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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 237, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is an inherited congenital disorder characterized by the absence of enteric ganglia in the distal part of the gut. RET is the major causative gene and contains > 80% of all known disease-causing mutations. RESULTS: To determine the incidence of RET pathogenic variants, be they Mendelian inherited, mosaic in parents or true de novo variants (DNVs) in 117 Chinese families, we used high-coverage NGS and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to identify 15 (12.8%) unique RET coding variants (7 are novel); one was inherited from a heterozygous unaffected mother, 11 were DNVs (73.3%), and 3 full heterozygotes were inherited from parental mosaicism (2 paternal, 1 maternal): two clinically unaffected parents were identified by NGS and confirmed by ddPCR, with mutant allele frequency (13-27%) that was the highest in hair, lowest in urine and similar in blood and saliva. An extremely low-level paternal mosaicism (0.03%) was detected by ddPCR in blood. Six positive-controls were examined to compare the mosaicism detection limit and sensitivity of NGS, amplicon-based deep sequencing and ddPCR. CONCLUSION: Our findings expand the clinical and molecular spectrum of RET variants in HSCR and reveal a high frequency of RET DNVs in the Chinese population.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(18): 3137-3147, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313802

RESUMO

Disruptions in gene regulatory networks (GRNs), driven by multiple deleterious variants, potentially underlie complex traits and diseases. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), a multifactorial disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development, is associated with at least 24 genes and seven chromosomal loci, with RET and EDNRB as its major genes. We previously demonstrated that RET transcription in the ENS is controlled by an extensive GRN involving the transcription factors (TFs) RARB, GATA2 and SOX10 and other HSCR genes. We now demonstrate, using human and mouse cellular and animal models, that EDNRB is transcriptionally regulated in the ENS by GATA2, SOX10 and NKX2.5 TFs. Significantly, RET and EDNRB expression is regulated by their shared use of GATA2 and SOX10, and in turn, these TFs are controlled by EDNRB and RET in a dose-dependent manner. This study expands the ENS development GRN to include both RET and EDNRB, uncovers the mechanistic basis for RET-EDNRB epistasis and emphasizes how functionally different genes associated with a complex disorder can be united through a common GRN.

3.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(3): 299-305, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Families affected by Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) have opportunities to learn recurrence risks to their children from statistical genetic and empiric studies and, in some cases, prenatal genetic testing or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This study aimed to assess interest in reproductive genetic information for HSCR and factors that predict this interest in 2 groups with elevated risk of having a child with HSCR. METHODS: Adult patients with HSCR and parents of children with HSCR were surveyed about their interest in learning reproductive genetic information regarding HSCR through genetic counseling, prenatal testing, and PGD. Covariates assessed in this cross-sectional study included quality of life, illness perceptions, depressive symptoms, and adaptation to the condition. Bivariate analyses assessed differences between affected adults and parents. Logistic modeling was used to identify predictors of interest in reproductive genetic information. RESULTS: Study participants (n = 368) reported high interest in reproductive genetic information through genetic counseling (yes = 60%/unsure = 16%), prenatal testing (yes = 59%/unsure = 16%), and PGD (yes = 43%/unsure = 18%). Illness perceptions differed between affected adults and parents, but perceived severity of HSCR was high among all participants (µâ€Š= 3.42, SD = 0.67, 4-point scale). Interest in reproductive information was associated with being an affected adult, not having a family history of HSCR, negative emotional representations, and adaptation to the condition. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study support a desire among the surveyed HSCR patient groups to attend genetic counseling and be offered testing when available. Exploration of perceptions and experiences with the condition should be incorporated into the counseling to insure informed preference-based decision making.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10636-10645, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068470

