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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143333

RESUMO

Introduction: The protracted war in South Sudan has led to severe humanitarian crisis with high level of malnutrition and disruption of the health systems with continuous displacement of the population and low immunization coverage predisposing the population to vaccine preventable diseases. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of integrating immunization services with already established nutrition services on immunization coverage in resource-constrained humanitarian response. Methods: A community and health facility based interventional study involving integration of immunization into nutrition services in two Outpatient Therapeutic Program(OTP)centers in Bentiu PoC between January-December 2017. The main hypothesis was that inclusion of immunization services during nutrition services both at the OTP and community outreaches be an effective strategy for reducing missed opportunity for immunizing all eligible children accessing nutrition services. Data analyzed using STATA version 15 and bivariate analysis using logistic regression was conducted to identify predictor of missed vaccinations. Results: Integration of immunization into the nutrition services through the OTP centres increased the number of children immunized with various antigens and the dropout rate was much lower and statistically significant among children who received immunization at the OTP centers than those in the Primary Health Care Centers (PHC Centers) in the study sites. Children who were vaccinated at the OTP centre in sector 2 were 45% less likely to miss vaccination than those vaccinated at the PHCC (OR: 0.45; 95%CI:0.36- 0.55), p<0.05 while those vaccinated at the OTP sector in sector 5 were 27% less likely to miss vaccination than those vaccinated at the PHCC (OR: 0.27; 95%CI: 0.20 -0.35) p<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that immunization coverage improved effectively with integration with nutrition services as a model of an integrated immunization programme for child health in line with the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) and the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIV).


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização/métodos , Refugiados , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Assistência Alimentar/organização & administração , Humanos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Sudão do Sul , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
3.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(10): 1786-1793, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present evidence on the burden and outcomes of co-morbidities among severely malnourished (SAM) children admitted to outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) facilities in the conflict setting of Borno, Nigeria. DESIGN: Retrospective medical chart review. SETTING: Facility-based study.ParticipantsChildren aged 6-59 months with SAM enrolled in OTP between June and November 2016 whose medical records were analysed. Only pneumonia and diarrhoea were examined due to data limitations. Stata software was used for descriptive, multivariate and survival analyses. RESULTS: Records of 396 children with median age of 15 months were identified and analysed from the date of enrolment to exit from OTP. Mean length of stay in OTP was 61d, with co-infected SAM children having shorter stay (P=0·006). Of the total, 148 (37·4 %) had at least one co-morbidity (pneumonia or diarrhoea), of which thirty-nine (26·4 %) had both. Cumulative rate of mortality during follow-up time was 9·5 (95 % CI 6·0, 15·1) per 10 000 child-days; SAM children with co-morbidities were ten times more likely to die than those without (hazard ratio=10·2; 95 % CI 3·4, 31·0). In multivariable analysis, co-morbidity (P=0·01), oedema (P=0·003), dehydration (P=0·02) and weight on admission (P=0·01) were associated with mortality. Both recovery and defaulter rates (57·8 and 36·1 %, respectively) did not meet SPHERE standards. CONCLUSIONS: Children with SAM and co-morbidities are less likely to survive, presenting a significant barrier in improving child survival. The findings call for integrated OTP models that incorporate clinical algorithms and ensure prompt referral for SAM children with co-morbidity.

4.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260518792252, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095013

RESUMO

Sexual violence is quite common in conflict situations and puts women at risk of unintended pregnancies. In the northeast region of Nigeria with the ongoing insurgency, a substantial number of women are kidnapped and subjected to forced marriages and repeated sexual assaults. This study set out to report on the disclosure and outcomes of sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs) among women liberated from insurgents and relocated to one of largest Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps located in Borno State, northeast Nigeria. The clinic records of women with SVRP were reviewed. Forty-seven women with SVRP were identified by the health care providers using a snowball technique to reach as many of the women with SVRP as possible. The mean age of the participants was 15.3 years ( SD = 3.4 years), and all the participants had spent 2 years or more in captivity. Most of the women first disclosed the pregnancy to their peers before disclosure to health care providers or family members. All the women initially requested to have the pregnancy terminated; however, abortion services are not offered in the clinic in line with the country's restrictive abortion laws. Following counseling and psychosocial support offered in the clinic, 19 (40%) of the women continued with the pregnancy and were delivered in the camp clinic while the remaining 26 women left the camp shortly after disclosure and pregnancy outcomes are not known. SVRP is not uncommon in humanitarian settings with its associated stigma and unwillingness among the survivors to keep the pregnancy. There is a need for further studies to provide more insight into the extent of this problem and help-seeking for SVRPs especially for women in such difficult circumstances to provide needed empirical information to drive advocacy efforts for more comprehensive services.

