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1.
Thromb Res ; 185: 63-71, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770689

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin care bundles (e.g. genotyping, patient self-testing or self-management) are alternatives to usual warfarin care for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NOACs and warfarin care bundles in patients with AF in a middle-income country, Thailand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov model was used to evaluate the economic and treatment outcomes of warfarin care bundles and NOACs compared with usual warfarin care. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from a societal perspective over a lifetime horizon with 3% discount rate in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old atrial fibrillation patients. Input parameters were derived from published literature, meta-analysis and local data when available. The outcome measure was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained (ICER). RESULTS: Using USD5104 as the threshold of willingness-to-pay per QALY, patient's self-management of warfarin was cost-effective when compared to usual warfarin care, with an ICER of USD1395/QALY from societal perspective. All NOACs were not cost-effective in Thailand, with ICER ranging from USD8678 to USD14,247/QALY. When compared to the next most effective intervention, patient's self-testing and genotype-guided warfarin dosing were dominated. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, patient's self-management had the highest probability of being cost-effective in Thailand, approximately 78%. Results were robust over a range of inputs in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In Thailand, NOACs were unlikely to be cost-effective at current prices. Conversely, patient's self-management is a highly cost-effective intervention and may be considered for adoption in developing regions with resource-limited healthcare systems.

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic condition which progressively affects memory and other cognitive functions, social behaviour, and ability to carry out daily activities. To date, no treatment is clearly effective in preventing progression of the disease, and most treatments are symptomatic, often aiming to improve people's psychological symptoms or behaviours which are challenging for carers. A range of new therapeutic strategies has been evaluated in research, and the use of trained animals in therapy sessions, termed animal-assisted therapy (AAT), is receiving increasing attention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of animal-assisted therapy for people with dementia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialised Register on 5 September 2019. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of major healthcare databases, trial registries, and grey literature sources. We also searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO's trial registry portal. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and randomised cross-over trials that compared AAT versus no AAT, AAT using live animals versus alternatives such as robots or toys, or AAT versus any other active intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of Cochrane Dementia. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), standardised mean difference (SMD), and risk ratio (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) where appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine RCTs from 10 reports. All nine studies were conducted in Europe and the US. Six studies were parallel-group, individually randomised RCTs; one was a randomised cross-over trial; and two were cluster-RCTs that were possibly related where randomisation took place at the level of the day care and nursing home. We identified two ongoing trials from trial registries. There were three comparisons: AAT versus no AAT (standard care or various non-animal-related activities), AAT using live animals versus robotic animals, and AAT using live animals versus the use of a soft animal toy. The studies evaluated 305 participants with dementia. One study used horses and the remainder used dogs as the therapy animal. The duration of the intervention ranged from six weeks to six months, and the therapy sessions lasted between 10 and 90 minutes each, with a frequency ranging from one session every two weeks to two sessions per week. There was a wide variety of instruments used to measure the outcomes. All studies were at high risk of performance bias and unclear risk of selection bias. Our certainty about the results for all major outcomes was very low to moderate. Comparing AAT versus no AAT, participants who received AAT may be slightly less depressed after the intervention (MD -2.87, 95% CI -5.24 to -0.50; 2 studies, 83 participants; low-certainty evidence), but they did not appear to have improved quality of life (MD 0.45, 95% CI -1.28 to 2.18; 3 studies, 164 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There were no clear differences in all other major outcomes, including social functioning (MD -0.40, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.61; 1 study, 58 participants; low-certainty evidence), problematic behaviour (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.98 to 0.30; 3 studies, 142 participants; very-low-certainty evidence), agitation (SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.89 to 0.10; 3 studies, 143 participants; very-low-certainty evidence), activities of daily living (MD 4.65, 95% CI -16.05 to 25.35; 1 study, 37 participants; low-certainty evidence), and self-care ability (MD 2.20, 95% CI -1.23 to 5.63; 1 study, 58 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data on adverse events. Comparing AAT using live animals versus robotic animals, one study (68 participants) found mixed effects on social function, with longer duration of physical contact but shorter duration of talking in participants who received AAT using live animals versus robotic animals (median: 93 seconds with live versus 28 seconds with robotic for physical contact; 164 seconds with live versus 206 seconds with robotic for talk directed at a person; 263 seconds with live versus 307 seconds with robotic for talk in total). Another study showed no clear differences between groups in behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MD -6.96, 95% CI -14.58 to 0.66; 78 participants; low-certainty evidence) or quality of life (MD -2.42, 95% CI -5.71 to 0.87; 78 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data on the other outcomes. Comparing AAT using live animals versus a soft toy cat, one study (64 participants) evaluated only social functioning, in the form of duration of contact and talking. The data were expressed as median and interquartile ranges. Duration of contact was slightly longer in participants in the AAT group and duration of talking slightly longer in those exposed to the toy cat. This was low-certainty evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence that AAT may slightly reduce depressive symptoms in people with dementia. We found no clear evidence that AAT affects other outcomes in this population, with our certainty in the evidence ranging from very-low to moderate depending on the outcome. We found no evidence on safety or effects on the animals. Therefore, clear conclusions cannot yet be drawn about the overall benefits and risks of AAT in people with dementia. Further well-conducted RCTs are needed to improve the certainty of the evidence. In view of the difficulty in achieving blinding of participants and personnel in such trials, future RCTs should work on blinding outcome assessors, document allocation methods clearly, and include major patient-important outcomes such as affect, emotional and social functioning, quality of life, adverse events, and outcomes for animals.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741181