RESUMO

The rationale for genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is sequence variation in cis-regulatory elements (CREs) modulating a target gene's expression as the major cause of trait variation. To understand the complete molecular landscape of one of these GWAS loci, we performed in vitro reporter screens in cardiomyocyte cell lines for CREs overlapping nearly all common variants associated with any of five independent QT interval (QTi)-associated GWAS hits at the SCN5A-SCN10A locus. We identified 13 causal CRE variants using allelic reporter activity, cardiomyocyte nuclear extract-based binding assays, overlap with human cardiac tissue DNaseI hypersensitive regions, and predicted impact of sequence variants on DNaseI sensitivity. Our analyses identified at least one high-confidence causal CRE variant for each of the five sentinel hits that could collectively predict SCN5A cardiac gene expression and QTi association. Although all 13 variants could explain SCN5A gene expression, the highest statistical significance was obtained with seven variants (inclusive of the five above). Thus, multiple, causal, mutually associated CRE variants can underlie GWAS signals.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 380(15): 1421-1432, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease, or congenital aganglionosis, is a developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system and is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates and infants. The disease has more than 80% heritability, including significant associations with rare and common sequence variants in genes related to the enteric nervous system, as well as with monogenic and chromosomal syndromes. METHODS: We genotyped and exome-sequenced samples from 190 patients with Hirschsprung's disease to quantify the genetic burden in patients with this condition. DNA sequence variants, large copy-number variants, and karyotype variants in probands were considered to be pathogenic when they were significantly associated with Hirschsprung's disease or another neurodevelopmental disorder. Novel genes were confirmed by functional studies in the mouse and human embryonic gut and in zebrafish embryos. RESULTS: The presence of five or more variants in four noncoding elements defined a widespread risk of Hirschsprung's disease (48.4% of patients and 17.1% of controls; odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.19 to 6.46). Rare coding variants in 24 genes that play roles in enteric neural-crest cell fate, 7 of which were novel, were also common (34.7% of patients and 5.0% of controls) and conferred a much greater risk than noncoding variants (odds ratio, 10.02; 95% CI, 6.45 to 15.58). Large copy-number variants, which were present in fewer patients (11.4%, as compared with 0.2% of controls), conferred the highest risk (odds ratio, 63.07; 95% CI, 36.75 to 108.25). At least one identifiable genetic risk factor was found in 72.1% of the patients, and at least 48.4% of patients had a structural or regulatory deficiency in the gene encoding receptor tyrosine kinase (RET). For individual patients, the estimated risk of Hirschsprung's disease ranged from 5.33 cases per 100,000 live births (approximately 1 per 18,800) to 8.38 per 1000 live births (approximately 1 per 120). CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients in our study, Hirschsprung's disease arose from common noncoding variants, rare coding variants, and copy-number variants affecting genes involved in enteric neural-crest cell fate that exacerbate the widespread genetic susceptibility associated with RET. For individual patients, the genotype-specific odds ratios varied by a factor of approximately 67, which provides a basis for risk stratification and genetic counseling. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Penetrância , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Hum Genet ; 138(2): 199-210, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671673

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score > 10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p < 0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N = 29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p = 2.19 × 10-4) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p = 0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Exoma , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Recombinases/genética
7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262922

RESUMO

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is more prevalent in African Americans as compared to other US groups. Although large, population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 300 common polymorphisms modulating inter-individual BP variation, largely in European ancestry subjects, most of them do not localize to regions previously identified through family-based linkage studies. This discrepancy has remained unexplained despite the statistical power differences between current GWAS and prior linkage studies. To address this issue, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis of BP traits in African-American families from the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP) and genotyped on the Illumina Human Exome BeadChip v1.1. We identified a genomic region on chromosome 1q31 with LOD score 3.8 for pulse pressure (PP), a region we previously implicated in DBP studies of European ancestry families. Although no reported GWAS variants map to this region, combined linkage and association analysis of PP identified 81 rare and low frequency exonic variants accounting for the linkage evidence. Replication analysis in eight independent African ancestry cohorts (N = 16,968) supports this specific association with PP (P = 0.0509). Additional association and network analyses identified multiple potential candidate genes in this region expressed in multiple tissues and with a strong biological support for a role in BP. In conclusion, multiple genes and rare variants on 1q31 contribute to PP variation. Beyond producing new insights into PP, we demonstrate how family-based linkage and association studies can implicate specific rare and low frequency variants for complex traits.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 39(44): 3961-3969, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169657

RESUMO

Aims: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) accounts for 10% of adult mortality in Western populations. We aim to identify potential loci associated with SCA and to identify risk factors causally associated with SCA. Methods and results: We carried out a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) for SCA (n = 3939 cases, 25 989 non-cases) to examine common variation genome-wide and in candidate arrhythmia genes. We also exploited Mendelian randomization (MR) methods using cross-trait multi-variant genetic risk score associations (GRSA) to assess causal relationships of 18 risk factors with SCA. No variants were associated with SCA at genome-wide significance, nor were common variants in candidate arrhythmia genes associated with SCA at nominal significance. Using cross-trait GRSA, we established genetic correlation between SCA and (i) coronary artery disease (CAD) and traditional CAD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, and diabetes), (ii) height and BMI, and (iii) electrical instability traits (QT and atrial fibrillation), suggesting aetiologic roles for these traits in SCA risk. Conclusions: Our findings show that a comprehensive approach to the genetic architecture of SCA can shed light on the determinants of a complex life-threatening condition with multiple influencing factors in the general population. The results of this genetic analysis, both positive and negative findings, have implications for evaluating the genetic architecture of patients with a family history of SCA, and for efforts to prevent SCA in high-risk populations and the general community.