6.
Front Public Health ; 5: 71, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) weeks are campaign-like events designed to accelerate progress toward Millennium Development Goals. The authors examined whether integrating HIV testing into MNCH weeks was feasible and could lead to increased case finding and linkage to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. METHODS: Pregnant women attending MNCH week during the first week of December 2014 in 13 local government areas in Benue State were provided with HIV tests and referrals to PMTCT services. Demographic, past antenatal care (ANC), and HIV testing information were collected using a structured questionnaire. We used routine ANC/PMTCT data from national electronic system (DHIS-2) to compare with the results obtained from MNCH week. RESULTS: A total of 50,271 pregnant women with a median age of 25 years (IQR: 21-29) were offered HIV testing. About 50,253 (99.96%) agreed to get HIV testing, with 1,063 (2.1%) testing positive. Six hundred forty-four (60.6%) of those with positive results were linked to PMTCT. In multivariate analysis, marital status, gestation age, and those with no ANC visit during this pregnancy were associated with a positive HIV test. Approximately 30% (50,253 versus 39,080) more pregnant women received HIV testing in MNCH week compared to those who received HIV testing in routine ANC services in 2013. Of the 50,253 who accepted testing, 15,611 (31.1%) did not attend ANC during this pregnancy, of which 9,615 (61.6%) had not had any previous HIV tests. Four hundred forty-two (4.6%) of these 9,615 tested HIV-positive. CONCLUSION: Integration of HIV testing into MNCH weeks is feasible and improved uptake of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, the rate of HIV positivity was lower than that reported by previous studies. The findings indicate that MNCH weeks provides opportunity to reach those who do not attend ANC services for HIV care.

7.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 25(1): 55-63, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets. METHODS: Ecological analyses of paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic indicators were performed. The data were obtained from the United Nations agencies and Forum for a new World Governance reports for the 21 Global Plan priority countries in Africa with highest burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Spearman's correlation and median regression were utilized to explore possible enablers of paediatric ART coverage. RESULTS: Factors associated with paediatric ART coverage included adult literacy (r=0.6, p=0.004), effective governance (r=0.6, p=0.003), virology testing by 2 months of age (r=0.9, p=0.001), density of healthcare workers per 10,000 population (r=0.6, p=0.007), and government expenditure on health (r=0.5, p=0.046). The paediatric ART coverage had a significant inverse relationship with the national mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate (r=-0.9, p<0.001) and gender inequality index (r=-0.6, p=0.006). Paediatric ART coverage had no relationship with poverty and HIV stigma indices. CONCLUSIONS: Low paediatric ART coverage continues to hamper progress towards eliminating AIDS-related deaths in HIV-infected children. Achieving this requires full commitment to a broad range of socioeconomic development goals.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
AIDS Care ; 28 Suppl 2: 153-60, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392010

