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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of CRC in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrates status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 CRC cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for each CRC subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night-shifts, those working ≥ 15 years night-shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of CRC (Ptrend = 0.06, multivariable HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.89, Ptrend = 0.001, ≥ 15 years night-shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.51, Ptrend = 0.72, Pheterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI 0.94 to 3.48, Ptrend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI 0.71 to 1.80, Ptrend = 0.56, Pheterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathological epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night-shift might increase CRC risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathway.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586566

RESUMO

Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal microbiome, including overweight and obesity; physical activity; and dietary intake of fiber, whole grains, and red and processed meat. These factors alter microbiome structure and function, along with the metabolic and immune pathways that mediate CRC development. We review epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for the influence of the microbiome, diet, and environmental factors on CRC incidence and outcomes. Based on these data, features of the intestinal microbiome might be used for CRC screening and modified for chemoprevention and treatment. Integrated prospective studies are urgently needed to investigate these strategies.

3.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556446

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is susceptible to oxidative stress and mutation. Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with inconsistent findings. In this study, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn and CRC risk in a case-control study of 324 female cases and 658 matched controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Relative mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by quantitative PCR-based assay. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of interest. Results showed lower log-mtDNAcn was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC, in a dose-dependent relationship (P for trend < 0.0001). Compared to the 4th quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.10 (0.69, 1.76) for the 3rd quartile, 1.40 (0.89, 2.19) for the 2nd quartile, and 2.19 (1.43, 3.35) for the 1st quartile. In analysis by anatomic subsite of CRC, we found a significant inverse association for proximal colon cancer [lowest vs. highest quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) = 3.31 (1.70, 6.45), P for trend = 0.0003]. Additionally, stratified analysis according to the follow-up time since blood collection showed that the inverse association between mtDNAcn and CRC remained significant among individuals with ≥ 5 years' follow-up, and marginally significant among those with ≥ 10 years' follow-up since mtDNAcn testing, suggesting that mtDNAcn may serve as a long-term predictor for risk of CRC. In conclusion, pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn was inversely associated with CRC risk. Further basic experimental studies are needed to explore the underlying biological mechanisms linking mtDNAcn to CRC carcinogenesis.

4.
MBio ; 10(5)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551328

RESUMO

Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic dietary compounds found in many different plant-based foods. There is increasing evidence that higher flavonoid intake may be causally linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. The bioactivity and bioavailability of many dietary flavonoids can be influenced by gastrointestinal microbiome metabolism. However, the role that habitual flavonoid intake plays in shaping the human gut microbiome is poorly understood. We describe an application of an ecosystem-based analytic approach to nutritional, microbiome, and questionnaire data from a cohort of more than 240 generally healthy adult males to assess the role of dietary flavonoid compounds in driving patterns of microbial community assembly. We identified six subclass-specific microbial communities (SMCs) uniquely and independently associated with intakes of the six flavonoid subclasses. Eggerthela lenta was positively associated with intakes of flavonol and flavanone, and Adlercreutzia equolifaciens was positively associated with intakes of flavonols and flavanol monomers. In contrast, for nearly all flavonoid subclasses, Flavonifractor plautii was inversely associated with subclass consumption. Consuming tea at least once per week explained 10.4% of the total variance in assembly of the 20 species comprising the flavanol monomer SMC. The novel methodology employed, necessitated by multidimensional microbiome data that consist of nonindependent features that exhibit a wide range of distributions and mean values, addresses a major challenge in our ability to understand associations of the microbiome in a wide range of clinical and epidemiologic settings.IMPORTANCE Dietary flavonoids, which have been implicated in lowering chronic disease risk and improving blood pressure, represent a diverse group of polyphenolic compounds found in many commonly consumed foods such as tea, red wine, apples, and berries. The bioactivity and bioavailability of more dietary flavonoids can be influenced by gastrointestinal microbiome metabolism. With demonstrated prebiotic and antimicrobial effects in in vitro and in animal models, it is surprising that there are not many human studies investigating the role dietary flavonoids play in shaping the gastrointestinal microbiome. Our analysis revealed patterns of community assembly that uniquely and independently characterize an individual's exposure to various flavonoid compounds. Furthermore, this study confirmed, independent from effects of other dietary and lifestyle factors included in the multivariate-adjusted model, that flavonoid intake is associated with microbial community assembly.