RESUMO

This study aimed at summarizing the existing health policies for stateless populations living in the 10 ASEAN countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. We followed scoping review method recommended by Arksey and O'Malley. Our inclusion criteria were based on three concepts: populations (stateless and undocumented people), issues (healthcare policies and regulations), and settings (10 ASEAN countries). Our findings suggest that none of the ASEAN countries have explicit healthcare policies for stateless people except Thailand. We also observed that ratification of international human rights treaties relating to the right to health does not necessarily translate into the provision of healthcare policies for stateless population. Although Thailand seems like the only country among 10 ASIAN countries having health policies for stateless populations in the country, the question remains whether having a policy would lead to a proper implementation by ensuring right to health.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cannabis, cannabinoids, and their administration routes on pain and adverse euphoria events. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, ClincalTrials.gov, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Embase from inception until June 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of cannabis or cannabinoids on pain reduction. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers extracted and assessed the quality of studies by means of Cochrane risk of bias. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated. Random-effects model was undertaken to pool the treatment effects. RESULTS: A total of 25 studies involving 2270 patients were included. We found that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) (oromucosal route), THC (oromucosal route), and standardized dried cannabis (with THC; SCT; inhalation route) could reduce neuropathic pain score (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -0.7 to -0.1; -0.61, 95% CI -1.2 to -0.02; and -0.77, 95% CI -1.4 to -0.2; respectively). For nociceptive pain, only standardized cannabis extract (with THC; SCET) via oral route could reduce pain score (SMD -1.8, 95% C; -2.4 to -1.2). In cancer pain, THC/CBD via oromucosal route and THC via oral or oromucosal route could reduce pain score (SMD -0.7, 95% CI -1.2 to -0.2; and -2.1, 95% CI -2.8 to -1.4; respectively). No study was observed for THC/CBD via oral route or inhalation or THC via inhalation for cancer and nociceptive pain, SCET via oromucosal route or inhalation for neuropathic and cancer pain, THC via oromucosal route for nociceptive pain, and SCT via oromucosal or oral route for neuropathic, cancer, and nociceptive pain. Statistically significant increased risks of euphoria were observed in THC/CBD (oromucosal), THC (oromucosal), and SCT (inhalation). CONCLUSION: The use of cannabis and cannabinoids via certain administration routes could reduce different types of pain. Product developers could consider our findings as part of their product design so that the effective route of cannabis and cannabinoids for pain control can be achieved.

