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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 17-25, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the prevalent mental illnesses and leading cause of global disease burden. However, most people with depression do not access treatment. Remission without treatment may occur in some cases of depression. This study aimed to estimate the short-term remission (natural recovery) from untreated depression. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO and conducted following PRISMA guidelines. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed were searched, supplemented with an additional hand search to identify studies reporting natural recovery from untreated depression. Study selection and screening were carried out by three independent reviewers. Methodological quality assessment of the included studies was conducted. Remission was defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria or scoring below the cut off points of the validated tools as reported by the included studies. The data were synthesized using narrative summary and random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen waitlist-controlled trial studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The duration of follow-up ranged from 4 to 12 weeks with a median duration of 8 weeks. The overall pooled remission from untreated depression was 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (7.8, 18.0%). Due to lack of published data, we were unable to determine if the severity of depression symptoms was associated with remission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term remission from depression without treatment is uncommon. Across studies, 8 - 18% of people remitted without treatment within 12 weeks. Waitlist control groups may not represent all persons with depression.

2.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107073, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use among US youth has raised concerns that their use may increase conventional cigarette smoking. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data from two large nationally representative samples of US youth were drawn from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and Monitoring the Future (MTF). Students from grade 6-12 of the NYTS (N = 98,454-132,003) and students from grade 12 of the MTF (N = 17,870-30,981) were included in the analyses. Trends in smoking behavior, intention to smoke in the future and perceived smoking harms among youth who do and do not use ECs were estimated from 2014 to 2020 using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. RESULTS: The prevalence for regular smoking decreased among youth who regularly use ECs. For example, among regular EC users, smoking prevalence decreased from 27.8% to 6.7% (-21%; 99.67% CI:[-32.3%, -9.9%]) in the NYTS between 2014 and 2020 and from 31.8% to 10.6% (-21.2%, 99.67% CI:[-35.0%, -7.3%]) in the MTF between 2014 and 2018. Intent to smoke in the future and perceiving smoking as harmless decreased or remained unchanged during the same period. For example, among regular EC users, there was no significant change in intention to smoke next year in the NYTS between 2014 and 2018; intention to smoke in the next 5 years decreased significantly from 30.7% to 11.2% (-19.5%, 99.67% CI:[-37.7%, -1.3%]) in the MTF. CONCLUSIONS: In two national samples of US youth, smoking prevalence declined by a sizeable relative percentage. Intent to smoke in the future and harm perceptions of smoking declined or remained unchanged while EC use increased. Results provide little evidence that EC use has increased conventional cigarette smoking among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In June 2020, the Australian Government announced that personal importation of nicotine vaping products (NVP) would be prohibited, pending a 12-month classification and regulation review by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. This brief report examines the themes of responses on Twitter to this announcement. METHODS: Simple random sampling was used to retrieve tweets containing keywords from 19 to 26 June 2020. Tweets were manually coded and descriptive statistics calculated for themes and policy position. RESULTS: The vast majority of the 1,168 tweets were anti-policy. Themes included: criticism towards government (59.8%), activism against NVP restriction (38%), potential adverse consequences (30.8%) and support for NVP restriction (1.4%). Tweets that identified potential adverse consequences of NVP restriction cited: smoking relapse for individuals currently using NVPs (75.6%); the impact of policy enforcement (8.6%); illicit market (8.3%); panic buying (3.6%); difficulty obtaining prescriptions (2.8%); and impacts on NVP businesses (2.8%). CONCLUSION: Tweets predominately objected to the policy announcement. Approximately three-quarters of tweets that cited potential adverse consequences of the policy mentioned smoking relapse as their primary concern. Implications for public health: User-generated content on Twitter was primarily used to lobby against the proposed policy, which was subsequently amended.