5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(9): 1531-1538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although low fiber intake has been considered a risk factor for diverticulitis, prospective evidence is limited in women despite having a disproportionate burden of disease, with little known about variation in the protective effects according to food sources. We assessed the associations of intakes of fiber and major food sources of fiber including fruits and vegetables with risk of diverticulitis in a large cohort of women. METHODS: We followed 50,019 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1990-2014) who were aged 43-70 years and free of diverticulitis, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline. Incident diverticulitis was identified through self-report with validity confirmed by review of medical records. RESULTS: We documented 4,343 incident cases of diverticulitis, encompassing 1,106,402 person-years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile, the multivariable hazard ratio of diverticulitis in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.95; P-trend = 0.002). Fiber from fruits and cereals, but not vegetables, was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis. Furthermore, intake of total whole fruit intake and specific fruits such as apples/pears and prunes were associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis with a multivariable hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 0.95 (0.92-0.98; P-trend < 0.001) for every serving increase of total whole fruit intake per day. DISCUSSION: Higher intake of dietary fiber and fiber from different food sources, except for vegetable fiber, are associated with a lower risk of diverticulitis in women. A greater intake of whole fruit is also associated with reduced risk.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e022877, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested whether genetic variants near fatty acid desaturases gene (FADS) cluster, which were recently identified to be signatures of adaptation to fish-rich and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-rich diet, interacted with these dietary factors on change in body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Three FADS variants were examined for gene-diet interactions on long-term (~10 years) changes in BMI and body weight in four prospective cohort studies. SETTING: Population based study. PARTICIPANTS: 11 323 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 6833 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and replicated in 6254 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and 5 264 Chinese from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). MAIN OUTCOMES: Long-term (~10 years) changes in BMI and body weight. RESULTS: In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, food-sourced n-3 PUFAs intake showed interactions with the FADS rs174570 on changes of BMI (P for interaction=0.02 in NHS, 0.05 in HPFS and 0.007 in combined). Such interactions were replicated in two independent cohorts WHI and SCHS (P for interaction=0.04 in WHI, 0.02 in SCHS and 0.001 in combined). The genetic associations of the FADS rs174570 with changes in BMI increased across the tertiles of n-3 PUFAs in all the cohorts. Fish intake also accentuated the genetic associations of the FADS rs174570 with long-term changes in BMI (pooled P for interaction=0.006). Viewed differently, long chain n-3 PUFAs intake showed stronger association with long-term changes in BMI among the rs174570 T carriers (beta=0.79 kg/m2 per g, p=3×10-5) than the rs174570 non-T carriers (beta=0.16 kg/m2 per g, p=0.08). Similar results were observed for fish intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis-driven analyses provide replicable evidence that long chain n-3 PUFAs and fish intakes may interact with the FADS variant on long-term weight gain. Further investigation is needed to confirm our findings in other cohorts.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular aspirin use may lower ovarian cancer risk by blocking the cyclooxygenase enzymes, resulting in lower expression of prostaglandins, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We evaluated whether higher prediagnosis PGE-M (a urinary biomarker of PGE2) was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk in three prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and Shanghai Women's Health Study. Our analyses included 304 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1996 to 2015 and 600 matched controls. We measured urinary PGE-M using LC/MS with normalization to creatinine. Measures from each study were recalibrated to a common standard. We estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression, with PGE-M levels modeled in quartiles. Multivariable models were adjusted for ovarian cancer risk factors. RESULTS: There was no evidence of an association between urinary PGE-M levels and ovarian cancer risk for women with PGE-M levels in the top versus bottom quartile (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.51-1.27; P trend = 0.37). We did not observe heterogeneity by histotype (P = 0.53), and there was no evidence of effect modification by body mass index (P interaction = 0.82), aspirin use (P interaction = 0.59), or smoking (P interaction = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnosis urinary PGE-M levels were not significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk. Larger sample sizes are needed to consider a more modest association and to evaluate associations for specific tumor subtypes. IMPACT: Systemic prostaglandin levels do not appear strongly associated with ovarian cancer risk. Future research into aspirin use and ovarian cancer risk should consider local prostaglandins and prostaglandin-independent mechanisms.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopic screening reduces incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) because precursor lesions, such as conventional adenomas or serrated polyps, are removed. Individuals with polypectomies are advised to undergo colonoscopy surveillance to prevent CRC. However, guidelines for surveillance intervals after diagnosis of a precursor lesion, particularly for individuals with serrated polyps, vary widely, and lack sufficient supporting evidence. Consequently, some high-risk patients do not receive enough surveillance and lower-risk subjects receive excessive surveillance. METHODS: We examined the association between findings from first endoscopy and CRC risk among 122,899 participants who underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the Nurses' Health Study 1 (1990-2012), Nurses' Health Study 2 (1989-2013), or the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1990-2012). Endoscopic findings were categorized as no polyp, conventional adenoma, or serrated polyp (hyperplastic polyp, traditional serrated adenoma, or sessile serrated adenoma, with or without cytological dysplasia). Conventional adenomas were classified as advanced (≥10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, or tubulovillous or villous histology) or non-advanced, and serrated polyps were assigned to categories of large (≥10 mm) or small (< 10 mm). We used Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of CRC incidence, after adjusting for various potential risk factors. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 10 years, we documented 491 incident cases of CRC: 51 occurred in 6161 participants with conventional adenomas, 24 in 5918 participants with serrated polyps, and 427 in 112,107 participants with no polyp. Compared to participants with no polyp detected during initial endoscopy, the multivariable HR for incident CRC in individuals with an advanced adenoma was 4.07 (95% CI, 2.89-5.72) and the HR for CRC in individuals with a large serrated polyp was 3.35 (95% CI, 1.37-8.15). In contrast, there was no significant increase in risk of CRC in patients with non-advanced adenomas (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.68-2.16, P=.52) or small serrated polyps (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.76-2.08; P=.38). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for guidelines that recommend repeat lower endoscopy within 3 years of a diagnosis of advanced adenoma and large serrated polyps. In contrast, patients with non-advanced adenoma or small serrated polyps may not require more intensive surveillance than patients without polyps.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the associations between meat intake and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was limited and inconsistent. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between consumption of meats and meat mutagens with HCC risk using data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for known liver-cancer risk factors. RESULTS: During up to 32 years of follow-up, we documented 163 incident HCC cases. The HRs of HCC for the highest vs the lowest tertile intake levels were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.16-2.92, Ptrend = 0.04) for processed red meats and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40-0.91, Ptrend = 0.02) for total white meats. There was a null association between unprocessed red meats and HCC risk (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.68-1.63, Ptrend = 0.85). We found both poultry (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90, Ptrend = 0.01) and fish (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.47-1.05, Ptrend = 0.10) were inversely associated with HCC risk. The HR for HCC risk was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61-1.02) when 1 standard deviation of processed red meats was substituted with an equivalent amount of poultry or fish intake. We also found a suggestive positive association of intake of meat-derived mutagenicity or heterocyclic amines with risk of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Processed red meat intake might be associated with higher, whereas poultry or possibly fish intake might be associated with lower, risk of HCC. Replacing processed red meat with poultry or fish might be associated with reduced HCC risk.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1469-1479, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2018 diet, nutrition, and physical activity recommendations aim to reduce cancer risk. We examined adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations and colorectal cancer risk in two prospective cohorts. METHODS: We followed 68,977 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 45,442 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 until 2012. We created cumulatively averaged WCRF/AICR scores using updated diet, adiposity, and physical activity data from questionnaires, and used Cox regression to estimate sex-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident colorectal cancer. RESULTS: We documented 2,449 colorectal cancer cases. Men in the highest quintile of the WCRF/AICR lifestyle score had a lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those in the lowest quintile (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.77). The result was weaker in women (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.02; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.006). When analyzing the diet recommendations alone, we similarly observed stronger inverse associations in men (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90) compared with women (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77-1.12; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.06). In men, the lifestyle score was more strongly inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer compared with proximal colon or rectal cancer (P common effects = 0.03); we did not observe significant differences between anatomic locations in women. CONCLUSIONS: The 2018 WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations are associated with lower colorectal cancer risk in men, with weaker results in women. IMPACT: Consideration of adiposity and physical activity in conjunction with diet is important for colorectal cancer prevention.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 157(1): 1-3, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242970
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(6): 913, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046070
18.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 121(1): 86-94, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity during adulthood has been consistently associated with lower risk of colorectal cancers, but whether physical activity during adolescence may also play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis is unclear. METHODS: We included 28,250 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who provided data on physical activity during adolescence (ages 12-22 years) in 1997 and underwent lower bowel endoscopy (1998-2011). We used logistic regression models for clustered data to examine the association between physical activity during adolescence and risk of adenoma later in life. RESULTS: Physical activity during adolescence was inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenoma (2373 cases), independent of physical activity during adulthood. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of adenoma was 0.89 (95% CI 0.77-1.02; Ptrend = 0.03) comparing women with ≥ 72 metabolic equivalent of tasks-hours/week (MET-h/week) to < 21 MET-h/week. Women with high physical activity during both adolescence (≥53.3 MET-h/week) and adulthood (≥23.1 MET-h/week) had significantly lower risk of adenoma (all adenomas: OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66-0.88; advanced adenoma: OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45-0.82) compared to women with low physical activity during both stages of life. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that physical activity during adolescence may lower the risk of colorectal adenoma later in life.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 3040-3051, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044426

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence relating fiber intake to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive and data are limited on different food sources of fiber and heterogeneity by tumor subsite and molecular profile. We prospectively followed for CRC incidence 90,869 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and 47,924 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the associations with CRC risk for total, cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber and whole grains. We also assessed the associations according to tumor subsites (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) and molecular markers (microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype and KRAS mutation). We documented 3,178 CRC cases during 3,685,903 person-years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS. Intake of total dietary fiber was not associated with CRC risk after multivariable adjustment in either women (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme deciles, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.92-1.48, ptrend = 0.55) or men (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.21, ptrend = 0.47). Higher intake of cereal fiber and whole grains was associated with lower CRC risk in men with an HR of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-1.00) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96), respectively. No heterogeneity was detected by tumor subsite or molecular markers (pheterogeneity > 0.05). Higher intake of total dietary fiber within the range of a typical American diet is unlikely to substantially reduce CRC risk. The potential benefit of cereal fiber and whole grains in men warrants further confirmation.

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