5.
Value Health ; 22(10): 1137-1145, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although an increase in the burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is evident worldwide, knowledge of costs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with AD in low- and middle-income countries is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to collect real-world cost and HRQOL data, and investigate their associations with multiple disease-severity indicators among AD patients in Thailand. METHODS: We recruited AD patients aged ≥60 years accompanied by their caregivers at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. A one-time structured interview was conducted to collect disease-severity indicators, HRQOL, and caregiving information using standardized tools. The hospital's database was used to retrieve healthcare resource utilization occurred over 6 months preceding the interview date. Costs were annualized and stratified based on cognitive status. Generalized linear models were employed to evaluate determinants of costs and HRQOL. RESULTS: Among 148 community-dwelling patients, average annual total societal costs of AD care were $8014 (95% confidence interval [CI]: $7295-$8844) per patient. Total costs of patients with severe stage ($9860; 95% CI: $8785-$11 328) were almost twice as high as those of mild stage ($5524; 95% CI: $4649-$6593). The major cost driver was direct medical costs, particularly those incurred by AD prescriptions. Functional status was the strongest determinant for both total costs and patient's HRQOL (P value <.001). CONCLUSION: Our real-world findings suggest the distinct major cost driver that results from expensive AD treatment, emphasizing the demand of country-specific cost evidence. Increases in cognitive and functional status are significantly associated with decreases in total costs of AD care and improvement in patient's HRQOL.

6.
J Med Econ ; 22(12): 1351-1361, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560247

RESUMO

Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs have been reported to be cost-effective in many high-income countries. However, there was no such study in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate cost-effectiveness and budget impact of CRC screening modalities for average-risk persons in Thailand.Methods: A decision tree coupled with a Markov model was used to estimate lifetime costs and health benefits of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and colonoscopy using a societal perspective. The input parameters were obtained from a CRC screening project at a Thai tertiary care hospital, Thai health care costs and databases, and systematic literature review. Results were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in 2017 US Dollars (USD) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of parameter uncertainty. Finally, budget impact analysis was conducted.Results: At the Thai ceiling threshold of societal willingness-to-pay of 4,706 USD, the screening colonoscopy every 10 years and annual FIT, starting at age 50, was cost-effective, as compared to no screening resulting in 15.09 and 15.00 QALYs with the ICERs of 600.20 and 509.84 USD/QALY gained, respectively. Colonoscopy every 10 years and annual FIT could prevent 17.9% and 5.7% of early stage cancer and 27.8% and 9.2% of late stage cancer per 100,000 screening over lifetime when compared to no screening, respectively. The colonoscopy screening was cost-effective with the ICER of 646.53 USD/QALY gained when compared to FIT. The probabilities of being cost-effective for the colonoscopy and FIT were 75% and 25%, respectively. Budget impact analysis showed the colonoscopy screening required an 8-times higher budget than FIT.Conclusions: Colonoscopy offers the best value for money of CRC screenings in Thailand. Annual FIT is potentially feasible since it requires less resources. Our findings can be used as part of evidence for informing policy decision making.Key points for decision makersThere was a lack of cost-effective study of colorectal cancer screening programs in low- and middle-income countries.This study evaluated lifetime health outcomes and costs, and the cost-effectiveness of colorectal screening options for average-risk persons in Thailand.Colonoscopy screening every 10 years is cost-effective with high probability of being cost-effective as compared with annual fecal immunochemical test.Screening by annual fecal immunochemical test is more feasible in terms of human resource and budgetary burden.Colorectal screening programs provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatments to prevent advance colorectal stages and avoid higher consequent costs.This study contributes a new evidence-based knowledge for Thailand and can be used to support policy decision making process.

