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1.
Lancet Haematol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dabigatran etexilate is a direct oral anticoagulant with potential to overcome the limitations of standard of care in children with venous thromboembolism. The aims of this clinical trial were to study the appropriateness of a paediatric dabigatran dosing algorithm, and the efficacy and safety of dabigatran dosed according to that algorithm versus standard of care in treating children with venous thromboembolism. METHODS: DIVERSITY is a randomised, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, phase 2b/3 non-inferiority trial done in 65 centres in 26 countries. Standard of care (low-molecular-weight heparins, unfractionated heparin, vitamin K antagonists or fondaparinux) was compared with a paediatric oral dabigatran dosing regimen (an age-adjusted and weight-adjusted nomogram) in children younger than 18 years with acute venous thromboembolism initially treated (5-21 days) with parenteral anticoagulation, requiring anticoagulation therapy for at least 3 months. Patients were randomised 1:2 (standard of care:dabigatran) and stratified by age (12 to <18 years, 2 to <12 years, and birth to <2 years) via interactive response technology. The primary composite efficacy endpoint (intention-to-treat analysis) was the proportion of children with complete thrombus resolution, and freedom from recurrent venous thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism-related death. A non-inferiority margin of absolute differences of 20% was used. Secondary endpoints included safety (determined by major bleeding events [time-to-event analysis on the treated set]), and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships (descriptive analyses). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01895777 and is completed. FINDINGS: 328 children were enrolled between Feb 18, 2014, and Nov 14, 2019. 267 were randomly assigned (90 [34%] to standard of care and 177 [66%] to dabigatran) and included in the analyses. Median exposure to standard of care was 85·0 days (IQR 80·0-90·0) and to dabigatran was 84·5 days (78·0-89·0). Similar proportions of children treated with standard of care and dabigatran met the composite efficacy endpoint (38 [42%] of 90 vs 81 [46%] of 177; Mantel-Haenszel weighted difference, -0·04; 90% CI -0·14 to 0·07; p<0·0001 for non-inferiority). On-treatment bleeding events were reported in 22 (24%) of 90 children receiving standard of care and 38 (22%) of 176 children receiving dabigatran (hazard ratio [HR] 1·15, 95% CI 0·68 to 1·94; p=0·61); major bleeding events were similar between the groups (two [2%] of 90 and four [2%] of 176; HR 0·94, 95% CI 0·17 to 5·16; p=0·95). Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic curves showed a linear relationship between total dabigatran plasma concentration and diluted thrombin time and ecarin clotting time, and a non-linear relationship with activated partial thromboplastin time; curves were similar to those for adults. Serious adverse events were reported for 18 (20%) of 90 children receiving standard of care and 22 (13%) of 176 children receiving dabigatran. The most common severe adverse events were vascular disorders (standard of care three [3%] of 90, dabigatran two [1%] of 176), and gastrointestinal disorders (standard of care two [2%] of 90 and dabigatran five [3%] of 176). One on-treatment death occurred in the standard of care group (retroperitoneal bleeding, not considered treatment related by the study investigators). INTERPRETATION: An age-adjusted and weight-adjusted dabigatran dosing algorithm was appropriate in children aged birth to less than 18 years with venous thromboembolism. Dabigatran was non-inferior to standard of care in terms of efficacy, with similar pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships as those seen in adults, and might be a suitable alternative to standard of care. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.

2.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6250-6258, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351120

RESUMO

Anticoagulant treatment of pediatric cerebral venous thrombosis has not been evaluated in randomized trials. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulants in the predefined subgroup of children with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) who participated in the EINSTEIN-Jr trial. Children with CVT were randomized (2:1), after initial heparinization, to treatment with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants (continued on heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). The main treatment period was 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding,were centrally evaluated by blinded investigators. Sinus recanalization on repeat brain imaging was a secondary outcome. Statistical analyses were exploratory. In total, 114 children with confirmed CVT were randomized. All children completed the follow-up. None of the 73 rivaroxaban recipients and 1 (2.4%; CVT) of the 41 standard anticoagulant recipients had symptomatic, recurrent VTE after 3 months (absolute difference, 2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6% to 13.5%). Clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 5 (6.8%; all nonmajor and noncerebral) rivaroxaban recipients and in 1 (2.5%; major [subdural] bleeding) standard anticoagulant recipient (absolute difference, 4.4%; 95% CI, -6.7% to 13.4%). Complete or partial sinus recanalization occurred in 18 (25%) and 39 (53%) rivaroxaban recipients and in 6 (15%) and 24 (59%) standard anticoagulant recipients, respectively. In summary, in this substudy of a randomized trial with a limited sample size, children with CVT treated with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulation had a low risk of recurrent VTE and clinically relevant bleeding. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02234843.