RESUMO

Caregiver satisfaction has the potential to promote equity for children living with HIV, by influencing health-seeking behaviour. We measured dimensions of caregiver satisfaction with paediatric HIV treatment in Nigeria, and discuss its implications for equity by conducting facility-based exit interviews for caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in 20 purposively selected facilities within 5 geopolitical zones. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis were performed. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, multilevel regression modelling was performed to investigate relationships between satisfaction factors and socio-demographic variables. Of 1550 caregivers interviewed, 63% (95% CI: 60.6-65.4) reported being very satisfied overall; however, satisfaction varied in some dimensions: only 55.6% (53.1-58.1) of caregivers could talk privately with health workers, 56.9% (54.4-59.3) reported that queues to see health workers were too long, and 89.9% (88.4-91.4) said that some health workers did not treat patients living with HIV with sufficient respect. Based on factor analysis, two underlying factors, labelled Availability and Attitude, were identified. In multilevel regression, the satisfaction with availability of services correlated with formal employment status (p < .01), whereas caregivers receiving care in private facilities were less likely satisfied with both availability (p < .01) and attitude of health workers (p < .05). State and facility levels influenced attitudes of the health workers (p < .01), but not availability of services. We conclude that high levels of overall satisfaction among caregivers masked dissatisfaction with some aspects of services. The two underlying satisfaction factors are part of access typology critical for closing equity gaps in access to HIV treatment between adults and children, and across socio-economic groups.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
9.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 11 Suppl 1: S21-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26945139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children, integration of HIV in MNCH services has been shown to incr. ease uptake of early infant diagnosis. This article examines bottlenecks and opportunities for scaling up integrated pediatric HIV services in Nepal. METHODS: This is a descriptive study using both mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, conducted in January 2015 in 19 facilities in five regions of Nepal most affected by HIV epidemic. The qualitative methods comprised in-depth structured interviews with key informants (leadership of The National Center for AIDS and STD Control and National Public Health Laboratory, district management teams, medical officers in charge of health facilities and HIV clinics, frontline staff at antenatal care and HIV clinics and laboratory). The quantitative methods were used to abstract data of HIV-infected pregnant women seen between January and December 2014, HIV-exposed infants aged less than 12 months, and HIV infected children aged less than 15 years who were initiated HIV treatment from 2010 to 2014. Structured tools were used to collect data which were analysed using IBM SPSS. RESULTS: Of the 19 facilities assessed, 18(98%), 18(98%), 14(75%), and 11(58%) provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), pediatric ART and nutrition rehabilitation services, respectively. However, only 1(5%) facility collected onsite dried blood spots (DBS) for PCR HIV testing and 6(32%) facilities provided counselling and referral for DBS. In 2014, of the 121 HIV-exposed infants recorded, only 21(17%) received PCR test. The median turnaround time of the PCR test results was 54 days. Of the 21 records with PCR test, 11(52.5%) were from PMTCT clinics, 7(33%) from Nutritional rehabilitation clinics, and 3(14.5%) from pediatric outpatient clinic.Conversely, 934 children were initiated ART between 2010 and 2014, of which 5% were infants and 29% aged between 1 and 5 years. 298(32%) had comorbidities of which 64% had malnutrition. A total of 534(57%) had tuberculosis (TB) status assessed of which 58(11%) had active TB. Infants had lowest retention (63%), high mortality (17.4%), and loss to follow-up (10.9%). CONCLUSION: Few facilities collect DBS and few children receive PCR tests with limited linkage to ART. This has led to late ART initiation, comorbidities, including TB coinfections and poor outcomes. The results indicate that there are opportunities for improving HIV case finding among HIV-exposed infants in PMTCT, EPI, TB, and nutrition services if provider initiated testing and counselling at the point of service delivery is institutionalized in these settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 18(Suppl 6): 20250, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26639111