8.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 141: 95-101, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer and heart diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries worldwide. Recent advancement in chemotherapy and targeted therapies has led to an improvement in cancer survival rates, but at a cost of higher cardiac side effects. However, report on antineoplastic-related cardiotoxicities incidence in Asia is lacking. METHODS: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify studies reporting incidence of antineoplastic-related cardiovascular toxicity in Asia published from inception to November 2018. Pre-specified subgroups were performed to explore heterogeneity and study quality assessed and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 61 studies across 11 countries in Asia reported 8 types of cardiovascular toxicities were included. These studies mostly reported on adult populations, and usually examined cardiotoxicities related to anthracycline use. The most frequently reported cardiotoxicities were heart failure, electrocardiogram abnormalities and left ventricular dysfunction. The pooled estimated incidence of cardiotoxicity was 4.27% (95% CI: 3.53-5.07). Subgroup analysis showed higher incidence in middle income countries compared to high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although robust incidence studies are sparse, cardiovascular complications affects approximately one in twenty cancer patients in Asia. This highlights a unique opportunity of cancer patients caring that need cardiologists and oncologist to become familiar with this emerging sub-specialty.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antraciclinas/classificação , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/classificação , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
9.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 59(6): 787-791.e1, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pharmacists play an important role in supporting the health care needs of the public, and various studies have examined the impact of pharmacy services on patient care. This systematic review aimed to describe studies evaluating the impact of pharmacy services by means of network meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review of network meta-analyses examining pharmacy services was performed on PubMed, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from database inception to November 30, 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Network meta-analyses that examined the comparative effectiveness of pharmacy services (where pharmacists provide patient care to optimize patient outcomes) in any population, country, or setting. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were independently extracted by 2 authors with the use of a standardized extraction form. The methodologic quality of articles was assessed with the use of the Cochrane Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews tool. RESULTS: Two network meta-analysis studies were identified. The first study compared 53 randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of transitional care services among discharged patients with heart failure. The study found that pharmacist interventions such as medication reconciliation, patient education, and medication optimization had little impact on improving the all-cause mortality and readmission rate in these patients. The second report compared 43 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of pharmacist-based diabetes educational interventions with or without pharmaceutical care on people with type 2 diabetes. It was reported that pharmacy services were effective in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin among people with type 2 diabetes, with larger effect sizes observed when these services involved a combination of 2 or more pharmacy services. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a paucity of studies using network meta-analysis techniques in evaluating pharmacist-provided services. This could be due to the lack of confidence in using this method, because network meta-analysis requires several additional assumptions that require careful consideration while performing the analysis.

10.
Vaccine ; 37(32): 4551-4560, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) showed that Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) 10 and PCV13 were not cost-effective for universal immunization among children in Thailand. Given recent changes in the evidence of efficacy, herd effects and price, a CEA of PCVs should be revisited. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of PCV10 and PCV13 compared to no PCV vaccination in Thai children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Markov model was developed under a societal perspective with a lifetime horizon. Inputs were derived from a comprehensive literature review. Costs were calculated using the Thai National Electronic Database and converted to the year 2017 value. All costs and outcomes were discounted at a rate of 3%. The findings were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in Thai Baht (THB) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed. A cost-effectiveness acceptability curve was generated with the cost-effectiveness threshold of 160,000 THB/QALY. RESULTS: Base-case analysis of 2 + 1 dose schedule and five-year protection, with no consideration of herd effect showed that ICER for PCV10 was 170,437 THB/QALY, while ICER for PCV13 was 73,674 THB/QALY. With consideration of herd effect, both PCV10 and PCV13 had lower costs and higher QALYs compared to no PCV vaccination. Based on our probabilistic sensitivity analysis at willingness-to-pay of 160,000 THB/QALY, PCV13 had 93% of being cost-effective, while 4.7% and 2.3%, for PCV10 and no PCV vaccination, respectively. CONCLUSION: At current prices, PCV13 is cost-effective, while PCV10 is not cost-effective in Thailand. When considering herd-effect, both PCV10 and PCV13 are cost-effective.

