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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
Lab Chip ; 21(16): 3094-3104, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259277

RESUMO

We report an ion concentration polarization (CP) system that exceeds ohmic scaling, a barrier that has stood for more than four decades, by more than one order of magnitude. CP is used in many important applications, including the enrichment of trace analytes in microfluidic systems and water purification by electrodialysis. The mechanisms that control the current through these systems have been largely discovered, but the reduced currents and loss of efficiency imparted by the high resistance of the CP ion depleted zone have not been overcome. To obtain high currents, an ion permselective element with a microscale cross-section is interfaced with a macroscale reservoir. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and microparticle tracking velocimetry (µ-PTV) are used to characterize the depleted zone that emanates vertically from the CP inducing nanoporous gel into the macroscale reservoir. The shape and growth of the depleted zone and velocity in the surrounding bulk solution are consistent with natural convection being the driver of the depleted zone morphology and eliminating the high resistance created by the depleted zone in 1D and 2D systems. Once the resistance of the depleted zone is negated, the high currents are hypothesized to result from enhancement of counter-ion concentration in the nanoporous gel-filled microchannel. In contrast with conventional systems, the current increases monotonically and remains stable at a high quasi-steady level in the reported systems. These results may be used to increase the efficiency and performance of future devices that utilize CP, while the ability to collect purified water with this geometry is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Convecção , Microfluídica
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893178

RESUMO

Capabilities in continuous monitoring of key physiological parameters of disease have never been more important than in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Soft, skin-mounted electronics that incorporate high-bandwidth, miniaturized motion sensors enable digital, wireless measurements of mechanoacoustic (MA) signatures of both core vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature) and underexplored biomarkers (coughing count) with high fidelity and immunity to ambient noises. This paper summarizes an effort that integrates such MA sensors with a cloud data infrastructure and a set of analytics approaches based on digital filtering and convolutional neural networks for monitoring of COVID-19 infections in sick and healthy individuals in the hospital and the home. Unique features are in quantitative measurements of coughing and other vocal events, as indicators of both disease and infectiousness. Systematic imaging studies demonstrate correlations between the time and intensity of coughing, speaking, and laughing and the total droplet production, as an approximate indicator of the probability for disease spread. The sensors, deployed on COVID-19 patients along with healthy controls in both inpatient and home settings, record coughing frequency and intensity continuously, along with a collection of other biometrics. The results indicate a decaying trend of coughing frequency and intensity through the course of disease recovery, but with wide variations across patient populations. The methodology creates opportunities to study patterns in biometrics across individuals and among different demographic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Taxa Respiratória , Sons Respiratórios , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia sem Fio , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
4.
Extreme Mech Lett ; 40: 100924, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835043

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may spread through respiratory droplets released by infected individuals during coughing, sneezing, or speaking. Given the limited supply of professional respirators and face masks, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended home-made cloth face coverings for use by the general public. While there have been several studies on aerosol filtration performance of household fabrics, their effectiveness at blocking larger droplets has not been investigated. Here, we ascertained the performance of 11 common household fabrics at blocking large, high-velocity droplets, using a commercial medical mask as a benchmark. We also assessed the breathability (air permeability), texture, fiber composition, and water absorption properties of the fabrics. We found that most fabrics have substantial blocking efficiency (median values >70%). In particular, two layers of highly permeable fabric, such as T-shirt cloth, blocks droplets with an efficiency (>94%) similar to that of medical masks, while being approximately twice as breathable. The first layer allows about 17% of the droplet volume to transmit, but it significantly reduces their velocity. This allows the second layer to trap the transmitted droplets resulting in high blocking efficacy. Overall, our study suggests that cloth face coverings, especially with multiple layers, may help reduce droplet transmission of respiratory infections. Furthermore, face coverings made from materials such as cotton fabrics allow washing and reusing, and can help reduce the adverse environmental effects of widespread use of commercial disposable and non-biodegradable facemasks.

5.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(160): 20190726, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771452

RESUMO

This paper presents experimental evidence for the damped-hyperbolic nature of transient heat conduction in porcine muscle tissue and blood. An examination of integer order and Maxwell-Cattaneo heat conduction models indicates that the latter, in effect resulting in a time-fractional telegraph (TFT) equation, provides the best fit to transient heat phenomena in such materials. The numerical method is verified on Dirichlet and Neumann initial boundary value problems using existing analytical results. Overall, the TFT equation captures the wave-like nature of heat conduction and temperature profiles obtained in experiments, while reducing the need for further tunable parameters.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condutividade Térmica , Animais , Suínos
6.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(6): 1586-1596, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141122

