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1.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(16): 1580-1589, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine the patterns of antithrombotic therapy and association with clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) score ≥2 following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: The impact of antithrombotic regimens on clinical outcomes in patients with AF and severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVR is unknown. METHODS: In the randomized PARTNER II (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve II) trial and associated registries, 1,621 patients with prior AF and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 comprised the study cohort. Outcomes were analyzed according to antithrombotic therapy. RESULTS: During the 5-year enrollment period, 933 (57.6%) patients were discharged on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC). Uninterrupted antiplatelet therapy (APT) for at least 6 months or until an endpoint event was used in 544 of 933 (58.3%) of patients on OAC and 77.5% of patients not on OAC. At 2 years, patients on OAC had a similar rate of stroke (6.6% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.53) and the composite outcome of death or stroke (29.7% vs. 31.8%; p = 0.33), compared with no OAC. OAC with APT was associated with a reduced rate of stroke (5.4% vs. 11.1%; p = 0.03) and death or stroke (29.7% vs. 40.1%; p = 0.01), compared with no OAC or APT. Following adjustment, OAC with APT and APT alone were both associated with reduced rates of stroke compared with no OAC or APT (hazard ratio for OAC+APT: 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.22 to 0.85; p = 0.015; hazard ratio for APT alone: 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.65; p = 0.002), while OAC alone was not. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with prior AF undergoing TAVR, antiplatelet with or without anticoagulant therapy was associated with a reduced risk of stroke at 2 years, implicating multifactorial stroke mechanisms in this population.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1190-1200, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of evidence on the impact of anticoagulation (AC) after bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) on valve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the impact of AC after bioprosthetic AVR on valve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Data on antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy were collected. Echocardiograms were performed at 30 days and 1 year post-AVR. Linear regression model and propensity-score adjusted cox proportional model were used to assess the impact of AC on valve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 4,832 patients undergoing bioprosthetic AVR (transcatheter aortic valve replacement [TAVR], n = 3,889 and surgical AVR [SAVR], n = 943) in the pooled cohort of PARTNER2 (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) randomized trials and nonrandomized registries were studied. Following adjustment for valve size, annular diameter, atrial fibrillation, and ejection fraction at the time of assessment of hemodynamics, there was no significant difference in aortic valve mean gradients or aortic valve areas between patients discharged on AC vs. those not discharged on AC, for either TAVR or SAVR cohorts. A significantly greater proportion of patients not discharged on AC had an increase in mean gradient >10 mm Hg from 30 days to 1 year, compared with those discharged on AC (2.3% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.03). There was no independent association between AC after TAVR and adverse outcomes (death, p = 0.15; rehospitalization, p = 0.16), whereas AC after SAVR was associated with significantly fewer strokes (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.60; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In the short term, early AC after bioprosthetic AVR did not result in adverse clinical events, did not significantly affect aortic valve hemodynamics (aortic valve gradients or area), and was associated with decreased rates of stroke after SAVR (but not after TAVR). Whether early AC after bioprosthetic AVR has impact on long-term outcomes remains to be determined. (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves [PARTNERII A]; NCT01314313).