11.
Public Health Genomics ; : 1-11, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Economic evaluation is integral to informed public health decision-making in the rapidly growing field of precision and personalized medicine (PM); however, this research requires specialized expertise and significant resources. Generic models are a novel innovation to efficiently address a critical PM evidence shortage and implementation barrier by enabling use of population-specific input values. This is a generic PM economic evaluation model proof-of-concept study for a pharmacogenomic use case. METHODS: An 8-step generic economic model development process was applied to the use case of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15:02genotyping for prediction of carbamazepine-induced cutaneous reactions, with a user-friendly decision-making tool relying on user-provided input values. This generic model was transparently documented and validated, including cross-validation comparing cost-effectiveness results with 3 country-specific models. RESULTS: A generic pharmacogenomic use case cost-effectiveness model with decision-making tool was successfully developed and cross-validated using input values for 6 populations which produced consistent results for HLA-B*15:02 screening at country-specific cost-effectiveness threshold values. Differences between the generic and country-specific model results were largely due to differences in model structure and assumptions. CONCLUSION: This proof on concept demonstrates the feasibility of generic models to provide useful PM economic evidence, supporting their use as a pragmatic and timely approach to address a growing need.

12.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(10): 1277-1286, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using non-statin lipid-modifying agents in combination with statin therapy provides additional benefits for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction, but their value for money has only been evaluated in high-income countries (HICs). Furthermore, studies mainly derive effectiveness data from a single trial or older meta-analyses. OBJECTIVES: Our study used data from the most recent network meta-analysis (NMA) and local parameters to assess the cost effectiveness of non-statin agents in statin-treated patients with a history of CVD. METHODS: A published Markov model was adopted to investigate lifetime outcomes: (1) number of recurrent CVD events prevented, (2) quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, (3) costs and (4) incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) and ezetimibe added to statin therapy. Event rates and effectiveness inputs were obtained from the NMA. Cost and utility data were gathered from published studies conducted in Thailand. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients receiving PCSK9i and ezetimibe experienced fewer recurrent CVD events (number needed to treat [NNT] 17 and 30) and more QALYs (0.168 and 0.096 QALYs gained per person). However, under the societal perspective and at current acquisition costs in 2018, ICERs of both agents were $US1,223,995 and 27,361 per QALY gained, respectively. Based on threshold analyses, the costs need to be reduced by 97 and 85%, respectively, for PCSK9i and ezetimibe to be cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the proven effectiveness of PCSK9i and ezetimibe, the costs of these agents need to reduce to a much greater extent than in HICs to be cost-effective in Thailand.

13.
Neonatology ; 116(2): 123-131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of Neonatology as a subspecialty in 1960 has stimulated an enormous amount of neonatal research. A large proportion of neonatal randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) have been included in the Cochrane reviews, within which methodological quality or risk-of-bias (ROB) assessment is an integral feature. OBJECTIVES: We described the ROB profile of neonatal RCTs published since the 1950s. METHODS: We analyzed individual studies within the Cochrane Neonatal reviews published up to December 2016. We extracted the reviewers' judgments on the ROB domains including random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. We evaluated blinding of personnel in trials in which blinding was considered feasible. RESULTS: We assessed 1980 RCTs published between 1952 and 2016 from 294 Cochrane Neonatal systematic reviews, with full ROB assessments performed in 848 trials (42.8%). Among the ROB domains, the highest proportion of trials (73%) were judged as satisfactory ("low risk") in handling incomplete outcome data, while fewest trials achieved blinding of outcome assessor (38.4%). In the last 6 decades, a progressive increase has been observed in the proportion of trials that were rated as low risk in random sequence generation, allocation concealment, and selective reporting. However, blinding was achieved in less than half of the trials with no clear improvement across decades (23-44% since the 1980s). CONCLUSIONS: Despite steady improvement in the overall quality of neonatal RCTs over the last 6 decades, blinding remained unsatisfactory in the majority of the trials.

