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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629467

RESUMO

Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematological malignancy; however, some patients achieve durable remission with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We report on all 17 patients with BPDCN who underwent allo-HCT at our center between 2000 and 2020. The median age was 39 (18-67) years. All (n = 16, 94%), except one patient, had systemic disease involving bone marrow and/or other organs. Ten patients (59%) were in first complete remission (CR1) at allo-HCT. The donor source was matched related or unrelated in ten (59%) and alternate donor in seven (41%) patients. Five (31%) patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all grade I-II. The cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD at five-year was 34%. The CI of non-relapse mortality at one-year was 29%. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at two-year and five-year were 49% (95% CI = 22-71%) and 39% (95% CI = 14-64%), respectively. The two-year and five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65% (95% CI = 38-82%) and 40% (95% CI = 12-68%), respectively. The five-year rate for both PFS and OS was 80% in CR1 patients versus 0% in patients not in CR1. In conclusion, allo-HCT provides long-lasting remissions in BPDCN patients, particularly when performed in CR1.

2.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of older adults undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) as the only chance of meaningful survival for hematologic malignancies. However, toxicities in vulnerable patients may offset the benefits of SCT. Frailty and abnormal geriatric assessment (GA) prior to SCT have been associated with decreased overall survival in persons aged 60 and older. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of baseline GA deficits and frailty, the prevalence of frailty or death at three and six months after allogeneic SCT, and associations between baseline assessments and the presence of frailty or death post-SCT. METHODS: We enrolled 50 patients aged 60 years and older and completed a baseline GA including comorbidity, polypharmacy, nutrition, physical performance, functional status, social support, depression and anxiety, and cognition. Frailty was defined as three or more abnormalities of gait speed, grip strength, weight loss, physical activity, and exhaustion, and was assessed at baseline, three months, and six months after SCT. A composite outcome of frailty or death at three months and six months was analyzed. RESULTS: Frailty was present in 11/50 (22%) of patients at baseline. Ten patients did not complete three- month follow-up, and twelve patients did not complete six-month follow-up. Of those with follow-up data, 22 patients (55%) were frail or deceased three months after SCT, and 27 patients (71%) were frail or deceased six months after SCT. Frailty at baseline was not significantly associated with frailty or death at three or six months after SCT. However, the study's small enrollment limits conclusions on these associations. CONCLUSION: GA deficits and frailty are prevalent in older adult SCT recipients at baseline and after transplant. Future studies should aim for larger enrollment in order to validate associations between these deficits and outcomes, especially survival, functional status, and quality of life following SCT.

3.
Blood ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521108

RESUMO

We hypothesized that combining adoptively transferred autologous T cells with a cancer vaccine strategy would enhance therapeutic efficacy by adding anti-myeloma idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Id-KLH) vaccine to vaccine-specific co-stimulated T cells. In this randomized, phase II trial, eligible patients received either the control (KLH only) or Id-KLH vaccine, an auto-transplant, vaccine-specific co-stimulated T-cells expanded ex-vivo, and two booster doses of the assigned vaccine. In 36 patients (20 in KLH, 16 in Id-KLH) enrolled, no dose-limiting toxicity was seen in either arm. At last evaluation, 6 (30%) and 8 (50%) had achieved complete remission in KLH-only and Id-KLH, respectively (p=0.22) and no difference in 3-year progression-free survival was observed (59% and 56%, respectively; p=0.32). In a 594 Nanostring nCounter gene panel analyzed for immune reconstitution (IR), compared with KLH-only patients, there was a greater change in IR genes in T-cells in Id-KLH patients relative to baseline. Specifically, upregulation of genes associated with activation, induction of effector function, and generation of memory CD8+ T cells after Id-KLH, but not after KLH control vaccination, was observed. Similarly, responding patients across both arms were associated with upregulation of genes associated with T-cell activation. At baseline, all patients had greater expression of CD8+ T-cell exhaustion markers. These changes were associated with functional Id-specific immune responses in a subset of Id-KLH patients analyzed. In conclusion, in this combination immunotherapy approach, we observed a significantly more robust IR in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the Id-KLH arm, supporting further investigation of vaccine and adoptive immunotherapy strategies.