4.
JAMA ; 321(22): 2193-2202, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184741

RESUMO

Importance: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) indications are expanding, leading to an increasing number of patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR. Pivotal randomized trials conducted to obtain US Food and Drug Administration approval excluded bicuspid anatomy. Objective: To compare the outcomes of TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve for bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Registry-based prospective cohort study of patients undergoing TAVR at 552 US centers. Participants were enrolled in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry from June 2015 to November 2018. Exposures: TAVR for bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were 30-day and 1-year mortality and stroke. Secondary outcomes included procedural complications, valve hemodynamics, and quality of life assessment. Results: Of 81 822 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis (2726 bicuspid; 79 096 tricuspid), 2691 propensity-score matched pairs of bicuspid and tricuspid aortic stenosis were analyzed (median age, 74 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 66-81 years]; 39.1%, women; mean [SD] STS-predicted risk of mortality, 4.9% [4.0%] and 5.1% [4.2%], respectively). All-cause mortality was not significantly different between patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic stenosis at 30 days (2.6% vs 2.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04, [95% CI, 0.74-1.47]) and 1 year (10.5% vs 12.0%; HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.73-1.10]). The 30-day stroke rate was significantly higher for bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis (2.5% vs 1.6%; HR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.06-2.33]). The risk of procedural complications requiring open heart surgery was significantly higher in the bicuspid vs tricuspid cohort (0.9% vs 0.4%, respectively; absolute risk difference [RD], 0.5% [95% CI, 0%-0.9%]). There were no significant differences in valve hemodynamics. There were no significant differences in moderate or severe paravalvular leak at 30 days (2.0% vs 2.4%; absolute RD, 0.3% [95% CI, -1.3% to 0.7%]) and 1 year (3.2% vs 2.5%; absolute RD, 0.7% [95% CI, -1.3% to 2.7%]). At 1 year there was no significant difference in improvement in quality of life between the groups (difference in improvement in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, -2.4 [95% CI, -5.1 to 0.3]; P = .08). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary, registry-based study of propensity-matched patients who had undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, patients with bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis had no significant difference in 30-day or 1-year mortality but had increased 30-day risk for stroke. Because of the potential for selection bias and the absence of a control group treated surgically for bicuspid stenosis, randomized trials are needed to adequately assess the efficacy and safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement for bicuspid aortic stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Risco
5.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(2): E15-E22, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the clinical impact of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) in patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of new PPI in patients with baseline low LVEF at 2-year follow-up after TAVR. METHODS: A total of 659 patients undergoing TAVR between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the need for PPI after TAVR. These patients were further divided by their baseline LVEF: low LVEF (≤50%) and preserved LVEF (>50%). RESULTS: A total of 104 patients (15.8%) needed PPI following TAVR. After a median follow-up of 19.1 months (interquartile range, 11.4-24.4 months), overall and cardiovascular survival showed no significant differences between new PPI and no PPI (overall, log-rank P=.94; cardiovascular, log-rank P=.51). Nonetheless, patients requiring PPI who had low LVEF had higher cardiovascular mortality compared to patients with low LVEF who didn't need PPI (log-rank P<.001). Multivariable Cox hazard model demonstrated that patients with new PPI and low LVEF had higher 2-year cardiovascular mortality after TAVR (hazard ratio, 5.76; P<.001). CONCLUSION: New PPI following TAVR was not associated with overall survival or cardiovascular survival difference at 2 years. However, receiving a new PPI in the setting of low LVEF adversely impacts mid-term cardiovascular survival.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Marca-Passo Artificial , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
6.
Circ J ; 83(3): 672-680, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and an extra-large annulus (ELA) area (>683 mm2) can rarely be treated by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) because of the size limitation of the transcatheter heart valves. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of TAVR using a 29-mm SAPIEN3 (S3) valve in patients with ELA and S3-dimensions by post-procedural computed tomography (post-CT). Methods and Results: We included 261 patients undergoing TAVR using a 29-mm S3: 30 patients with ELA and 231 with non-ELA were identified. S3-dimensions were evaluated at the S3 inflow and annulus level by post-CT in 129 patients. The ELA group had a greater aortic annulus area measured by pre-procedural CT (737.3±54.7 vs. 578.4±41.9 mm2, P<0.0001), higher balloon inflation volume (36 vs. 33 mL, P<0.0001), a larger S3 area at inflow by post-CT (729.6±42.2 vs. 682.2±35.0 mm2, P<0.001), and a correlation between the inflation volume and S3 area (r=0.71, P=0.0005). No differences were observed between groups in paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR) ≥mild (43.3% vs. 27.6%, P=0.09), PAR ≥moderate (3.3% vs. 1.3%, P=0.39) or 1-year mortality (10.0% vs. 9.1%, P=0.87). CONCLUSIONS: TAVR using a 29-mm S3 with extra inflation of the delivery balloon can be considered as a treatment option for patients with severe AS and ELA.

