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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of poor diet quality in the rising incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed under age 50 has not been explored. Based on molecular features of early-onset CRC, early-onset adenomas are emerging surrogate endpoints. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study (Nurses' Health Study II), we evaluated two empirical dietary patterns (Western and prudent) and three recommendation-based indexes (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH], Alternative Mediterranean Diet [AMED], and Alternative Healthy Eating Index [AHEI]-2010) with risk of early-onset adenoma overall and by malignant potential (high-risk: ≥1 cm, tubulovillous/villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or ≥ 3 adenomas), among 29474 women with ≥1 lower endoscopy before age 50 (1991-2011). Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We documented 1157 early-onset adenomas with 375 of high-risk. Western diet was positively, whereas prudent diet, DASH, AMED, and AHEI-2010 were inversely associated with risk of early-onset adenoma. The associations were largely confined to high-risk adenomas (OR [95% CI] for the highest versus lowest quintile: Western = 1.67 [1.18 to 2.37]; prudent = 0.69 [0.48 to 0.98]; DASH = 0.65 [0.45 to 0.93]; AMED = 0.55 [0.38 to 0.79]; AHEI-2010 = 0.71 [0.51 to 1.01]; all P  trend≤.03), driven by those identified in the distal colon and rectum (all P  trend≤.04 except AMED: Ptrend=.14). CONCLUSION: Poor diet quality was associated with an increased risk of early-onset distal and rectal adenomas of high malignant potential. These findings provide preliminary but strong support to the role of diet in early-onset CRC.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 159(5): 1629-1631, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222839
3.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to their potent lipid-lowering action, statins may modulate inflammation. However, data on statin use and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been inconsistent. METHODS: We searched the Nationwide Swedish Patient Register (inpatient and non-primary outpatient care) to identify adults diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD, n=7,637) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n=15,652) from 2006-2014. Each case was matched to 10 general population controls (n=232,890). Data on dispensed statin prescriptions were extracted from the Prescribed Drug Register. Conditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) for risk of IBD according to statin exposure while controlling for potential confounders, including indications for statin therapy. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted models, compared to no statin use, any statin use was associated with a lower risk of CD (OR=0.71; 95% CI, 0.63-0.79), but not UC (OR=1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.11). The lowest OR for CD was seen for current statin use (OR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.75). For CD, the lowest category of cumulative statin dose (31-325 defined daily dose, DDD) was associated with an OR of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.61-0.88) and the highest category (>1500 DDD) with an OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.80), Ptrend=0.10. For UC, the lowest and highest dose categories yielded ORs of 1.12 (95% CI, 1.00-1.25) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.88-1.13), respectively, Ptrend=0.13. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was associated with a lower risk of CD, but not UC. The association with CD risk appeared strongest for current statin use. Our findings suggest that statin use may influence the development of CD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor used to treat multiple cancer types including colon cancer, causes severe skin toxicity in 5-20% of patients, leading to decreased quality of life and treatment delays. Our understanding of which patients have an increased risk of severe toxicities is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify germline variants predictive of cetuximab-induced severe skin toxicity. METHODS: Our study included 1,209 stage III colon cancer patients randomized to receive cetuximab plus 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin as part of the NCCTG N0147 (Alliance) clinical trial. Skin toxicity outcomes were collected using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. We performed genotyping, evaluating ~10 million genetic variants. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of each genetic variant and severe (grade >3) skin toxicity, adjusting for age, sex, and genetic ancestry. Genome-wide significance was defined as p<5x10-8. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly middle-aged white men; 20% (n=243) experienced severe skin toxicity. Two genetic variants in the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) gene were significantly associated with severe skin toxicity (OR = 3.93, 95% CI 2.47-6.25; p<7.8x10-9). Functional annotations indicate these variants are in the RARA promoter. Additional significantly associated variants were identified in chromosome 2 intergenic regions. CONCLUSIONS: Identified variants could represent a potential target for risk stratification of colon cancer patients receiving cetuximab. IMPACT: Retinoids have shown promise in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity, so follow-up work could evaluate whether individuals with the RARA variant would benefit from retinoid therapy.

