experienced limb loss. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 3 groups and their limb loss, restenosis, or reintervention rates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite having multiple proven effects in improving certain clinical outcomes and a proven protective effect on endothelium by decreasing endothelial vascular reactivity, metformin does not appear to reduce restenosis or reintervention rates in patients receiving lower extremity nDESs in the SFA and/or popliteal artery.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Artéria Poplítea/cirurgia , Stents , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Constrição Patológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Poplítea/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla
15.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 7(5): 670-676, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Iliac vein stent placement is an increasingly common procedure in the treatment of chronic proximal venous outflow obstruction (PVOO), but secondary interventions after vein stent placement remain poorly characterized. Our goal was to identify the incidence, indications, operative findings, and outcomes of secondary interventions after the primary iliac vein stent procedure at a single institution. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical history of 490 patients (57.6% female, 42.4% male; mean age, 60.77 years [range, 18-92 years]; 93.28% follow-up, with a mean follow-up of 308.59 days) who underwent iliac vein stent placement for PVOO between October 2013 and January 2016. We evaluated the clinical presentation, intraoperative findings, and outcomes of those patients requiring a secondary intervention after an initial iliac vein stent procedure. RESULTS: Secondary interventions after an initial stent placement were identified in 50 of 490 patients (10.2%; mean age, 61.54 years [range, 19-92 years]; 58% female [n = 29]). At the time of each individual intervention, 1, 18, 17, 1, and 13 patients had Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology class 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 disease, respectively. Of these 50 patients, 58% (n = 29) of secondary interventions were due to recurrence of symptoms after the initial stent surgery, 18% (n = 9) were due to the development of new symptoms, and 24% (n = 12) were due to persistence of symptoms. The primary cause of PVOO in the patient cohort was 52% (n = 26) extrinsic iliac vein compression, 28% post-thrombotic, and 20% mixed. Intraoperative findings during the secondary intervention included malposition or angulation of the stent (6% [n = 3]); acute deep venous thrombosis/thrombosis (14% [n = 7]); an additional lesion, that is, stenosis in a native iliac vein proximal or distal to the original lesion (68% [n = 34]); stenosis within the stent, that is, stent stenosis without finding of thrombus or isolated, focal intrastent thrombosis (38% [n = 19]); and impairment of flow of the contralateral vessel from the previously placed stent (6% [n = 3]). The types of secondary interventions included placement of a new stent (86% [n = 43]), isolated balloon angioplasty alone (10% [n = 5]), and catheter pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (14% [n = 7]). Symptomatic improvement was observed after the secondary intervention in 90% of patients (n = 45), whereas only 2% (n = 1) of patients experienced only a transient improvement, and 8% of patients (n = 4) reported no improvement in their symptoms after the secondary interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes a secondary intervention rate of 10.2% after iliac vein stent placement for chronic PVOO and identifies discrete and definable intraoperative findings as targets for quality improvement. The very good results strongly suggest that an aggressive approach to treatment of these complications is warranted.

16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 59: 307.e17-307.e20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075475