5.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592759

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has shown promise in managing GVHD. However, cyclophosphamide has known cardiac toxicities and few studies have evaluated the cardiac toxicities that arise following PTCy. Here, we completed a retrospective analysis of matched alloHCT patients at our institution who received PTCy or non-PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis, with the goal of determining the incidence of cardiac toxicities up to 100 days after alloHCT. We included 585 patients in our analysis and found that 38 patients (6.5%) experienced cardiac toxicities after alloHCT. The toxicities observed included arrhythmias (n=21), heart failure (n=14), pericardial effusions (n=10), and myocardial infarction or ischemia (n=7). Patients who received PTCy had a 7.4% incidence of cardiac toxicities, while non-PTCy patients had an incidence of 5.8% (p=0.4). We found that age > 55 years (p=0.02), history of hypertension (p=0.01), arrhythmia (p=0.003), diabetes (p=0.04), and cardiac comorbidities (p<0.001) were significant predictors of cardiac toxicity, while none of the preparative and GVHD prophylaxis regimens used were predictive of cardiac toxicity. From these findings, we proposed the use of a Cardiac Risk Stratification Score to quantify the risk of cardiac toxicity following alloHCT and found that a higher score correlated with cardiac toxicity incidence. Furthermore, the development of cardiac toxicity was associated with worse 1-yr overall survival (OS) and NRM while the use of PTCy was associated with improvements in 1-year OS and NRM rates.

6.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3407-3417, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495313

RESUMO

Recent compelling evidence showed that innate immune effector cells could recognize allogeneic grafts and prime an adaptive immune response. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily receptor that is expressed on myeloid cells; the interaction between SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 elicits an inhibitory signal that suppresses macrophage phagocytic function. Additional studies showed that donor-recipient mismatch in SIRPα variants might activate monocytic allorecognition, possibly as the result of non-self SIRPα-CD47 interaction. However, the frequency of SIRPα variation and its role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unexplored. We studied 350 patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent HLA-matched related HSCT and found that SIRPα allelic mismatches were present in 39% of transplantation pairs. SIRPα variant mismatch was associated with a significantly higher rate of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; P = .03), especially de novo chronic GVHD (HR, 2.0; P = .01), after adjusting for other predictors. Those with mismatched SIRPα had a lower relapse rate (HR, 0.6; P = .05) and significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS; HR, 0.6; P = .04). Notably, the effect of SIRPα variant mismatch on relapse protection was most pronounced early after HSCT and in patients who were not in remission at HSCT (cumulative incidence, 73% vs 54%; HR, 0.5; P = .01). These findings show that SIRPα variant mismatch is associated with HSCT outcomes, possibly owing to innate allorecognition. SIRPα variant matching could provide valuable information for donor selection and risk stratification in HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
7.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.

8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537421

RESUMO

Increasingly, patients age ≥65 years are undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Although age alone is a well-documented predictor of overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM), growing evidence suggests that poor functional status and frailty associated with aging may have roles as well. Our goal in the present study was to identify and improve these and other aging-related maladies by developing a multimodal supportive care program for older allo-SCT recipients. We designed and implemented a multimodal supportive care program, Enhanced Recovery in Stem Cell Transplant (ER-SCT), for patients age ≥65 years undergoing allo-SCT. The ER-SCT program consists of evaluation and critical interventions by key health care providers from multiple disciplines starting before hospital admission for transplantation and extending through 100 days post-allo-SCT. We determined the feasibility of implementing this program in a large stem cell transplantation center. After 1 year of ongoing process improvements, multiple evaluations, and enrollment, we found that a dedicated weekly clinic was necessary to coordinate care and evaluate patients early. We successfully enrolled 57 of 64 eligible patients (89%) in the first year. Our data show that a multimodal supportive care program to enhance recovery for older patients undergoing allo-SCT is feasible. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