5.
Metabolism ; 113: 154398, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is established as a major risk factor for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the influence of dynamic changes in adiposity over the life course on NAFLD risk remains poorly understood. METHODS: We collected data from 110,054 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Early adulthood weight was ascertained at age 18 years, and weight gain since early adulthood was defined prospectively every 2 years. We used a group-based modeling approach to identify five trajectories of body shape from age 5 years up to age 50 years. NAFLD was defined by physician-confirmed diagnoses of fatty liver, after excluding excess alcohol intake and viral hepatitis, using validated approaches. RESULTS: We documented 3798 NAFLD cases over a total of 20 years of follow-up. Compared to women who maintained stable weight (±2 kg), women with ≥20 kg of adulthood weight gain had the multivariable aHR of 6.96 (95% CI, 5.27-9.18), and this remained significant after further adjusting for early adulthood BMI and updated BMI (both P trend <0.0001). Compared to women with a medium-stable body shape trajectory, the multivariable aHRs for NAFLD were, 2.84 (95% CI, 2.50-3.22) for lean-marked increase, 2.60 (95% CI, 2.27-2.98) for medium-moderate increase, and 3.39 (95% CI, 2.95-3.89) for medium-marked increase. CONCLUSIONS: Both early adulthood weight gain and lifetime body shape trajectory were significantly and independently associated with excess risk of developing NAFLD in mid-life. Maintaining both lean and stable weight throughout life may offer the greatest benefit for the prevention of NAFLD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

8.
Nature ; 586(7829): 417-423, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999463

RESUMO

Microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, help to regulate brain function by removing dying neurons, pruning non-functional synapses, and producing ligands that support neuronal survival1. Here we show that microglia are also critical modulators of neuronal activity and associated behavioural responses in mice. Microglia respond to neuronal activation by suppressing neuronal activity, and ablation of microglia amplifies and synchronizes the activity of neurons, leading to seizures. Suppression of neuronal activation by microglia occurs in a highly region-specific fashion and depends on the ability of microglia to sense and catabolize extracellular ATP, which is released upon neuronal activation by neurons and astrocytes. ATP triggers the recruitment of microglial protrusions and is converted by the microglial ATP/ADP hydrolysing ectoenzyme CD39 into AMP; AMP is then converted into adenosine by CD73, which is expressed on microglia as well as other brain cells. Microglial sensing of ATP, the ensuing microglia-dependent production of adenosine, and the adenosine-mediated suppression of neuronal responses via the adenosine receptor A1R are essential for the regulation of neuronal activity and animal behaviour. Our findings suggest that this microglia-driven negative feedback mechanism operates similarly to inhibitory neurons and is essential for protecting the brain from excessive activation in health and disease.

9.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023967

RESUMO

Macrophages are among the most common cells in the colorectal cancer microenvironment, but their prognostic significance is incompletely understood. Using multiplexed immunofluorescence for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, MRC1 (CD206), and KRT (cytokeratins) combined with digital image analysis and machine learning, we assessed the polarization spectrum of tumor-associated macrophages in 931 colorectal carcinomas. We then applied Cox proportional hazards regression to assess prognostic survival associations of intraepithelial and stromal densities of M1-like and M2-like macrophages while controlling for potential confounders, including stage and microsatellite instability status. We found that high tumor stromal density of M2-like macrophages was associated with worse cancer-specific survival, whereas tumor stromal density of M1-like macrophages was not significantly associated with better cancer-specific survival. High M1:M2 density ratio in tumor stroma was associated with better cancer-specific survival. Overall macrophage densities in tumor intraepithelial or stromal regions were not prognostic. These findings suggested that macrophage polarization state, rather than their overall density, was associated with cancer-specific survival, with M1- and M2-like macrophage phenotypes exhibiting distinct prognostic roles. These results highlight the utility of a multimarker strategy to assess the macrophage polarization at single-cell resolution within the tumor microenvironment.