4.
Blood ; 136(17): 1956-1967, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693407

RESUMO

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare recessive disorder caused by biallelic variants in NBEAL2 and characterized by bleeding symptoms, the absence of platelet α-granules, splenomegaly, and bone marrow (BM) fibrosis. Due to the rarity of GPS, it has been difficult to fully understand the pathogenic processes that lead to these clinical sequelae. To discern the spectrum of pathologic features, we performed a detailed clinical genotypic and phenotypic study of 47 patients with GPS and identified 32 new etiologic variants in NBEAL2. The GPS patient cohort exhibited known phenotypes, including macrothrombocytopenia, BM fibrosis, megakaryocyte emperipolesis of neutrophils, splenomegaly, and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels. Novel clinical phenotypes were also observed, including reduced leukocyte counts and increased presence of autoimmune disease and positive autoantibodies. There were widespread differences in the transcriptome and proteome of GPS platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD4 lymphocytes. Proteins less abundant in these cells were enriched for constituents of granules, supporting a role for Nbeal2 in the function of these organelles across a wide range of blood cells. Proteomic analysis of GPS plasma showed increased levels of proteins associated with inflammation and immune response. One-quarter of plasma proteins increased in GPS are known to be synthesized outside of hematopoietic cells, predominantly in the liver. In summary, our data show that, in addition to the well-described platelet defects in GPS, there are immune defects. The abnormal immune cells may be the drivers of systemic abnormalities such as autoimmune disease.

6.
Blood ; 135(7): 491-504, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805182

RESUMO

This open-label, single-arm, prospective cohort trial is the first phase 3 safety study to describe outcomes in children treated with dabigatran etexilate for secondary venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention. Eligible children aged 12 to <18 years (age stratum 1), 2 to <12 years (stratum 2), and >3 months to <2 years (stratum 3) had an objectively confirmed diagnosis of VTE treated with standard of care (SOC) for ≥3 months, or had completed dabigatran or SOC treatment in the DIVERSITY trial (NCT01895777) and had an unresolved clinical thrombosis risk factor requiring further anticoagulation. Children received dabigatran for up to 12 months, or less if the identified VTE clinical risk factor resolved. Primary end points included VTE recurrence, bleeding events, and mortality at 6 and 12 months. Overall, 203 children received dabigatran, with median exposure being 36.3 weeks (range, 0-57 weeks); 171 of 203 (84.2%) and 32 of 203 (15.8%) took capsules and pellets, respectively. Overall, 2 of 203 children (1.0%) experienced on-treatment VTE recurrence, and 3 of 203 (1.5%) experienced major bleeding events, with 2 (1.0%) reporting clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events, and 37 (18.2%) minor bleeding events. There were no on-treatment deaths. On-treatment postthrombotic syndrome was reported for 2 of 162 children (1.2%) who had deep vein thrombosis or central-line thrombosis as their most recent VTE. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of dabigatran were similar to those in adult VTE patients. In summary, dabigatran showed a favorable safety profile for secondary VTE prevention in children aged from >3 months to <18 years with persistent VTE risk factor(s). This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02197416.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dabigatrana/farmacocinética , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(1): e18-e27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of venous thromboembolism in children is based on data obtained in adults with little direct documentation of its efficacy and safety in children. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulants in children with venous thromboembolism. METHODS: In a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised study, children (aged 0-17 years) attending 107 paediatric hospitals in 28 countries with documented acute venous thromboembolism who had started heparinisation were assigned (2:1) to bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban (tablets or suspension) in a 20-mg equivalent dose or standard anticoagulants (heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). Randomisation was stratified by age and venous thromboembolism site. The main treatment period was 3 months (1 month in children <2 years of age with catheter-related venous thromboembolism). The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (assessed by intention-to-treat), and the principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (assessed in participants who received ≥1 dose), were centrally assessed by investigators who were unaware of treatment assignment. Repeat imaging was obtained at the end of the main treatment period and compared with baseline imaging tests. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02234843 and has been completed. FINDINGS: From Nov 14, 2014, to Sept 28, 2018, 500 (96%) of the 520 children screened for eligibility were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 91 days (IQR 87-95) in children who had a study treatment period of 3 months (n=463) and 31 days (IQR 29-35) in children who had a study treatment period of 1 month (n=37), symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in four (1%) of 335 children receiving rivaroxaban and five (3%) of 165 receiving standard anticoagulants (hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·11-1·41). Repeat imaging showed an improved effect of rivaroxaban on thrombotic burden as compared with standard anticoagulants (p=0·012). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding in participants who received ≥1 dose occurred in ten (3%) of 329 children (all non-major) receiving rivaroxaban and in three (2%) of 162 children (two major and one non-major) receiving standard anticoagulants (HR 1·58, 95% CI 0·51-6·27). Absolute and relative efficacy and safety estimates of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation estimates were similar to those in rivaroxaban studies in adults. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: In children with acute venous thromboembolism, treatment with rivaroxaban resulted in a similarly low recurrence risk and reduced thrombotic burden without increased bleeding, as compared with standard anticoagulants. FUNDING: Bayer AG and Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
Haematologica ; 104(10): 2100-2106, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792204