5.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rising popularity of TikTok among adolescents may influence their awareness and perceptions of e-cigarette use via user-generated content. This study aimed to examine how e-cigarette/vaping-related videos are portrayed on TikTok. METHODS: The nine most viewed hashtag based keywords were used to identify popular e-cigarette/vaping-related videos on TikTok (n=1000) from its inception (earliest upload date: January 2019) to November 2020. Five researchers independently coded the number of views, likes, user category and theme. RESULTS: A final sample of 808 e-cigarette/vaping-related videos that met study criteria were included. Collectively, these videos were viewed over 1.5 billion times, with a median view count of 1 000 000 (range 112 900-78 600 000) and a median 'likes' count of 143 000 (range 10 000-1 000 000). A majority of the videos portrayed e-cigarette use positively (63%; collectively viewed over 1.1 billion times). Neutral depictions of e-cigarette use were viewed a total of 290 million times (24%) and negative depictions of e-cigarettes were viewed a total of 193 million times (13%). The video themes included (not mutually exclusively): 'comedy and joke' (52%; total of 618 million views), 'lifestyle and acceptability' (35%; 459 million), 'marketing' (29%; 392 million), 'vaping tricks' (20%; 487 million), 'nicotine and addiction' (20%; 194 million), 'creativity' (16%; 322 million) and 'warning' (11%; 131 million). CONCLUSION: Our findings illustrated that positively framed e-cigarette and vaping-related postings available without age restrictions on TikTok-a rising video-sharing platform that is popular among adolescents-have been viewed many times. Effective age restrictions are needed to reduce adolescents' potential exposure to videos that portray vaping positively.

6.
Addict Behav ; 119: 106912, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798919

RESUMO

AIM: E-cigarettes, or nicotine vaping products, are potential smoking cessation aids that provide both nicotine and behavioural substitution for combustible cigarette smoking. This review aims to compare the effectiveness of nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation with licensed nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) and nicotine-free based control conditions by using network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that allocated individuals to use nicotine e-cigarettes, compared to those that used licensed NRT (e.g., nicotine patches, nicotine gums, etc), or a nicotine-free control condition such as receiving placebo (nicotine-free) e-cigarettes or usual care. We only included studies of healthy individuals who smoked. Furthermore, we identified the latest Cochrane review on NRT and searched NRT trials that were published in similar periods as the e-cigarette trials we identified. NMA was conducted to compare the effect of e-cigarettes on cessation relative to NRT and control condition. Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials Version 2 was used to access study bias. RESULTS: For the e-cigarette trials, our initial search identified 4,717 studies and we included 7 trials for NMA after removal of duplicates, record screening and assessment of eligibility (Total N = 5,674). For NRT trials, our initial search identified 1,014 studies and we included 9 trials that satisfied our inclusion criteria (Total N = 6,080). Results from NMA indicated that participants assigned to use nicotine e-cigarettes were more likely to remain abstinent from smoking than those in the control condition (pooled Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.08, 97.5% CI = [1.39, 3.15]) and those who were assigned to use NRT (pooled RR = 1.49, 97.5% CI = [1.04, 2.14]. There was a moderate heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 42%). Most of the e-cigarette trials has moderate or high risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Smokers assigned to use nicotine e-cigarettes were more likely to remain abstinent from smoking than those assigned to use licensed NRT, and both were more effective than usual care or placebo conditions. More high quality studies are required to ascertain the effect of e-cigarette on smoking cessation due to risk of bias in the included studies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(4): 627-636, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper compares consequences of cannabis use initiated after high school with those of cannabis initiation in adolescence, with estimates of the proportion of adverse consequences accounted for by adult-onset and adolescent-onset cannabis users. METHODS: A state-representative sample in Victoria, Australia (n = 1792) participated in a 10-wave longitudinal study and was followed from age 15 to 35 years. Exposure variable: Patterns of cannabis use across 20 years. Outcomes at age 35: Alcohol use, smoking, illicit drug use, relationship status, financial hardship, depression, anxiety and employment status. RESULTS: Substantially more participants (13.6%) initiated regular use after high school (young-adult onset) than in adolescence (7.7%, adolescent onset). By the mid-30s, both young-adult and adolescent-onset regular users were more likely than minimal/non-users (63.5%) to have used other illicit drugs (odds ratio [OR] > 20.4), be a high-risk alcohol drinker (OR > 3.7), smoked daily (OR > 7.2) and less likely to be in relationships (OR < 0.4). As the prevalence of the young-adult-onset group was nearly double of the adolescent-onset group, it accounted for a higher proportion of adverse consequences than the adolescent-onset group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis users who began regular use in their teens had poorer later life outcomes than non-using peers. The larger group who began regular cannabis use after leaving high school accounted for most cannabis-related harms in adulthood. Given the legalisation of cannabis use in an increasing number of jurisdictions, we should increasingly expect harms from cannabis use to lie in those commencing use in young adulthood.