10.
Clin Liver Dis ; 24(4): 549-576, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012445

RESUMO

Patients with chronic liver disease are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most patients diagnosed with HCC have limited treatment options and a poor overall prognosis, with a 5-year survival less than 15%. Preventing the development of HCC represents the most important strategy. However, current guidelines lack specific recommendations for primary prevention. Lifestyle factors may be central in the pathogenesis of HCC, and primary prevention strategies focused on lifestyle modification could represent an important approach to the prevention of HCC. Both experimental and epidemiologic studies have identified promising chemopreventive agents for the primary prevention of HCC.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in four novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In nine known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered nine genes that have not been previously reported, whereas four genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < 0.01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

12.
Annu Rev Med ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035431

RESUMO

High-quality evidence indicates that regular use of aspirin is effective in reducing the risk for precancerous colorectal neoplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC). This has led to US and international guidelines recommending aspirin for the primary prevention of CRC in specific populations. In this review, we summarize key questions that require addressing prior to broader adoption of aspirin-based chemoprevention, review recent evidence related to the benefits and harms of aspirin use among specific populations, and offer a rationale for precision prevention approaches. We specifically consider the mechanistic implications of evidence showing differences in aspirin's effects according to age, the potential role of modifiable mechanistic biomarkers for personalizing prevention, and emerging evidence that the gut microbiota may offer novel aspirin-associated preventive targets to reduce high-risk neoplasia. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 72 is January 27, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2323-2331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with improved survival among patients with colorectal cancer, but the relationships between circulating vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable or free 25(OH)D, and colorectal cancer survival remain unknown. METHODS: We examined the associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of vitamin D-related markers and survival among 603 White participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Plasma VDBP and total 25(OH)D were directly measured, while bioavailable and free 25(OH)D was calculated using a validated formula on the basis of total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin levels. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs for overall and colorectal cancer-specific mortality, with adjustment for other prognostic markers and potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher VDBP levels were associated with improved overall (P trend = 0.001) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (P trend = 0.02). Compared with patients in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of VDBP had a multivariate HR of 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.80] for overall mortality and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.37-0.91) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality. The results remained similar after further adjustment for total 25(OH)D levels. In contrast, neither bioavailable nor free 25(OH)D levels were associated with overall or colorectal cancer-specific mortality (all P trend > 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic circulating concentrations of VDBP were positively associated with survival among patients with colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The clinical utility of VDBP as a prognostic marker warrants further exploration, as well as research into underlying mechanisms of action.

15.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.

16.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(9): e475-e483, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data for front-line health-care workers and risk of COVID-19 are limited. We sought to assess risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers compared with the general community and the effect of personal protective equipment (PPE) on risk. METHODS: We did a prospective, observational cohort study in the UK and the USA of the general community, including front-line health-care workers, using self-reported data from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application (app) from March 24 (UK) and March 29 (USA) to April 23, 2020. Participants were voluntary users of the app and at first use provided information on demographic factors (including age, sex, race or ethnic background, height and weight, and occupation) and medical history, and subsequently reported any COVID-19 symptoms. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of our primary outcome, which was a positive COVID-19 test. The COVID Symptom Study app is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04331509. FINDINGS: Among 2 035 395 community individuals and 99 795 front-line health-care workers, we recorded 5545 incident reports of a positive COVID-19 test over 34 435 272 person-days. Compared with the general community, front-line health-care workers were at increased risk for reporting a positive COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 11·61, 95% CI 10·93-12·33). To account for differences in testing frequency between front-line health-care workers and the general community and possible selection bias, an inverse probability-weighted model was used to adjust for the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 3·40, 95% CI 3·37-3·43). Secondary and post-hoc analyses suggested adequacy of PPE, clinical setting, and ethnic background were also important factors. INTERPRETATION: In the UK and the USA, risk of reporting a positive test for COVID-19 was increased among front-line health-care workers. Health-care systems should ensure adequate availability of PPE and develop additional strategies to protect health-care workers from COVID-19, particularly those from Black, Asian, and minority ethnic backgrounds. Additional follow-up of these observational findings is needed. FUNDING: Zoe Global, Wellcome Trust, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institutes of Health Research, UK Research and Innovation, Alzheimer's Society, National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Diabetes Care ; 43(10): 2588-2596, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coffee may protect against multiple chronic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Leveraging dietary and metabolomic data in two large cohorts of women (the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] and NHSII), we identified and validated plasma metabolites associated with coffee intake in 1,595 women. We then evaluated the prospective association of coffee-related metabolites with diabetes risk and the added predictivity of these metabolites for diabetes in two nested case-control studies (n = 457 case and 1,371 control subjects). RESULTS: Of 461 metabolites, 34 were identified and validated to be associated with total coffee intake, including 13 positive associations (primarily trigonelline, polyphenol metabolites, and caffeine metabolites) and 21 inverse associations (primarily triacylglycerols [TAGs] and diacylglycerols [DAGs]). These associations were generally consistent for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, except for caffeine and its metabolites that were only associated with caffeinated coffee intake. The three cholesteryl esters positively associated with coffee intake showed inverse associations with diabetes risk, whereas the 12 metabolites negatively associated with coffee (5 DAGs and 7 TAGs) showed positive associations with diabetes. Adding the 15 diabetes-associated metabolites to a classical risk factor-based prediction model increased the C-statistic from 0.79 (95% CI 0.76, 0.83) to 0.83 (95% CI 0.80, 0.86) (P < 0.001). Similar improvement was observed in the validation set. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption is associated with widespread metabolic changes, among which lipid metabolites may be critical for the antidiabetes benefit of coffee. Coffee-related metabolites might help improve prediction of diabetes, but further validation studies are needed.