8.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(2): 182-193, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction after transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). BACKGROUND: LVOT obstruction is a major concern with TMVR, but limited data exist regarding its predictors and impact on outcomes. METHODS: Patients with pre-procedural multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) undergoing TMVR for failed mitral bioprosthetic valves (valve-in-valve), annuloplasty rings (valve-in-ring), and mitral annular calcification (valve-in-MAC) were included in this study. Echocardiographic and procedural characteristics were recorded, and comprehensive assessment with MDCT was performed to identify the predictors of LVOT obstruction (defined as an increment of mean LVOT gradient ≥10 mm Hg from baseline). The new LVOT (neo-LVOT) area left after TMVR was estimated by embedding a virtual valve into the mitral annulus on MDCT, simulating the procedure. RESULTS: Among 194 patients with pre-procedural MDCT undergoing TMVR (valve-in-valve, 107 patients; valve-in-ring, 50 patients; valve-in-MAC, 37 patients), LVOT obstruction was observed in 26 patients (13.4%), with a higher rate after valve-in-MAC than valve-in-ring and valve-in-valve (54.1% vs. 8.0% vs. 1.9%; p < 0.001). Patients with LVOT obstruction had significantly higher procedural mortality compared with those without LVOT obstruction (34.6% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that an estimated neo-LVOT area ≤1.7 cm2 predicted LVOT obstruction with sensitivity of 96.2% and specificity of 92.3%. CONCLUSIONS: LVOT obstruction after TMVR was associated with higher procedural mortality. A small estimated neo-LVOT area was significantly associated with LVOT obstruction after TMVR and may help identify patients at high risk for LVOT obstruction.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(1): 64-70, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566185

RESUMO

Importance: In low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG AS), the severity of left ventricular dysfunction remains a key factor in the evaluation of aortic valve replacement. Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with LFLG AS and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter registry is a substudy of the True or Pseudo-Severe Aortic Stenosis-TAVI registry that included patients with classic LFLG AS, defined as a mean transvalvular gradient less than 35 mm Hg, an effective orifice area less than 1.0 cm2, and an LVEF of 40% or less. Patients were divided in groups with very low (<30%) LVEF and low (30%-40%) LVEF. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed before TAVR in a subset with very low LVEF, and presence of contractile reserve was defined as an increase of 20% or more in stroke volume. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 and 12 months and yearly thereafter, and echocardiography was performed at 1-year follow-up. Retrospective data were collected from 2007 to 2013 and prospective data from January 2013 to March 2018. Data were analyzed from March to October 2018. Exposures: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with LFLG AS. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in LVEF over time; periprocedural and late mortality. Results: A total of 293 patients were included, including 128 (43.7%) with very low LVEF and 165 with low LVEF (56.3%). Their mean (SD) age was 80 (7) years, and most (214 [73.0%]) were men. The mean (SD) LVEF in the very low LVEF group was 22% (5%), compared with 37% (7%) in the low LVEF group (P < .001). There were no differences between groups in rates of periprocedural mortality and late mortality (median [interquartile range], 23 [6-38] months). Patients with very low LVEF displayed a greater increase in LVEF at the 1-year follow-up examination (mean absolute increase, 11.9% [95% CI, 8.8%-15.1%]), than the low LVEF group (3.6% [95% CI, 1.1%-6.1%]; P < .001). In 92 patients with very low LVEF who had preprocedural DSE, results showed a lack of contractile reserve in 45 (49%), but this had no effect on clinical outcomes or changes in LVEF over time. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with LFLG AS and severe left ventricular dysfunction, TAVR was associated with similar clinical outcomes as in counterparts with milder left ventricular dysfunction. The TAVR procedure was associated with a significant increase in LVEF, irrespective of contractile reserve. These results support TAVR for LFLG AS, irrespective of the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and DSE results.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357365