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Integration of HIV into child survival platforms is an evolving territory with multiple connotations. Most literature on integration of HIV into other health services focuses on adults; however promising practices for children are emerging. These include the Double Dividend (DD) framework, a new programming approach with dual goal of improving paediatric HIV care and child survival. In this commentary, the authors discuss why integrating HIV testing, treatment and care into child survival platforms is important, as well as its potential to advance progress towards global targets that call for, by 2020, 90% of children living with HIV to know their status, 90% of those diagnosed to be on treatment and 90% of those on treatment to be virally suppressed (90-90-90). DISCUSSION: Integration is critical in improving health outcomes and efficiency gains. In children, integration of HIV in programmes such as immunization and nutrition has been associated with an increased uptake of HIV infant testing. Integration is increasingly recognized as a case-finding strategy for children missed from prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes and as a platform for diffusing emerging technologies such as point-of-care diagnostics. These support progress towards the 90-90-90 targets by providing a pathway for early identification of HIV-infected children with co-morbidities, prompt initiation of treatment and improved survival. There are various promising practices that have demonstrated HIV outcomes; however, few have documented the benefits of integration on child survival interventions. The DD framework is well positioned to address the bidirectional impacts for both programmes. CONCLUSIONS: Integration provides an important programmatic pathway for accelerated progress towards the 90-90-90 targets. Despite this encouraging information, there are still challenges to be addressed in order to maximize the benefits of integration.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 18(Suppl 6): 20251, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26639112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nigeria has a high burden of children living with HIV and tuberculosis (TB). This article examines the magnitude of TB among children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), compares their ART outcomes with their non-TB counterparts and argues that addressing TB among children on ART is critical for achieving the 90-90-90 targets. METHODS: This was a facility-based, retrospective analysis of medical records of children aged <15 years who were newly initiated on ART between 2011 and 2012. Structured tools were used to collect data. STATA software was used to perform descriptive, survival and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1142 children with a median age of 3.5 years from 20 selected facilities were followed for 24 months. Of these, 95.8% were assessed for TB at ART initiation and 14.7% had TB. Children on ART were more likely to have TB if they were aged 5 years or older (p<0.01) and had delayed ART initiation (p<0.05). The cotrimoxazole and isoniazid prophylaxes were provided to 87.9 and 0.8% of children, respectively. The rate of new TB cases was 3 (2.2-4.0) per 100 person-years at six months and declined to 0.2 (0.06-1.4) per 100 person-years at 24 months. TB infection [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 4.3; 2.3-7.9], malnutrition (aHR: 5.1; 2.6-9.8), delayed ART initiation (aHR: 3.2; 1.5-6.7) and age less than 1 year at ART initiation (aHR: 4.0; 1.4-12.0) were associated with death. Additionally, patients with TB (aHR: 1.3; 1.1-1.6) and children below the age of 1 at ART initiation (aHR: 2.9; 1.7-5.2) were more likely to be lost to follow-up (LFU). CONCLUSIONS: Children on ART with TB are less likely to survive and more likely to be LFU. These risks, along with low isoniazid uptake and delayed ART initiation, present a serious challenge to achieving the 90-90-90 targets and underscore an urgent need for inclusion of childhood TB/HIV in global plans and reporting mechanisms.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Tuberculose/complicações , Adolescente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Nigéria , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Confl Health ; 9: 1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25904977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between the late 1980s and 2000s, Northern Uganda experienced over twenty years of armed conflict between the Government of Uganda and Lord's Resistance Army. The resulting humanitarian crisis led to displacement of a large percentage of the population and disruption of the health care system of the area. To better coordinate the emergency health response to the crisis, the humanitarian cluster approach was rolled out in Uganda in October 2005. The health, nutrition and HIV/AIDS cluster became fully operational at the national level and in all the conflict affected districts of Acholi and Lango in April 2006. It was phased out in 2011 following the return of the internally displaced persons to their original homelands. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the health cluster approach in the northern Uganda and other humanitarian crises in Africa highlights a few issues which are important for strengthening health coordination in similar settings. While health clusters are often welcome during humanitarian crises because they have the possibility to improve health coordination, their potential to create an additional layer of bureaucracy into already complex and bureaucratic humanitarian response architecture is a real concern. Although anecdotal evidence has showed that implementation of the humanitarian reforms and the roll out of the cluster approach did improve humanitarian response in northern Uganda; it is critical to establish a mechanism for measuring the direct impact of health clusters on improving health outcomes, and in reducing morbidity and mortality during humanitarian crisis. Successful implementation of health clusters requires availability of other components of the humanitarian reforms such as predictable funding, strong humanitarian coordination system and strong partnerships. Importantly, successful health clusters require political commitment of national humanitarian and government stakeholders. RECOMMENDATIONS: Although leaving health coordination entirely to governments (in crises where they exist) may result in political interference and ineffectiveness of the aid response efforts, the role of government in health coordination cannot be overemphasized. Health clusters must respond to the rapidly changing humanitarian environment and the changing needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises as they evolve from emergency towards transition, early recovery and development.

14.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 35(4): 298-304, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integration of HIV infant testing into immunization sessions is one of the strategies designed to increase coverage of early infant diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the evidence on the outcomes of such integration. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was undertaken from electronic sources such as MEDLINE, Google Scholar, websites of international agencies, past conferences and ministries of health reports published between year 2002 and 2013. Randomized controlled trials, observational and qualitative studies were searched and those meeting selection criteria were selected and relevant information extracted using structured tool. Statistical pooling was not possible owing to the heterogeneity of the study designs and outcome measures. RESULTS: Of the nine articles which met the selection criteria, none used a randomized controlled design. Of these, five articles measured mother's acceptability of their infants being tested for HIV during its first pentavalent or DPT vaccination visit, and 89·5-100% accepted. Four articles reported the proportion of mothers who returned for HIV test results, ranging from 56·8% to 86·0%. Increased uptake of HIV testing following integration was confirmed by two articles. Only one study in Tanzania determined the uptake of vaccinations following integration, with urban facilities showing stable or slight increase of monthly vaccine uptake while decreases were observed across the rural sites. In two articles, stigma was perceived by service-providers and mothers as the potential risk following integration, particularly in rural settings. DISCUSSION: Despite the limited number of articles, the findings in this systematic review suggest that HIV testing during immunization clinic visits is acceptable and feasible as a possible model for service delivery. However, the impact on vaccination uptake needs further study.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Imunização , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente
15.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; : 2046905514Y0000000169, 2014 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25540952