14.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 64, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Everyone has the right to achieve the standard of health and well-being. Migrants are considered as vulnerable populations due to the lack of access to health services and financial protection in health. Several interventions have been developed to improve migrant population health, but little is known about whether these interventions have considered the issue of equity as part of their outcome measurement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence of health interventions in addressing inequity among migrants. METHODS: We adopted a two-stage searching approach to ensure the feasibility of this review. First, reviews of interventions for migrants were searched from five databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE until June 2017. Second, full articles included in the identified reviews were retrieved. Primary studies included in the identified reviews were then evaluated as to whether they met the following criteria: experimental studies which include equity aspects as part of their outcome measurement, based on equity attributes defined by PROGRESS-Plus factors (place of residence, race/ethnicity, occupation, gender, religion, education, socio-economic status, social capital, and others). We analysed the information extracted from the selected articles based on the PRISMA-Equity guidelines and the PROGRESS-Plus factors. RESULTS: Forty-nine reviews involving 1145 primary studies met the first-stage inclusion criteria. After exclusion of 764 studies, the remaining 381 experimental studies were assessed. Thirteen out of 381 experimental studies (3.41%) were found to include equity attributes as part of their outcome measurement. However, although some associations were found none of the included studies demonstrated the effect of the intervention on reducing inequity. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. The interventions included individual directed, community education and peer navigator-related interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence reveals that there is a paucity of studies assessing equity attributes of health interventions developed for migrant populations. This indicates that equity has not been receiving attention in these studies of migrant populations. More attention to equity-focused outcome assessment is needed to help policy-makers to consider all relevant outcomes for sound decision making concerning migrants.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Migrantes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
J Patient Saf ; 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of medication reviews delivered by community pharmacists to elderly patients on polypharmacy. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in four bibliographic databases/search engine (PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and IPA) and three gray literature sources (OpenGrey, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Digital Access to Research Theses - Europe) from inception to January 2018. Randomized controlled trials were selected if they met the following criteria: (a) studied in patients 65 years or older who were taking four or more prescribed medications; (b) the "test" interventions were delivered by community pharmacists; and (c) measured one of these following outcomes: hospitalization, emergency department (ED) visit, quality of life, or adherence. Quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group risk of bias tool. Random-effects model meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 3634 articles screened, four studies with a total of 4633 participants were included. The intervention provided in all included studies was clinical medication review. Three studies were at low risk of bias, and the remaining study had unclear risk of bias. When compared with usual care, medication reviews provided by community pharmacist significantly reduced risk of ED visits (risk ratio = 0.68; 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.96). There was also a tendency that pharmacist interventions decreased risk of hospitalizations (risk ratio = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-1.00), although no statistical significant. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence demonstrates that clinical medication reviews for older people with polypharmacy reduces the risk of ED visits. Medication reviews can be considered as another area where community pharmacists can contribute to improve patient safety.

16.
J Med Econ ; 22(6): 554-566, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663455

RESUMO

Aims: Non-adherence is associated with poor clinical outcomes among patients with asthma. While cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is increasingly used to inform value assessment of the interventions, most do not take into account adherence in the analyses. This study aims to: (1) Understand the extent of studies considering adherence as part of the economic analyses, and (2) summarize the methods of incorporating adherence in the economic models. Materials and methods: A literature search was performed from the inception to February 2018 using four databases: PubMed, EMBASE, NHS EED, and the Tufts CEA registry. Decision model-based CEA of asthma were identified. Outcomes of interest were the number of studies incorporating adherence in the economic models, and the incorporating methods. All data were extracted using a standardized data collection form. Results: From 1,587 articles, 23 studies were decision model-based CEA of asthma, of which four CEA (17.4%) incorporated adherence in the analyses. Only the method of incorporating adherence by adjusting treatment effectiveness according to adherence levels was demonstrated in this review. Two approaches were used to derive the associations between adherence and effectiveness. The first approach was to apply a mathematical formula, developed by an expert panel, and the second was to extrapolate the associations from previous published studies. The adherence-adjusted effectiveness was then incorporated in the economic models. Conclusions: A very low number of CEA of asthma incorporated adherence in the analyses. All the CEA adjusted treatment effectiveness according to adherence levels, applied to the economic models.