RESUMO

Vascular complications secondary to acute pancreatitis carry a high morbidity and mortality, often because of their hemorrhagic or thrombotic effects. When thrombosis presents, it is typically localized to the splanchnic venous system. In this report, we present a case of acute superior mesenteric artery thrombosis secondary to necrotizing pancreatitis after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patient was successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Artéria Mesentérica Superior , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/etiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/etiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Colecistite Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombectomia/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 60: 178-181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are the preferred mode of hemodialysis access because of their high patency rates, they are associated with an appreciable rate of nonmaturation. Balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) has been described to treat this issue. BAM is defined as repeated sequential graduated dilatation of the outflow vein. This study aims to evaluate the short-term complications of using the radial artery as an access for BAM procedures and fisutloplasties. Transradial access was used preferentially with multiple lesions in the AVF that were difficult to access with a single venous puncture. METHODS: Data were collected over 3 years on 44 office-based duplex-guided transradial access BAM procedures in 27 patients of whom 19 were men. BAM with ultrasound guidance was performed in 324 cases using a venous puncture during this period. The indication for the procedures was a failure of AVF maturation, and 5 cases were with short segment thrombectomy. All procedures were performed with local anesthesia only. Access site puncture, vessel cannulation, wire placement, and balloon advancement and insufflation were duplex-guided. The radial artery was punctured with ultrasound guidance and a 4-5 French low-profile sheath was placed. After crossing the lesion(s), 5,000 units of heparin was given. The radial artery was used as the access vessel for all procedures except one, in which the brachial artery was used in addition. Vascular injuries were classified based on the postprocedural duplex assessment. All patients had follow-up duplex scans within a week. RESULTS: The average age was 79 years (±14 SD, range 39-99 years). The types of AVF were 35 radio-cephalic, 1 radio-basilic, 2 brachio-brachial, 2 brachio-cephalic, and 4 brachio-basilic. The number of sites of lesions was 17 on the venous outflow, 7 perianastomotic, and 6 in the radial artery. In the remaining 14 failing AVFs, we were not able to identify any lesion. The balloon size ranged from 3-6 mm (28 patients) and 7-12 mm (16 patients). The most common injury was outflow vein wall injury (25), the formation of wall hematoma of the outflow vein (11), localized extravasation or rupture at the balloon site (4), spasm of the AVF (3), the formation of a puncture-site hematoma (2), and intimal flap (3). Extravasation was controlled with duplex-guided compression. There were no radial artery thromboses, and all the AVFs were patent on completion duplex and follow-up duplex. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the radial artery could be used as a safe access route for BAM procedures with relatively low rates of complication. This approach can be considered as an adjunct in the armamentarium for angioplasty of AVF.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Artéria Radial/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Radial/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/efeitos adversos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
18.
J Ultrasound ; 22(4): 433-436, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is currently the gold standard in the operative management of carotid artery stenosis. While eversion and patch CEAs vary greatly in technique, various studies have determined equivalence with regard to clinical outcomes. However, the hemodynamic differences following each procedure are not known. This study aimed to investigate any early hemodynamic differences between eversion and patch CEAs. METHODS: All CEAs performed at our institution from March 2012 to June 2018 were aggregated in a retrospective database by querying the 35301 CPT code from the electronic medical record system. Variables collected included gender, age, laterality of CEA, type of procedure, and pre- and post-operative duplex ultrasound (DUS) date and quantitative findings. Exclusion criteria included any procedure with incomplete data, a post-operative DUS > 90 days following the procedure, CEAs with concomitant bypass(es), isolated external carotid artery (ECA) endarterectomies, and re-do CEAs. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one CEAs were performed in 161 unique patients. There were 101 males and 60 females, with an average age of 69.7 (38-96; ± 9.36). 63 CEAs were excluded from analysis: 51 due to incomplete data, eight with a > 90 day post-operative DUS, 2 isolated ECA endarterectomies, 1 CEA with a carotid-subclavian bypass, and 1 re-do CEA secondary to an infected patch. Twenty-seven eversion and 81 patch CEAs were included in analysis. There was no difference in procedure laterality or gender between the two cohorts (p > 0.05); however, patients who received an eversion CEA were older on average (73.3 vs 67.5; p = 0.002). Pre-operative peak systolic velocities (PSV) of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA), distal ICA, and distal common artery (CCA) were all similar (p > 0.05). Post-operative DUS was performed at 17.0 and 12.9 days in the eversion and patch CEA cohorts, respectively (p = 0.12). Post-operative PSV and change in PSV were similar for all three aforementioned segments (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although eversion and patch CEAs vary greatly in technique and post-procedure anatomy, there was no significant difference in post-operative PSV or change in PSV at or around the carotid bifurcation.

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