9.
Genome Res ; 28(10): 1577-1588, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139769

RESUMO

Cis-regulatory elements (CRE), short DNA sequences through which transcription factors (TFs) exert regulatory control on gene expression, are postulated to be the major sites of causal sequence variation underlying the genetics of complex traits and diseases. We present integrative analyses, combining high-throughput genomic and epigenomic data with sequence-based computations, to identify the causal transcriptional components in a given tissue. We use data on adult human hearts to demonstrate that (1) sequence-based predictions detect numerous, active, tissue-specific CREs missed by experimental observations, (2) learned sequence features identify the cognate TFs, (3) CRE variants are specifically associated with cardiac gene expression, and (4) a significant fraction of the heritability of exemplar cardiac traits (QT interval, blood pressure, pulse rate) is attributable to these variants. This general systems approach can thus identify candidate causal variants and the components of gene regulatory networks (GRN) to enable understanding of the mechanisms of complex disorders on a tissue- or cell-type basis.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(33): e11865, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113482

RESUMO

Rare variants, in particular renal salt handling genes, contribute to monogenic forms of hypertension and hypotension syndromes with electrolyte abnormalities. A study by Ji et al (2008) demonstrated this effect for rare loss-of-function coding variants in SLC12A3 (NCCT), SLC12A1 (NKCC2), and KCNJ1 (ROMK) that led to reduction of ∼6 mm Hg for SBP and ∼3 mm Hg for DBP among carriers in 2492 European ancestry Framingham Heart Study (FHS) subjects. These findings support a potentially large role for these variants in interindividual variation in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) in the population. The present study focuses on replicating the analyses completed by Ji et al to identify effects of rare variants in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.We attempted to replicate the findings by Ji et al by applying their criteria to identify putative loss-of-function variants with allele frequency <0.001 and complete conservation across a set of orthologs, to exome sequencing data from 7444 European ancestry participants of the ARIC study.Although we failed to replicate the previous findings when applying their methods to the ARIC study data, we observed a similar effect when we restricted analyses to the subset of variants they observed.These results simultaneously support the utility of exome sequencing data for studying extremely rare coding variants in hypertension and underscore the need for improved filtering methods for identifying functional variants in human sequences.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/genética , Hipotensão/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Membro 3 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200486, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044860

RESUMO

Current knowledge of the genetic architecture of key reproductive events across the female life course is largely based on association studies of European descent women. The relevance of known loci for age at menarche (AAM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) in diverse populations remains unclear. We investigated 32 AAM and 14 ANM previously-identified loci and sought to identify novel loci in a trans-ethnic array-wide study of 196,483 SNPs on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.). A total of 45,364 women of diverse ancestries (African, Hispanic/Latina, Asian American and American Indian/Alaskan Native) in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study were included in cross-sectional analyses of AAM and ANM. Within each study we conducted a linear regression of SNP associations with self-reported or medical record-derived AAM or ANM (in years), adjusting for birth year, population stratification, and center/region, as appropriate, and meta-analyzed results across studies using multiple meta-analytic techniques. For both AAM and ANM, we observed more directionally consistent associations with the previously reported risk alleles than expected by chance (p-valuesbinomial≤0.01). Eight densely genotyped reproductive loci generalized significantly to at least one non-European population. We identified one trans-ethnic array-wide SNP association with AAM and two significant associations with ANM, which have not been described previously. Additionally, we observed evidence of independent secondary signals at three of six AAM trans-ethnic loci. Our findings support the transferability of reproductive trait loci discovered in European women to women of other race/ethnicities and indicate the presence of additional trans-ethnic associations both at both novel and established loci. These findings suggest the benefit of including diverse populations in future studies of the genetic architecture of female growth and development.