RESUMO

The optimal mode of delivery for a pregnant hemophilia carrier is still a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and other major bleeds in neonates with moderate and severe hemophilia in relationship to mode of delivery and known family history. A total of 926 neonates, 786 with severe and 140 with moderate hemophilia were included in this PedNet multicenter study. Vaginal delivery was performed in 68.3% (n=633) and Cesarean section in 31.6% (n=293). Twenty intracranial hemorrhages (2.2%) and 44 other major bleeds (4.8%) occurred. Intracranial hemorrhages occurred in 2.4% of neonates following vaginal delivery compared to 1.7% after Cesarean section (P=not significant); other major bleeds occurred in 4.2% born by vaginal delivery and in 5.8% after Cesarean section (P=not significant). Further analysis of subgroups (n=813) identified vaginal delivery with instruments being a significant risk factor for both intracranial hemorrhages and major bleeds (Relative Risk: 4.78-7.39; P<0.01); no other significant differences were found between vaginal delivery without instruments, Cesarean section prior to and during labor. There was no significant difference in frequency for intracranial hemorrhages and major bleeds between a planned Cesarean section and a planned vaginal delivery. Children with a family history of hemophilia (n=466) were more likely to be born by Cesarean section (35.8% vs 27.6%), but no difference in the rate of intracranial hemorrhages or major bleeds was found. In summary, vaginal delivery and Cesarean section carry similar risks of intracranial hemorrhages and major bleeds. The 'PedNet Registry' is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02979119.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
9.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209670, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653524

RESUMO

In many offline studies, children show selectively better comprehension of sentences with the focus particle only when it modifies the object argument (Jane only ate an apple) than they do when it modifies the subject argument (Only Jane ate an apple). Here we explore the nature of this asymmetry by examining performance in a different kind of task: the moment-to-moment comprehension of unambiguous sentences. If past errors reflect a fundamental difference in representation or complexity of computation, we would expect the same asymmetry in this task. We observed that adults were able to successfully predict the target referent for both types of only-sentences, as indicated by anticipatory looks, while 6- to 8-year-old children could do so only for subject-modifying only-sentences. These findings suggest that much of the asymmetry in past work may be due to task demands. We discuss the implications of these results for children's syntactic and pragmatic development.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Linguística/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Sistemas On-Line , Semântica
10.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 2(2): 347-356, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046738

RESUMO

Background: The current standard of care (SOC) for pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises unfractionated heparin (UFH), or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) followed by LMWH or vitamin K antagonists, all of which have limitations. Dabigatran etexilate (DE) has demonstrated efficacy and safety for adult VTE and has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of the current SOC. Pediatric trials are needed to establish dosing in children and to confirm that results obtained in adults are applicable in the pediatric setting. Objectives: To describe the design and rationale of a planned phase IIb/III trial that will evaluate a proposed dosing algorithm for DE and assess the safety and efficacy of DE versus SOC for pediatric VTE treatment. Patients/Methods: An open-label, randomized, parallel-group noninferiority study will be conducted in approximately 180 patients aged 0 to <18 years with VTE, who have received initial UFH or LMWH treatment and who are expected to require ≥3 months of anticoagulation therapy. Patients will receive DE or SOC for 3 months. DE will be administered twice daily as capsules, pellets, or an oral liquid formulation according to patient age. Initial doses will be calculated using a proposed dosing algorithm. Results: There will be two coprimary endpoints: a composite efficacy endpoint comprising the proportion of patients with complete thrombus resolution, freedom from recurrent VTE and VTE-related mortality, and a safety endpoint: freedom from major bleeding events. Conclusion: Findings will provide valuable information regarding the efficacy and safety of DE for the treatment of pediatric VTE. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01895777.