8.
Addiction ; 116(4): 743-756, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have consistently found a longitudinal association between e-cigarette use (vaping) and cigarette smoking. Many have interpreted such association as causal. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the plausibility of a causal interpretation by (1) estimating the effect of adolescent vaping on smoking initiation, adjusted for study quality characteristics, (2) evaluating the sufficiency of adjustment for confounding based on the social development model (SDM) and the social ecological model (SEM) and E-value analyses and (3) investigating sample attrition and publication bias. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that examined the association between e-cigarette use at baseline and smoking at follow-up. Participants were non-smokers aged < 18 at baseline. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 11 studies showed a significant longitudinal association between vaping and smoking [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.22, 3.87]. Studies with sample sizes < 1000 had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR = 6.68, 95% CI = 3.63, 12.31) than studies with sample sizes > 1000 (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.97, 3.15). Overall, the attrition rate was very high (median = 30%). All but one study reported results from complete sample analysis, despite those dropping out having higher risk profiles. Only two studies comprehensively adjusted for confounding. The median E-value was 2.90, indicating that the estimates were not robust against unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: There is a longitudinal association between adolescent vaping and smoking initiation; however, the evidence is limited by publication bias, high sample attrition and inadequate adjustment for potential confounders.

9.
Addiction ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245581

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the treatment rate for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in the general adult population. Treatment rates were also considered in relation to economic differences. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases to identify studies that reported treatment rates for alcohol use disorders in the general population. Independent reviewers screened the articles based on predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form. We conducted quality assessments of the included studies. The overall treatment rates were estimated from studies that reported any treatment for AUDs from healthcare or informal non-healthcare settings (any treatment). We estimated the separate treatment rates for each diagnostic category as reported in the primary studies: AUD as a single disorder, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Data were pooled using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles were included to estimate the treatment rates (percentage treated among the total number of people with AUDs). The pooled estimate of people with AUDs who received any treatment were 14.3% (95% CI: 9.3-20.3%) for alcohol abuse, 16.5% (95% CI: 12-21.5%) for alcohol dependence and 17.3% (95% CI: 12.8-22.3%) for AUD. A subgroup analysis by World Bank economic classification of countries found that the treatment rate for AUD was 9.3% (95% CI: 4.0-15.7%) in low and lower-middle-income countries. CONCLUSION: Globally, approximately one in six people with AUDs receives treatment. Treatment rates for AUDs are generally low, with even lower rates in low and lower-middle-income countries.

10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 217: 108254, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal vaporisers are gaining popularity as an alternative route of administration for a range of substances. Online cryptomarkets are becoming increasingly popular among people who use substances due to their perceived anonymity, ease of use, and reduced risk of violence compared to traditional face-to-face dealers. We examined the diversity of substances marketed for use in a personal vaporiser on these marketplaces. METHODS: Vaping related listings were extracted from three online cryptomarkets ('Agartha', 'Cryptonia', and 'Tochka') using The Onion Router browser. Data collection occurred between October and November 2019. RESULTS: We identified 1929 listings from 201 unique sellers. The top product on Agartha, Cryptonia, and Tochka were vape cartridges prefilled with the e-liquid (70.4 %, 39.4 %, 52.3 % respectively). The most common substance in these products was cannabis oil (96.1 %, 82.1 %, 87.8 %), followed by synthetic cannabinoids (3.7 %, 9.7 %, 9.8 %) and psychedelic substances (0.2 %, 6.4 %, 1.2 %). Vendors were primarily from the USA. Many products offered worldwide shipping (96.3 %, 42.4 %, 51.2 %). CONCLUSION: Vaping products listed on online cryptomarkets in 2019 primarily contained cannabis oils. Future studies should continue to examine cryptomarkets to identify emerging trends of substances that can be used in personal vaporisers.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Fumar Maconha/economia , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/economia , Vaping/economia , Navegador/economia , Comércio/tendências , Coleta de Dados/tendências , Tráfico de Drogas/economia , Tráfico de Drogas/tendências , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Alucinógenos/economia , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/economia , Fumar Maconha/tendências , Marketing/economia , Marketing/tendências , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/tendências , Navegador/tendências
11.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(6): 768-772, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The potential for increased cannabis use by young people after legalisation remains a key concern of opponents of legalisation. This study used survey data to estimate how many young Australians may be prepared to use cannabis if it became legally available. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 3052 youths (adolescents aged 12-17 and young adults aged 18-25 years) in Australia who participated in the 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Incident cases were estimated by multiplying the prevalence and estimated population sizes from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. RESULTS: It was estimated that 17% of adolescents would try (13%) or use (4%), and 32% of young adults would try (15%) or use (17%) cannabis if it were legal. Among those who reported an intention to try it, 85% of adolescents and 59% of young adults had never used cannabis. These translate to 199 000 and 238 000 potential initiators, respectively. Among those with an intention to use cannabis, 21% of adolescents and 3% of young adults had never used cannabis. These translate to 14 000 adolescents and 12 000 young adults who intended to use cannabis if it were legal. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: A substantial minority of young Australians say that they would use cannabis for the first time if it were legalised. A proportion of young people who have used cannabis also expressed an interest in increasing their use. Both would warrant special attention if cannabis were legalised.