RESUMO

Background: Integration of HIV infant testing into immunization sessions is one of the strategies designed to increase coverage of early infant diagnosis. Objective: To determine the evidence on the outcomes of such integration. Methods: A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was undertaken from electronic sources such as MEDLINE, Google Scholar, websites of international agencies, past conferences and ministries of health reports published between year 2002 and 2013. Randomized controlled trials, observational and qualitative studies were searched and those meeting selection criteria were selected and relevant information extracted using structured tool. Statistical pooling was not possible owing to the heterogeneity of the study designs and outcome measures. Results: Of the nine articles which met the selection criteria, none used a randomized controlled design. Of these, five articles measured mother's acceptability of their infants being tested for HIV during its first pentavalent or DPT vaccination visit, and 89·5-100% accepted. Four articles reported the proportion of mothers who returned for HIV test results, ranging from 56·8% to 86·0%. Increased uptake of HIV testing following integration was confirmed by two articles. Only one study in Tanzania determined the uptake of vaccinations following integration, with urban facilities showing stable or slight increase of monthly vaccine uptake while decreases were observed across the rural sites. In two articles, stigma was perceived by service-providers and mothers as the potential risk following integration, particularly in rural settings. Discussion: Despite the limited number of articles, the findings in this systematic review suggest that HIV testing during immunization clinic visits is acceptable and feasible as a possible model for service delivery. However, the impact on vaccination uptake needs further study.

17.
Confl Health ; 1: 12, 2007 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18053189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using Geographical Information System (GIS) as a tool to determine access to and gaps in providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT), treatment (ART) and mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in conflict affected northern Uganda. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on availability and utilization, and geo-coordinates of health facilities providing VCT, PMTCT, and ART were collected in order to determine access. ArcView software produced maps showing locations of facilities and Internally Displaced Population(IDP) camps. FINDINGS: There were 167 health facilities located inside and outside 132 IDP camps with VCT, PMTCT and ART services provided in 32 (19.2%), 15 (9%) and 10 (6%) facilities respectively. There was uneven availability and utilization of services and resources among districts, camps and health facilities. Inadequate staff and stock-out of essential commodities were found in lower health facility levels. Provision of VCT was 100% of the HSSP II target at health centres IV and hospitals but 28% at HC III. For PMTCT and ART, only 42.9% and 20% of the respective targets were reached at the health centres IV. CONCLUSION: Access to VCT, PMTCT and ART services was geographically limited due to inadequacy and heterogeneous dispersion of these services among districts and camps. GIS mapping can be effective in identifying service delivery gaps and presenting complex data into simplistic results hence can be recommended in need assessments in conflict settings.

18.
Addict Behav ; 31(4): 697-701, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15982826

RESUMO

This cross-sectional survey interviewed heroin injectors admitted in three detoxification centres from August 2003 to June 2004 in Chengdu City, China. Logistic regression and survival analysis were performed to identify factors associated with sharing of needles/syringes and time from initiation of heroin to adoption of injection, respectively. Out of 266 subjects studied, 206 (77.44%) were males, 103 (38.72%) never shared injecting materials, 113 (42.48%) were non-Chengdu residents and 9 (3.38%) belonged to ethnic minorities. Those with short history of heroin injection (P<0.05) and those belonged to ethnic minorities (P<0.05) were more likely to share injecting materials. Only age, ethnicity and duration of heroin use were associated with time to first injection. Median time to injection was 6 months for those who used heroin for the duration up to 1 year and 21 months for those who used heroin for 2-5 years. The study suggests that there is early initiation of injection and sharing of injecting materials is high among heroin users, a major risk for HIV transmission. Ethnic minorities have been identified to be the most risky group, which needs further attention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Dependência de Heroína/complicações , Dependência de Heroína/etnologia , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Seringas , Fatores de Tempo
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