9.
Haematologica ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435482

RESUMO

HLA-DPB1 mismatches between donor and recipient are commonly seen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an unrelated donor. HLA-DPB1 mismatch, conventionally determined by the similarity of the T-cell epitope (TCE), is associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and a decreased risk of disease relapse. We investigated the clinical impact of HLA-DPB1 molecular mismatch quantified by mismatched eplets (ME) and Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes score (PS) in a cohort of 1,514 patients receiving HSCT from unrelated donors matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5, and -DQB1 loci. HLA-DPB1 alloimmunity in the GVH direction determined by high GVH ME/PS was associated with a reduced risk of relapse (HR 0.83, P= .05 for ME) and increased risk of grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.44, P< .001 for ME), whereas high HVG ME/PS was only associated with an increased risk of grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.26, P= .004 for ME). Notably, in the permissive mismatch subgroup classified by TCE grouping, high HVG ME/PS was associated with an increased risk of relapse (HR 1.36, P= .026 for ME) and grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.43, P= .003 for PS-II). Decision curve analysis showed GVH ME outperformed other models and provided the best clinical net benefit for the modification of aGVHD prophylaxis regimen in patients with high risk of developing clinically significant aGVHD. In conclusion, molecular assessment of HLA-DPB1 mismatch enables separate prediction of HVG or GVH alloresponse quantitatively and allows further refinement of HLA-DPB1 permissiveness as defined by conventional TCE grouping.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare outcomes between patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma who received a nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) and those who received an autologous transplant (autoSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 194 patients with follicular lymphoma who received an alloSCT (n = 98) or autoSCT (n = 96) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX). The transplant type used was based on donor availability and by Medicare reimbursement guidelines. Patients who received an alloSCT were enrolled in four consecutive trials in which they received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide (or bendamustine), and rituximab conditioning. autoSCT patients received R-BEAM (rituximab, carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan). RESULTS: The median follow-up of survivors was 108 months for the alloSCT group and 102 months for the autoSCT group. Overall survival was significantly better for patients who received an alloSCT compared with those who received an autoSCT (62% vs. 46%; P = 0.048). Similarly, progression-free survival rates were 52% in patients who received an alloSCT and 31% in those who received an autoSCT (P < 0.001), and the 8-year relapse rates were 11% and 43%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only three patients in the alloSCT group relapsed beyond 3.5 years. In the alloSCT group, the rates for grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD were 22%, 9%, and 38%, respectively. In the autoSCT group, the 8-year incidence of secondary myelodysplasia was 11%. Nonrelapse mortality was similar between the two groups (15% vs. 11% at 8 years; P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that alloSCT is curative and confers superior survival compared with autoSCT in patients with follicular lymphoma.

12.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329753

RESUMO

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m2 busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% µmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

13.
Cytotherapy ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Umbilical cord blood is an established source of stem cells in patients with hematologic malignancies who do not have HLA-compatible matched related or unrelated donors. The success of an umbilical cord blood transplant depends on the dose of total nucleated and CD34+ cells infused. Therefore, collecting, banking and listing high-quality cord blood units with high total nucleated and CD34+ cell dose are essential. METHODS: Here the authors describe their cord blood bank's novel collection technique, which involves both in utero and ex utero collection of a single cord blood unit. The authors also evaluated maternal, neonatal and collection parameters that may impact the cell dose. RESULTS: Maternal gestational age and race, and neonatal weight and sex correlated with the total nucleated cell dose. CONCLUSIONS: The optimized collection of umbilical cord blood is critical for its use as a source of stem cells for transplantation.

14.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109432, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270918

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy with virus-specific T cells has been used successfully to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting application of this approach to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We expand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observe that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T cells. Culture with interleukin (IL)-2/4/7, but not under other cytokine-driven conditions, results in more than 1,000-fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T cells with a retained phenotype, function, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition compared with baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T cells cannot be expanded efficiently from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Because corticosteroids are used for management of severe COVID-19, we propose an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

15.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312462

RESUMO

In this phase I/II clinical trial, we investigated the safety and efficacy of high doses of mb-IL21 ex vivo expanded donor-derived NK cells to decrease relapse in 25 patients with myeloid malignancies receiving haploidentical stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Three doses of donor NK cells (1 × 105-1 × 108 cells/kg/dose) were administered on days -2, +7, and +28. Results were compared with an independent contemporaneously treated case-matched cohort of 160 patients from the CIBMTR database.After a median follow-up of 24 months, the 2-year relapse rate was 4% vs. 38% (p = 0.014), and disease-free survival (DFS) was 66% vs. 44% (p = 0.1) in the cases and controls, respectively. Only one relapse occurred in the study group, in a patient with the high level of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) presented before transplantation. The 2-year relapse and DFS in patients without DSA was 0% vs. 40% and 72% vs. 44%, respectively with HR for DFS in controls of 2.64 (p = 0.029). NK cells in recipient blood were increased at day +30 in a dose-dependent manner compared with historical controls, and had a proliferating, mature, highly cytotoxic, NKG2C+/KIR+ phenotype.Administration of donor-derived expanded NK cells after haploidentical transplantation was safe, associated with NK cell-dominant immune reconstitution early post-transplant, preserved T-cell reconstitution, and improved relapse and DFS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01904136 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01904136 ).