RESUMO

Aims: We sought to evaluate the outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) for patients with degenerated bioprostheses [valve-in-valve (ViV)], failed annuloplasty rings [valve-in-ring (ViR)], and severe mitral annular calcification [valve-in-mitral annular calcification (ViMAC)]. Methods and results: From the TMVR multicentre registry, procedural and clinical outcomes of ViV, ViR, and ViMAC were compared according to Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium (MVARC) criteria. A total of 521 patients with mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of 9.0 ± 7.0% underwent TMVR (322 patients with ViV, 141 with ViR, and 58 with ViMAC). Trans-septal access and the Sapien valves were used in 39.5% and 90.0%, respectively. Overall technical success was excellent at 87.1%. However, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction occurred more frequently after ViMAC compared with ViR and ViV (39.7% vs. 5.0% vs. 2.2%; P < 0.001), whereas second valve implantation was more frequent in ViR compared with ViMAC and ViV (12.1% vs. 5.2% vs. 2.5%; P < 0.001). Accordingly, technical success rate was higher after ViV compared with ViR and ViMAC (94.4% vs. 80.9% vs. 62.1%; P < 0.001). Compared with ViMAC and ViV groups, ViR group had more frequent post-procedural mitral regurgitation ≥moderate (18.4% vs. 13.8% vs. 5.6%; P < 0.001) and subsequent paravalvular leak closure (7.8% vs. 0.0% vs. 2.2%; P = 0.006). All-cause mortality was higher after ViMAC compared with ViR and ViV at 30 days (34.5% vs. 9.9% vs. 6.2%; log-rank P < 0.001) and 1 year (62.8% vs. 30.6% vs. 14.0%; log-rank P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, patients with failed annuloplasty rings and severe MAC were at increased risk of mortality after TMVR [ViR vs. ViV, hazard ratio (HR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-3.12; P = 0.003; ViMAC vs. ViV, HR 5.29, 95% CI 3.29-8.51; P < 0.001]. Conclusion: The TMVR provided excellent outcomes for patients with degenerated bioprostheses despite high surgical risk. However, ViR and ViMAC were associated with higher rates of adverse events and mid-term mortality compared with ViV.

11.
Circ J ; 82(10): 2655-2662, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve (VIV) replacement within failed bioprosthetic surgical aortic valves is a feasible therapeutic option. However, data comparing the hemodynamic and clinical outcomes of VIV replacement with supra-annular self-expanding and balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves (THV) are limited. Methods and Results: Outcomes of 40 and 95 patients treated with supra-annular self-expanding and balloon-expandable THV, respectively, were compared after propensity score matching, which yielded 37 pairs of patients with similar baseline characteristics. Hemodynamic and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Postprocedural mean gradient was significantly lower in the self-expanding THV group than in the balloon-expandable THV group (12.1±6.1 mmHg vs. 19.0±7.3 mmHg, P<0.001). The incidence of at least mild postprocedural aortic regurgitation (AR) was comparable between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable THV groups (21.6% vs. 10.8%, P=0.39). In the self-expanding THV group, the new-generation THV showed a trend towards a lower incidence of at least mild AR compared with the early-generation THV (12.5% vs. 38.5%, P=0.07). A similar trend was observed in the balloon-expandable THV group (4.2% vs. 23.1%, P=0.08). There was no significant difference between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable THV groups in the cumulative 2-year all-cause mortality rates (22.4% vs. 43.4%, log-rank P=0.26). CONCLUSIONS: The supra-annular self-expanding THV was associated with a lower postprocedural mean gradient compared with balloon-expandable THV in patients undergoing aortic VIV replacement.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(12): 1172-1174, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929640
13.
Interv Cardiol ; 13(2): 62-65, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928309