11.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 2(3): 580-590, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046763

RESUMO

Background: Anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children is largely based on treatment recommendations for adults. However, differences in both physiology (ie, renal maturation and drug excretion) and developmental hemostasis must be considered when treating children, as such differences could affect dose appropriateness, safety and efficacy. Objectives: To address these concerns, a study was designed to evaluate the safety of dabigatran etexilate in children requiring secondary thrombus prevention in whom an initial VTE was associated with an identified risk factor that persisted after the acute VTE treatment period. We report herein the rationale and design of the study. Patients/Methods: This phase 3, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, multinational, prospective cohort study will be conducted in ≥100 children aged 0 to <18 years at ~100 specialist sites worldwide. Children will be treated with dabigatran etexilate for 12 months, or for a shorter duration if their identified VTE risk factor resolves, as per current American College of Chest Physicians recommendations. A nomogram will be used to determine starting doses for each patient. Results: The primary outcomes of the study will be VTE recurrence, bleeding events, overall mortality, and VTE-related mortality. Secondary outcomes will include occurrence of post-thrombotic syndrome, the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran, and the need for dose adjustments during treatment. Data on adverse events during the study will also be collected. Conclusion: This study will evaluate the safety of dabigatran etexilate for the secondary prevention of VTE in children, in addition to providing further data to guide pediatric dosing with dabigatran.

12.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 28(5): 382-391, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700892

RESUMO

The Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) Guidelines Working Group on Thromboprophylaxis in Children has reviewed the literature and where possible provided advice on the care of children in the perioperative period. Areas reviewed include the incidence of perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE), risk factors, evidence for mechanical and chemical prophylaxis, and complications. Safe practice of regional anesthesia with anticoagulant prophylaxis is detailed. In summary, there are few areas of strong evidence. Routine prophylaxis cannot be recommended for young children. Postpubertal adolescents (approximately 13 years and over) are at a slightly increased risk of VTE and should be assessed for prophylaxis and may warrant intervention if other risk factors are present. However, the incidence of VTE is significantly lower than in the adult population. This special interest review presents a summary and discussion of the key recommendations, a decision-making algorithm and a risk assessment chart. For the full guideline, go to www.apagbi.org.uk/publications/apa-guidelines.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestesia/métodos , Anticoagulantes/normas , Criança , Humanos , Irlanda , Período Perioperatório/métodos , Período Perioperatório/normas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
14.
Cognition ; 171: 108-111, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127909

RESUMO

Past work has shown systematic differences between Easterners' and Westerners' intuitions about the reference of proper names. Understanding when these differences emerge in development will help us understand their origins. In the present study, we investigate the referential intuitions of English- and Chinese-speaking children and adults in the U.S. and China. Using a truth-value judgment task modeled on Kripke's classic Gödel case, we find that the cross-cultural differences are already in place at age seven. Thus, these differences cannot be attributed to later education or enculturation. Instead, they must stem from differences that are present in early childhood. We consider alternate theories of reference that are compatible with these findings and discuss the possibility that the cross-cultural differences reflect differences in perspective-taking strategies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Intuição/fisiologia , Idioma , Percepção Social , Criança , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia
15.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(11): 2168-2175, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202215