12.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 34: 50-57, 2018 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677652

RESUMO

Skeletal myocytes have well-established fast and slow twitch fibers with unique gene and protein specific expression patterns. By immunohistochemical staining, these show a mosaic pattern across myocytes. We hypothesized cardiac myocytes may behave similarly where some proteins are differentially expressed between mature cardiomyocytes. We utilized the tool HPASubC on over 52,000 cardiac images of the Human Protein Atlas to identify differential protein expression patterns by immunohistochemistry across the cardiomyocytes. We matched identified proteins to open chromatin and gene expression data. We identified 143 putative proteins with mosaic patterns of expression across the cardiomyocytes. We validated four of these proteins (MYL3, MYL4, PAM, and MYOM1) and demonstrated unique atrial or ventricular patterns of expression for each. Acetylation of histone H3K27 at the promoters of these four genes were consistent with the atrial/ventricular expression patterns. Despite the generally accepted homogeneity of cardiomyocytes, a small subset of proteins varies between cardiomyocytes in a mosaic pattern. This fundamental process has been previously uncharacterized. These changes may inform on different functional and disease-related activities of proteins in individual cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/análise , Miócitos Cardíacos/química , Acetilação , Amidina-Liases/análise , Conectina/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/química , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica , Oxigenases de Função Mista/análise , Mosaicismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/análise , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica/métodos
13.
Genet Med ; 20(11): 1479-1480, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493585
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(4): 561-569, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379196

RESUMO

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder with a population incidence of ~1/5000 live births, defined by an absence of enteric ganglia along variable lengths of the colon. HSCR genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found common associated variants at RET, SEMA3, and NRG1, but they still fail to explain all of its heritability. To enhance gene discovery, we performed a GWAS of 170 cases identified from the Danish nationwide pathology registry with 4717 controls, based on 6.2 million variants imputed from the haplotype reference consortium panel. We found a novel low-frequency variant (rs144432435), which, when conditioning on the lead RET single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was of genome-wide significance in the discovery analysis. This conditional association signal was replicated in a Swedish HSCR cohort with discovery plus replication meta-analysis conditional odds ratio of 6.6 (P = 7.7 × 10-10; 322 cases and 4893 controls). The conditional signal was, however, not replicated in two HSCR cohorts from USA and Finland, leading to the hypothesis that rs144432435 tags a rare haplotype present in Denmark and Sweden. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis method, we estimated the SNP heritability of HSCR to be 88%, close to estimates based on classical family studies. Moreover, by using Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression we were able to construct a genetic HSCR predictor with a area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 76% in an independent validation set. In conclusion, we combined the largest collection of sporadic Hirschsprung cases to date (586 cases) to further elucidate HSCR's genetic architecture.

15.
Genet Med ; 20(7): 770-777, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the frequency of RET mosaicism in Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), test whether it has been underestimated, and to assess its contribution to HSCR risk. METHODS: Targeted exome sequencing (n = 83) and RET single-gene screening (n = 69) were performed. Amplicon-based deep sequencing was applied on multiple tissue samples. TA cloning and sequencing were conducted for validation. RESULTS: We identified eight de novo mutations in 152 patients (5.2%), of which six were pathogenic mosaic mutations. Two of these patients were somatic mosaics, with mutations detected in blood, colon, and saliva (mutant allele frequency: 35-44%). In addition, germ-line mosaicism was identified in four clinically unaffected subjects, each with an affected child, in multiple tissues (mutant allele frequency: 1-28%). CONCLUSION: Somatic mutations of the RET gene are underrecognized in HSCR. Molecular investigation of the parents of patients with seemingly sporadic mutations is essential to determine recurrence risk in these families.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258278