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac malformation. Aortic valve replacement is often required in older patients but the surgical risk is often extremely high. As Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapy for intermediate and high surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). Advances in technology and knowledge have led to TAVI being used for other pathologies and populations such as bicuspid AS. Recently, the diagnosis and classification of bicuspid aortic valve based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) assessment has been proposed, which may have an impact of outcomes after TAVI. This review article describes the advancements in diagnosis and outcomes of bicuspid AS.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(17): 1841-1853, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of surgical mitral valve replacement in patients with severe mitral annular calcification (MAC) is high. Several patients worldwide with severe MAC have been treated successfully with transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter valves. The TMVR in MAC Global Registry is a multicenter registry that collects data on outcomes of these procedures. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate 1-year outcomes in this registry. METHODS: This study was a multicenter retrospective review of clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 116 extreme surgical risk patients with severe MAC underwent TMVR; 106 had a procedure date >1 year before data-lock and were included in the analysis. Their mean age was 73 ± 12 years, and 68% were female. The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 15.3 ± 11.6%, and 90% were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Thirty-day and 1-year all-cause mortality was 25% and 53.7%, respectively. Most patients who survived 30 days were alive at 1 year (49 of 77 [63.6%]), and the majority (71.8%) were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II. Echocardiography data at 1 year were available in 34 patients. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 58.6 ± 11.2%, mean mitral valve area was 1.9 ± 0.5 cm2, mean mitral gradient was 5.8 ± 2.2 mm Hg, and 75% had zero or trace mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: TMVR with balloon-expandable aortic valves in extreme surgical risk patients with severe MAC is feasible but associated with high 30-day and 1-year mortality. Most patients who survive the 30-day post-procedural period are alive at 1 year and have sustained improvement of symptoms and transcatheter valve performance. The role of TMVR in patients with MAC requires further evaluation in clinical trials.

15.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 52(1): 111-116, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage to the cardiac conduction system requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is a known adverse outcome of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). A permanent-temporary pacemaker (PTPM) is a device that involves an active-fixation lead attached to an external pulse generator taped to the skin. We reviewed the utility of PTPMs as a temporary bridge measure after TAVR in patients with conduction abnormalities that do not meet conventional criteria for PPM placement. METHODS: Between January 01, 2013 and December 31, 2015, we analyzed 67 patients who received PTPM after TAVR. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, type and size of the valve, pre-TAVR electrocardiograms (ECGs), post-TAVR ECGs at 1 day, 1 month, and 6 months, and pacemaker interrogation results were reviewed for each patient if available. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 80.5 ± 9.1 years. PTPM were placed for 2.3 ± 2.4 days. Among these patients, 44.8% (n = 30) received a PPM prior to discharge. Male gender (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.05-7.69, p = 0.05) and an increase in QRS duration post-TAVR (p = 0.01) were associated with PPM placement. Pacemaker interrogation data of 11 patients with PPM revealed that 27% (n = 3) had < 1% V-pacing requirements and < 10% A-pacing requirements. CONCLUSIONS: In post-TAVR patients who develop conduction abnormalities that do not meet conventional PPM implantation indications, PTPM safely provides a time period for further assessment and may prevent unnecessary PPM implantation. Male gender and an increase in QRS duration post-TAVR are associated with PPM implantation. Additionally, some patients may recover from their conduction disturbances and demonstrate low pacemaker utilization.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Bloqueio Cardíaco/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(12): 1297-1308, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data exist on patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG-AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Also, very scarce data exist on the usefulness of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) before TAVR in these patients. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate clinical outcomes and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following TAVR in patients with classical LFLG-AS. METHODS: This multicenter registry included 287 patients with LFLG-AS undergoing TAVR. DSE was performed before TAVR in 234 patients and the presence of contractile reserve was defined as an increase of ≥20% in stroke volume. Transthoracic echocardiography was repeated at hospital discharge and at 1-year follow-up. Clinical follow-up was obtained at 1 and 12 months, and yearly thereafter. RESULTS: The median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of the study population was 7.7% (interquartile range 5.3% to 12.0%), and the mean LVEF and transvalvular gradient were 30.1 ± 9.7% and 25.4 ± 6.6 mm Hg, respectively. The presence of contractile reserve was observed in 45% of patients at DSE. Mortality rates were 3.8%, 20.1%, and 32.3% at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. On multivariable analysis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p = 0.022) and lower hemoglobin values (p < 0.001) were associated with all-cause mortality. Lower hemoglobin values (p = 0.004) and moderate-to-severe aortic regurgitation post-TAVR (p = 0.018) were predictors of the composite of mortality and rehospitalization due to heart failure. LVEF increased by 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6% to 11%) at 1-year follow-up, and the lack of prior coronary artery bypass graft (p = 0.004), a lower LVEF at baseline (p < 0.001), and a lower stroke volume index at baseline (p = 0.019) were associated with greater increase in LVEF. The absence of contractile reserve at baseline DSE was not associated with any negative effect on clinical outcomes or LVEF changes at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: TAVR was associated with good periprocedural outcomes in patients with LFLG-AS. However, approximately one-third of LFLG-AS TAVR recipients died at 2-year follow-up, with pulmonary disease, anemia, and residual paravalvular leaks associated with poorer outcomes. LVEF improved following TAVR, but DSE failed to predict clinical outcomes or LVEF changes over time. (Multicenter Prospective Study of Low-Flow Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis [TOPAS Study]; NCT01835028).