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is more frequent in infants than in older children. Treatment guidelines in children are adapted from adult VTE data, but do not currently include direct oral anticoagulant use. Dabigatran etexilate (DE) use in the paediatric population with VTE therefore requires verification. We investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship, safety and tolerability of DE oral liquid formulation (OLF) in infants with VTE (aged < 12 months) who had completed standard anticoagulant treatment in an open-label, phase IIa study. Patients received a single-dose of DE OLF (based on an age- and weight-adjusted nomogram) yielding an exposure comparable to 150 mg in adults. The PK end point was plasma concentration of total dabigatran; PD end points included activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), ecarin clotting time (ECT) and diluted thrombin time (dTT). Safety end points included incidence of all bleeding and other adverse events (AEs). Ten patients were screened; eight entered the study (age range, 41-169 days). The geometric mean (gMean) total dabigatran plasma concentrations 2 hours post-dose (around peak concentrations) were 120 ng/mL with a geometric coefficient of variation (gCV) of 62.1%. The gMean at 12 hours post-dosing was 60.4 ng/mL (gCV 30%). PK/PD relationship was linear for ECT and dTT (R2 = 0.858 and 0.920, respectively), while total dabigatran concentration and aPTT showed a non-linear correlation. There were no deaths, treatment discontinuations or treatment-related AEs. In conclusion, DE was well tolerated without any treatment-related AEs in infants. The observed PK/PD relationships were comparable with the established profile in older patients with VTE.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/farmacocinética , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/farmacocinética , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/sangue , Composição de Medicamentos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , França , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Dinâmica não Linear , Ontário , Soluções Farmacêuticas , Federação Russa , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico
17.
Arch Dis Child ; 102(12): 1110-1117, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27449675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The extent that inherited bleeding disorders affect; number, size and location of bruises in young children <6 years. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, observational study. SETTING: Community. PATIENTS: 105 children with bleeding disorders, were compared with 328 without a bleeding disorder and classified by mobility: premobile (non-rolling/rolling over/sitting), early mobile (crawling/cruising) and walking and by disease severity: severe bleeding disorder factor VIII/IX/XI <1 IU/dL or type 3 von Willebrand disease. INTERVENTIONS: Number, size and location of bruises recorded in each child weekly for up to 12 weeks. OUTCOMES: The interventions were compared between children with severe and mild/moderate bleeding disorders and those without bleeding disorders. Multiple collections for individual children were analysed by multilevel modelling. RESULTS: Children with bleeding disorders had more and larger bruises, especially when premobile. Compared with premobile children without a bleeding disorder; the modelled ratio of means (95% CI) for number of bruises/collection was 31.82 (8.39 to 65.42) for severe bleeding disorders and 5.15 (1.23 to 11.17) for mild/moderate, and was 1.81 (1.13 to 2.23) for size of bruises. Children with bleeding disorders rarely had bruises on the ears, neck, cheeks, eyes or genitalia. CONCLUSIONS: Children with bleeding disorder have more and larger bruises at all developmental stages. The differences were greatest in premobile children. In this age group for children with unexplained bruising, it is essential that coagulation studies are done early to avoid the erroneous diagnosis of physical abuse when the child actually has a serious bleeding disorder, however a blood test compatible with a mild/moderate bleeding disorder cannot be assumed to be the cause of bruising.


Assuntos
Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Contusões/etiologia , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Transtornos Plaquetários/complicações , Transtornos Plaquetários/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Contusões/epidemiologia , Contusões/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Caminhada
19.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 38(3): 221-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907659

RESUMO

There is a lack of evidence-based guidance for the prevention and management of thrombosis in children and young people treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To determine current UK practice, a survey was sent to 28 centers participating in the Medical Research Council UKALL 2011 trial. Marked variation in practice was noted. In total, 43% of centers defer central venous access device insertion until end of induction for treatment of low-risk disease. Central venous access devices are removed at the end of intensive blocks in 38% and end of treatment in 42%. Duration of anticoagulation for line-associated thrombosis is 6 weeks in 43% and 3 months in 33% and for cerebral sinovenous thrombosis is 3 months in 71% and 6 months in 24%. Platelet transfusion to maintain platelet count >50×10/L, in preference to interrupting therapeutic anticoagulation, is used by 50% for line-associated thrombosis and 73% for cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Conformity of practice was seen in some areas. In total, 70% treat thrombosis with twice-daily low-molecular weight heparin and 86% monitor antifactor Xa activity levels. In total, 91% reexpose individuals to asparaginase following a thrombotic event. Given this variation in practice, in the absence of high-quality evidence, consensus guidelines may be helpful.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Dis Child ; 101(5): 427-32, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Risk assessment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thromboprophylaxis in those with risk factors is established in adult practice. Evidence to support efficacy and safety of this approach in adolescents is lacking. We aimed to describe thrombotic risk factors and to determine the proportion of potentially preventable events in a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with VTE. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Data were collected between 2008 and 2014 from eight tertiary UK centres. Qualifying events were radiologically confirmed VTE in subjects aged 12-17 years. Central venous line-related upper venous system events were excluded. RESULTS: 76 cases were identified, 41 males, median age 15 years. Frequent risk factors were: reduced mobility, 45%; thrombophilia, 24%; malignancy, 20%; surgery, 18%; combined oral contraceptive pill, 12%; congenital venous anomaly, 5%. 28 (37%) had no significant underlying diagnosis and no provoking event/hospitalisation, presenting as outpatients with VTE which was considered 'unpreventable'. Of 48 where there had been opportunity for risk assessment, chemical thromboprophylaxis was not indicated in 26 and was contraindicated in 8. 14/76 (18%) had an indication to consider thromboprophylaxis and no contraindication. Of these, four had cerebral palsy, five malignancy and two inflammatory bowel disease. All had reduced mobility with recent surgery in eight. Four received chemical thromboprophylaxis prior to presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of adolescents with VTE, a small proportion (13%) had an indication to consider chemical thromboprophylaxis but did not receive it. VTE risk assessment and prevention should focus on adolescents with immobility or surgery, particularly in those with malignancy.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adolescente , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
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