RESUMO

Inter-individual variability in blood pressure (BP) is influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors including socioeconomic and psychosocial stressors. A deeper understanding of the gene-by-socioeconomic/psychosocial factor interactions on BP may help to identify individuals that are genetically susceptible to high BP in specific social contexts. In this study, we used a genomic region-based method for longitudinal analysis, Longitudinal Gene-Environment-Wide Interaction Studies (LGEWIS), to evaluate the effects of interactions between known socioeconomic/psychosocial and genetic risk factors on systolic and diastolic BP in four large epidemiologic cohorts of European and/or African ancestry. After correction for multiple testing, two interactions were significantly associated with diastolic BP. In European ancestry participants, outward/trait anger score had a significant interaction with the C10orf107 genomic region (p = 0.0019). In African ancestry participants, depressive symptom score had a significant interaction with the HFE genomic region (p = 0.0048). This study provides a foundation for using genomic region-based longitudinal analysis to identify subgroups of the population that may be at greater risk of elevated BP due to the combined influence of genetic and socioeconomic/psychosocial risk factors.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0176734, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In older adults (aged 70-74 years), African-Americans have 4-fold higher risk of developing hypertension-attributed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than European-Americans. A hypothesized mechanism linking hypertension and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the innate immune response and inflammation. Persons with CKD are also more susceptible to infection. Gene expression in peripheral blood can provide a view of the innate immune activation profile. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes, microRNAs, and pathways in peripheral blood between cases with CKD and high blood pressure under hypertension treatment versus controls without CKD and with controlled blood pressure in African Americans. METHODS: Case and control pairs (N = 15x2) were selected from those without diabetes and were matched for age, sex, body mass index, APOL1 risk allele count, and hypertension medication use. High blood pressure under hypertension treatment was defined as hypertension medication use and systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 145 mmHg. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73m2. Cases were selected from those with CKD and high blood pressure under hypertension treatment, and controls were selected from those without CKD (eGFR: 75-120 mL/min/1.73m2 and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio < 30mg/g) and with blood pressure controlled by hypertension medication use (SBP < 135 mmHg and D(diastolic)BP < 90 mm Hg). We perform RNA sequencing of mRNA and microRNA and conducted differential expression and co-expression network analysis. RESULTS: Of 347 miRNAs included in the analysis, 14 were significantly associated with case status (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p-value [BH p] < 0.05). Of these, ten were downregulated in cases: three of each belong to the miR-17 and miR-15 families. In co-expression network analysis of miRNA, one module, which included 13 of the 14 significant miRNAs, had significant association with case status. Of the 14,488 genes and 41,739 transcripts included in the analysis, none had significant association with case status. Gene co-expression network analyses did not yield any significant associations for mRNA. CONCLUSION: We have identified 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in the peripheral blood of CKD cases with high blood pressure under hypertension treatment as compared to appropriate controls. Most of the significant miRNAs were downregulated and have critical roles in immune cell functions. Future studies are needed to replicate our findings and determine whether the downregulation of these miRNAs in immune cells may influence CKD progression or complications.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Hipertensão/complicações , MicroRNAs/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
PLoS Genet ; 13(3): e1006678, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346479

RESUMO

Many large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common blood pressure (BP) variants. However, most of the identified BP variants do not overlap with the linkage evidence observed from family studies. We thus hypothesize that multiple rare variants contribute to the observed linkage evidence. We performed linkage analysis using 517 individuals in 130 European families from the Cleveland Family Study (CFS) who have been genotyped on the Illumina OmniExpress Exome array. The largest linkage peak was observed on chromosome 16p13 (MLOD = 2.81) for systolic blood pressure (SBP). Follow-up conditional linkage and association analyses in the linkage region identified multiple rare, coding variants in RBFOX1 associated with reduced SBP. In a 17-member CFS family, carriers of the missense variant rs149974858 are normotensive despite being obese (average BMI = 60 kg/m2). Gene-based association test of rare variants using SKAT-O showed significant association with SBP (p-value = 0.00403) and DBP (p-value = 0.0258) in the CFS participants and the association was replicated in large independent replication studies (N = 57,234, p-value = 0.013 for SBP, 0.0023 for PP). RBFOX1 is expressed in brain tissues, the atrial appendage and left ventricle in the heart, and in skeletal muscle tissues, organs/tissues which are potentially related to blood pressure. Our study showed that associations of rare variants could be efficiently detected using family information.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
20.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 48, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), which is congenital obstruction of the bowel, results from a failure of enteric nervous system (ENS) progenitors to migrate, proliferate, differentiate, or survive within the distal intestine. Previous studies that have searched for genes underlying HSCR have focused on ENS-related pathways and genes not fitting the current knowledge have thus often been ignored. We identify and validate novel HSCR genes using whole exome sequencing (WES), burden tests, in silico prediction, unbiased in vivo analyses of the mutated genes in zebrafish, and expression analyses in zebrafish, mouse, and human. RESULTS: We performed de novo mutation (DNM) screening on 24 HSCR trios. We identify 28 DNMs in 21 different genes. Eight of the DNMs we identified occur in RET, the main HSCR gene, and the remaining 20 DNMs reside in genes not reported in the ENS. Knockdown of all 12 genes with missense or loss-of-function DNMs showed that the orthologs of four genes (DENND3, NCLN, NUP98, and TBATA) are indispensable for ENS development in zebrafish, and these results were confirmed by CRISPR knockout. These genes are also expressed in human and mouse gut and/or ENS progenitors. Importantly, the encoded proteins are linked to neuronal processes shared by the central nervous system and the ENS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data open new fields of investigation into HSCR pathology and provide novel insights into the development of the ENS. Moreover, the study demonstrates that functional analyses of genes carrying DNMs are warranted to delineate the full genetic architecture of rare complex diseases.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Peixe-Zebra
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