17.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(4): 491-512, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634867

RESUMO

There is a high and increasing global prevalence of nutraceuticals use. This study aims to systematically review and critically appraise all available evidence to identify the factors affecting consumers' decisions in taking nutraceuticals. Questionnaire, interview or focus group studies which directly reported factors affecting consumers' decisions in using nutraceuticals were included. A thematic synthesis method was employed to synthesis the findings from the included studies. Out of the 76 studies included, the key factors identified as the most important factors motivating consumers to take nutraceuticals were the perceived health benefits and safety of nutraceuticals, as well as the advice from healthcare professionals, friends and family. The identified barriers to take nutraceuticals were a lack of belief in the health benefit of nutraceuticals, the high cost of nutraceuticals and consumers' lack of knowledge about nutraceuticals. As a chief course of recommendation for the use of nutraceuticals, healthcare professionals should strive to utilise reliable information from clinical evidence to help consumers in making an informed decision in using nutraceuticals. Future studies should explore the possible ways to improve channelling clinical evidence information of nutraceuticals to the public.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Suplementos Nutricionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
18.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 18: 78-82, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the process, challenges, and future direction of health technology assessment (HTA), focusing on the drug selection of the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) in Thailand. METHODS: Literature and government documents were reviewed and analyzed by authors with experiences in HTA and drug policy in the country. RESULTS: The structure of HTA and its process in the drug selection of the NLEM were described, followed by the outcomes of the use of HTA. Examples of lowering drug prices, as a result of price negotiation using HTA, were presented. A few examples were also provided to demonstrate how decisions were made from considering factors beyond cost-effectiveness findings. Finally, challenges on various issues including improvement of HTA structure and process were discussed for the future direction of HTA in Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: HTA has been adopted as a tool for the drug selection of the NLEM to help Thailand achieve universal health coverage. Nevertheless, various challenges exist and need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/métodos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Tailândia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
19.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(2): 291, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547370

RESUMO

Weight Reduction is Cost-Effective for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Thailand.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 280: 190-197, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploration on genetic roles in antineoplastic-related cardiovascular toxicity has increased with the advancement of genotyping technology. However, knowledge on the extent of genetic determinants in affecting the susceptibility to the cardiovascular toxicities of antineoplastic is limited. This study aims to identify potential single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in predicting non-anthracycline antineoplastic-related cardiovascular toxicity. METHODS: We systematically searched for original research in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Studies, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and HuGE Navigator from database inception until January 2018. Studies on association between polymorphism and antineoplastic-induced cardiovascular toxicity in patients treated for cancer of all antineoplastic agents were included except for anthracycline. Case reports, conference abstracts, reviews and non-patient studies were excluded. Data extracted by two independent reviewers were combined with random-effects model and reported according to PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. RESULTS: The 35 studies included examined a total of 219 SNPs in 80 genes, 11 antineoplastic and 5 types of cardiovascular toxicities. Meta-analyses showed that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) rs1136201, a risk variants (pooled OR: 2.43; 1.17-5.06, p = 0.018) is a potential predictors for trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity. Gene dose effect analysis showed number of variant allele may contribute to the risk too. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that HER2 rs1136201 can have the potential in predicting trastuzumab-related heart failure. As such, further studies are needed to confirm the validity of these results as well as determine the economic aspect of using SNPs prior to its implementation as a clinical practice.

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