16.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2799-2806, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264268

RESUMO

The Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) score, defined as [(creatinine × lactate dehydrogenase [LDH])/platelets], is a marker of endothelial activation that has been validated in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Endothelial activation is one of the mechanisms driving immune-mediated toxicities in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T)-cell therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate the association between EASIX and other laboratory parameters collected before lymphodepletion and the subsequent onset of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) those patients. Toxicity data were collected prospectively on 171 patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). CRS grades 2 to 4 were diagnosed in 81 (47%) patients and ICANS grades 2 to 4 in 84 (49%). EASIX combined with ferritin (EASIX-F) identified 3 risk groups with CRS grades 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (hazards ratio [HR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-11; P < .001), 49% (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.02-5; P = .04), and 23% (reference), respectively. EASIX combined with CRP and ferritin (EASIX-FC) identified 3 risk groups with an ICANS grade 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-6.9; P < .001), 51% (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P = .025), and 29% (reference). Our results indicate that common laboratory parameters before lymphodepletion correlate with CAR-T-related toxicities and can help support clinical decisions, such as preemptive toxicity management, hospitalization length, and proper setting for CAR-T administration.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Ferritinas , Humanos
17.
Cancer ; 127(18): 3381-3389, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone plus ofatumumab hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab (hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab) has not been compared with the outcome of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone plus ofatumumab hyper-CVAD plus rituximab (hyper-CVAD + Rituximab) in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The authors compared the outcomes of 69 patients treated with hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab and 95 historical-control patients treated with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab. Historical-control patients were treated with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab if they had CD20 expression ≥ 20%. Ofatumumab (day 1 of course 1, 300 mg intravenously; subsequent doses, 2000 mg intravenously) was administered on days 1 and 11 of courses 1 and 3 and on days 1 and 8 of courses 2 and 4 for a total of 8 doses. A propensity score analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was performed to adjust for baseline covariates between groups. RESULTS: The median event-free survival with stem cell transplantation (SCT) censoring was 33 and 65 months with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab and hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab, respectively (crude P = .064; IPTW P = .054). The median overall survival with SCT censoring was 52 months and not reached, respectively (crude P = .087; IPTW P = .097). CONCLUSIONS: Hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab was associated with better outcomes than hyper-CVAD + Rituximab among patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138753

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain cancer, recurs because glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are resistant to all standard therapies. We showed that GSCs, but not normal astrocytes, are sensitive to lysis by healthy allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. Mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of primary tumor samples revealed that GBM tumor-infiltrating NK cells acquired an altered phenotype associated with impaired lytic function relative to matched peripheral blood NK cells from patients with GBM or healthy donors. We attributed this immune evasion tactic to direct cell-to-cell contact between GSCs and NK cells via αv integrin-mediated TGF-ß activation. Treatment of GSC-engrafted mice with allogeneic NK cells in combination with inhibitors of integrin or TGF-ß signaling or with TGFBR2 gene-edited allogeneic NK cells prevented GSC-induced NK cell dysfunction and tumor growth. These findings reveal an important mechanism of NK cell immune evasion by GSCs and suggest the αv integrin/TGF-ß axis as a potentially useful therapeutic target in GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/imunologia , Integrinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Integrinas/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
20.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135465

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is associated with older age and an increased risk of myeloid malignancies and cardiovascular complications. We analyzed donor DNA samples in patients with AML/MDS who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) to investigate the association between donor CH and transplant outcomes. We performed targeted deep sequencing of 300 genes on donor blood samples and identified CH with the minimum variant allele frequency of 2%. Among 363 donors, 65 (18%) had CH. The most frequently mutated genes were DNMT3A (31 of 65; 48%), TET2 (16 of 65; 25%), PPM1D (5 of 65, 8%), and ASXL1 (7 of 65; 11%). Transplant outcomes: time to neutrophil and platelet recovery, relapse incidence, transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival, were comparable by donor CH. However, risk of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) at 6 months after transplant was higher with donor CH vs. without donor CH (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.6-3.6, p < 0.001 and HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6-8.9, p = 0.003). In this homogenous population of AML/MDS patients, donor CH was associated with increased risk of grade II-IV and III-IV aGvHD. Further studies to investigate the mechanisms of increased aGvHD and therapeutic interventions to improve aGvHD in the context of donor CH are warranted.

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