RESUMO

An organism's ability to control the timing and direction of energy flow both within its body and out to the surrounding environment is vital to maintaining proper function. When physically interacting with an external target, the mechanical energy applied by the organism can be transferred to the target as several types of output energy, such as target deformation, target fracture, or as a transfer of momentum. The particular function being performed will dictate which of these results is most adaptive to the organism. Chewing food favors fracture, whereas running favors the transfer of momentum from the appendages to the ground. Here, we explore the relationship between deformation, fracture, and momentum transfer in biological puncture systems. Puncture is a widespread behavior in biology requiring energy transfer into a target to allow fracture and subsequent insertion of the tool. Existing correlations between both tool shape and tool dynamics with puncture success do not account for what energy may be lost due to deformation and momentum transfer in biological systems. Using a combination of pendulum tests and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), we explored the contributions of fracture, deformation and momentum to puncture events using a gaboon viper fang. Results on unrestrained targets illustrate that momentum transfer between tool and target, controlled by the relative masses of the two, can influence the extent of fracture achieved during high-speed puncture. PTV allowed us to quantify deformation throughout the target during puncture and tease apart how input energy is partitioned between deformation and fracture. The relationship between input energy, target deformation and target fracture is non-linear; increasing impact speed from 2.0 to 2.5 m/s created no further fracture, but did increase deformation while increasing speed to 3.0 m/s allowed an equivalent amount of fracture to be achieved for less overall deformation. These results point to a new framework for examining puncture systems, where the relative resistances to deformation, fracture and target movement dictate where energy flows during impact. Further developing these methods will allow researchers to quantify the energetics of puncture systems in a way that is comparable across a broad range of organisms and connect energy flow within an organism to how that energy is eventually transferred to the environment.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Viperidae/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Biológicos
7.
Phys Rev E ; 100(6-1): 063106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962492

RESUMO

The flow and drag induced by active pitching of plates in the wake of a cylinder of diameter d were experimentally studied for various plate lengths L as well as pitching frequencies f_{p} and amplitudes A_{0} at Reynolds number Re=1.6×10^{4}. Planar particle image velocimetry and a load cell were used to characterize the flow statistics and mean drag of a variety of cylinder-splitter assemblies. Results show the distinctive effect of active pitching on these quantities. In particular, flow recovery was significantly modulated by L, f_{p}, or A_{0}. Specific pitching settings resulted in a wake with dominant meandering patterns and faster flow recovery. We defined a modified version of the amplitude-based Strouhal number of the system St_{A} to account for the effect of the cylinder in active pitching. It characterizes the drag coefficient C_{d} across all the cases studied, and reveals two regions intersecting at a critical value of St_{A}≈0.035. Below this value, the C_{d} remained nearly constant; however, it exhibited a linear increase with increasing St_{A} past this critical point. Inspection of the integral momentum equation showed the dominant role of velocity fluctuations in modulating C_{d} past the critical St_{A}.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(6): 1210-1214, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367420

RESUMO

Flow separation and vortex shedding are some of the most common phenomena experienced by bluff bodies under relative motion with the surrounding medium. They often result in a recirculation bubble in regions with adverse pressure gradient, which typically reduces efficiency in vehicles and increases loading on structures. Here, the ability of an engineered coating to manipulate the large-scale recirculation region was tested in a separated flow at moderate momentum thickness Reynolds number, [Formula: see text] We show that the coating, composed of uniformly distributed cylindrical pillars with diverging tips, successfully reduces the size of, and shifts downstream, the separation bubble. Despite the so-called roughness parameter, [Formula: see text], falling within the hydrodynamic smooth regime, the coating is able to modulate the large-scale recirculating motion. Remarkably, this modulation does not induce noticeable changes in the near-wall turbulence levels. Supported with experimental data and theoretical arguments based on the averaged equations of motion, we suggest that the inherent mechanism responsible for the bubble modulation is essentially unsteady suction and blowing controlled by the increasing cross-section of the tips. The coating can be easily fabricated and installed and works under dry and wet conditions, increasing its potential impact on a diverse range of applications.

9.
Phys Rev E ; 96(6-1): 063117, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347277

RESUMO

The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations Φ_{P} exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f^{-5/3-2} in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, Φ_{P}∼f^{-2}. Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.

10.
J Vis Exp ; (108): 53745, 2016 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26967544

RESUMO

3D-PTV is a quantitative flow measurement technique that aims to track the Lagrangian paths of a set of particles in three dimensions using stereoscopic recording of image sequences. The basic components, features, constraints and optimization tips of a 3D-PTV topology consisting of a high-speed camera with a four-view splitter are described and discussed in this article. The technique is applied to the intermediate flow field (5

Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Reologia/métodos
11.
Phys Rev E ; 94(6-1): 063105, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28085408

RESUMO

The rotation of rigid bodies and oscillation of flexible structures under turbulence are described and characterized in the spectral domain. Laboratory experiments combined with theory are used to unravel and explain the characteristic power-law decay of the spectrum of rotation and oscillation of simple structures. It is shown that the energy-containing eddies and inertial subrange of the incoming velocity spectrum strongly modulate the unsteady motions of structures. The spectra of the rotation and oscillation of the structures exhibit distinctive power-law decays f^{+2} and f^{-5/3-2} in the comparatively low- and high-frequency regions. The range of these regions depends on the phenomenon triggering the motions, i.e., thrust or vortex-induced motions.

12.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4216, 2014 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24960397

RESUMO

To improve power production and structural reliability of wind turbines, there is a pressing need to understand how turbines interact with the atmospheric boundary layer. However, experimental techniques capable of quantifying or even qualitatively visualizing the large-scale turbulent flow structures around full-scale turbines do not exist today. Here we use snowflakes from a winter snowstorm as flow tracers to obtain velocity fields downwind of a 2.5-MW wind turbine in a sampling area of ~36 × 36 m(2). The spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurements are sufficiently high to quantify the evolution of blade-generated coherent motions, such as the tip and trailing sheet vortices, identify their instability mechanisms and correlate them with turbine operation, control and performance. Our experiment provides an unprecedented in situ characterization of flow structures around utility-scale turbines, and yields significant insights into the Reynolds number similarity issues presented in wind energy applications.

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