18.
Oncologist ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845538

RESUMO

Individuals with cancer may be at high risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and adverse outcomes. However, evidence from large population-based studies examining whether cancer and cancer-related therapy exacerbates the risk of COVID-19 infection is still limited. Data were collected from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application since March 29 through May 8, 2020. Among 23,266 participants with cancer and 1,784,293 without cancer, we documented 10,404 reports of a positive COVID-19 test. Compared with participants without cancer, those living with cancer had a 60% increased risk of a positive COVID-19 test. Among patients with cancer, current treatment with chemotherapy or immunotherapy was associated with a 2.2-fold increased risk of a positive test. The association between cancer and COVID-19 infection was stronger among participants >65 years and males. Future studies are needed to identify subgroups by tumor types and treatment regimens who are particularly at risk for COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (RCT) of daily low-dose aspirin (100 mg) in older adults, showed an increase in all-cause mortality, primarily due to cancer. In contrast prior RCTs, mainly involving younger individuals, demonstrated a delayed cancer benefit with aspirin. We now report a detailed analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: 19,114 Australian and U.S. community-dwelling participants aged 70+ years (U.S. minorities 65+ years) without cardiovascular disease, dementia or physical disability were randomized and followed for a median of 4.7 years. Fatal and non-fatal cancer events, a prespecified secondary endpoint, were adjudicated based on clinical records. RESULTS: 981 cancer events occurred in the aspirin and 952 in the placebo groups. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for all incident cancers (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.14), hematological cancer (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.30), or all solid cancers (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.15), including by specific tumor type. However, aspirin was associated with an increased risk of incident cancer that had metastasized (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.43) or was stage 4 at diagnosis (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.45), and with higher risk of death for cancers that presented at stages 3 (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.33) or 4 (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.64). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, aspirin treatment had an adverse effect on later stages of cancer evolution. These findings suggest that in older persons, aspirin may accelerate the progression of cancer and thus, suggest caution with its use in this age group.

20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008947, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833970

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with various phenotypes, but together they explain only a fraction of heritability, suggesting many variants have yet to be discovered. Recently it has been recognized that incorporating functional information of genetic variants can improve power for identifying novel loci. For example, S-PrediXcan and TWAS tested the association of predicted gene expression with phenotypes based on GWAS summary statistics by leveraging the information on genetic regulation of gene expression and found many novel loci. However, as genetic variants may have effects on more than one gene and through different mechanisms, these methods likely only capture part of the total effects of these variants. In this paper, we propose a summary statistics-based mixed effects score test (sMiST) that tests for the total effect of both the effect of the mediator by imputing genetically predicted gene expression, like S-PrediXcan and TWAS, and the direct effects of individual variants. It allows for multiple functional annotations and multiple genetically predicted mediators. It can also perform conditional association analysis while adjusting for other genetic variants (e.g., known loci for the phenotype). Extensive simulation and real data analyses demonstrate that sMiST yields p-values that agree well with those obtained from individual level data but with substantively improved computational speed. Importantly, a broad application of sMiST to GWAS is possible, as only summary statistics of genetic variant associations are required. We apply sMiST to a large-scale GWAS of colorectal cancer using summary statistics from ∼120, 000 study participants and gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We identify several novel and secondary independent genetic loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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