17.
EuroIntervention ; 14(2): 158-165, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488884

RESUMO

AIMS: Residual gradients >20 mmHg after transcatheter valve-in-valve (ViV) implantation are associated with worse survival. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of high-pressure post-dilation with a non-compliant balloon after transcatheter ViV implantation in small surgical valves to optimise haemodynamics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent ViV implantation in surgical valves with internal dimension ≤19 mm. High-pressure post-dilation to 16-20 atmospheres with a non-compliant balloon was performed in 12 patients and 18 patients underwent ViV without post-dilation. SAPIEN 3 and Evolut valves were used in 10 and two patients, respectively. The mean aortic valve (AV) gradient decreased by 11.3 mmHg following high-pressure post-dilation (18.7±7.9 mmHg immediately post ViV to 7.5±2.6 mmHg following high-pressure post-dilation, p<0.01). There were no cases of aortic root rupture. High-pressure post-dilation, compared to no post-dilation, was associated with lower invasive AV mean gradients at the end of the ViV procedure (8.2±3.5 mmHg vs. 17.3±7.9 mmHg, p=0.001) as well as lower day 1 (18.0±4.5 mmHg vs. 25.0±8.1 mmHg, p=0.016) and 30-day gradients (19.8±2.5 vs. 26.5±11.0, p=0.038) on transthoracic echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: High-pressure post-dilation of small surgical valves following transcatheter ViV implantation results in a significant improvement in post-procedure haemodynamics.

20.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 59(3): 381-391, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332374

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac defect in adults, and symptom typically develops in adulthood. In the majority of cases, bicuspid aortic valve disease progress with ages and surgical aortic valve replacement is performed with excellent operative outcomes. However, with the relatively slow progression of disease, surgical aortic valve replacement is required in elderly patients but the surgical risk often deemed extremely high due to old age and multiple comorbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has evolved from a novel technology to an established therapy for intermediate- and high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). Numerous studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of TAVR, and more than 250,000 patients have been treated with this technology. Although randomized trials have established TAVR as the standard treatment, these trials excluded congenital bicuspid AS due to its unique morphological features. Nevertheless, the growing experience, accumulated knowledge, and advancements of new technology lead to the expand use of TAVR to other pathologies or other populations such as bicuspid AS. With integration of imaging multimodalities (computed tomography and echocardiography), the diagnosis and classification of bicuspid aortic valve has been changing. Due to unfavorable anatomic features of bicuspid AS, the outcomes of TAVR in bicuspid AS was suboptimal, particularly when using the first-generation transcatheter valves. However, the newer-generation transcatheter valves significantly improved the outcomes of TAVR in bicuspid AS. Nonetheless, several issues still remain to be resolved. Given longer life expectancy in patients with bicuspid AS undergoing TAVR, durability of transcatheter valves is concerned. In addition, patients with bicuspid aortic valves often have concomitant dilatation of proximal part of ascending aorta (aortopathy), but limited data exist about the clinical prognosis of bicuspid aortic valve with concomitant aortopathy in elderly patients. Considering the expanding indication of TAVR to lower surgical risk and younger population, these issues should be evaluated in future studies.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
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