12.
Addict Behav ; 109: 106479, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aim to quantify the prevalence and risk of having a cannabis use disorder (CUD), cannabis abuse (CA) or cannabis dependence (CD) among people in the general population who have used cannabis. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the prevalence and risks of CUDs among cannabis users. We identified studies published between 2009 and 2019 through PubMed, the Global Burden Disease (GBD) Database, and supplementary searches up to 2020. The outcomes of interest were CUDs based on DSM or ICD criteria. Estimates were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses, followed by meta-regression of study characteristics on effect sizes. RESULTS: From 1383 records identified, 21 studies were included. Meta-analyses showed that among people who used cannabis, 22% (18-26%) have CUD, 13% (8-18%) have CA, and 13% (10-15%) have CD. Estimates from cohort studies, showed that the risk of developing CD increased to 33% (22-44%) among young people who engaged in regular (weekly or daily) use of cannabis. There was a lack of data from cohort studies to estimate the risk of CUD or CA among regular cannabis users. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis users need to be informed about the risks of developing CUDs and the higher risks among those who initiate early and use frequently during adolescence. Future studies are needed to examine how changes in cannabis policies may affect the risks of CUDs in the population.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Abuso de Maconha , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Prevalência
13.
Addiction ; 115(6): 1182-1186, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944463

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate the proportion of cannabis consumed in Australia by daily cannabis users. DESIGN: Monte Carlo simulation using parameters estimated from nationally representative and repeated cross-sectional household surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016. SETTING: Australia PARTICIPANTS: Adult samples (mean age = 49.9; 55% females) from four National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (n = 92 243). MEASUREMENT: Frequency of cannabis use (daily/weekly/about once a month/every few months/once or twice a year). The weighted estimated prevalence of users in each of these frequency levels was multiplied by population size to estimate the total number of users. Quantity of cannabis use was measured as number of joints consumed. The consumption of those who reported using bongs was converted into joints based on the bong to joint ratio estimated from the survey data. We estimated the proportion of cannabis consumed by daily users by Monte Carlo simulation using parameters estimated from the household surveys. We conducted 10 000 simulation trials, and in each trial we [1] simulated the number of users at each consumption level (stratum) based on estimated prevalence and population size[2], for each simulated individual, we simulated the number of days of cannabis use in a year based on frequency data[3], for each consumption day, we simulated the quantity consumed [4] and lastly we calculated the total joints consumed at each consumption level and estimated the proportion of joints consumed by daily users out of the total consumption. FINDINGS: The prevalence of past-year cannabis use increased from 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.5-9.4] in 2007 to 10.5% (95% CI = 10.0-11.1) in 2016, 16% of whom were daily users. Between 2007 and 2016, daily users accounted for between 81.6 and 85.7% of all cannabis consumed. Weekly users accounted for an additional 12.1-15.9%. CONCLUSION: Between 2007 and 2016, only one in six Australian cannabis users were daily users, but they accounted for more than 80% of the estimated cannabis consumed in Australia.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Método de Monte Carlo , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cannabis , Simulação por Computador , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107520, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707267

RESUMO

AIMS: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease burden among youth. This study estimated sex differences in the prevalence of alcohol use and consequences among adolescents living in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: Multi-staged cross-sectional international standardized self-report questionnaires administered in the classroom. SETTING: The Global school-based student health survey (GSHS) comprised adolescents from 68 LMIC between 2003-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 271,156 students aged 13-17 years old. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol measures included: past month alcohol consumption, history of intoxication and alcohol-related problems. Regions were based on the World Health Organization definitions: Africa, America, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-east Asia, and Western Pacific. FINDINGS: Overall, males had higher odds of alcohol use (OR = 2.38 [1.91-2.96]), a history of intoxication (OR = 2.64 [2.11-3.31]), and alcohol-related problems (OR = 1.72 [1.41-2.10]) than females. All regions recorded overall greater odds of alcohol use by males versus females; five regions (excluding Europe) recorded greater odds of intoxication in males; and three regions (America, South-east Asia, and Western Pacific) recorded greater odds of alcohol-related problems amongst males. However, there were country-level differences - in some countries, adolescent drinking rates and consequences were comparable by sex. Countries with the highest odds of alcohol use among males compared to females were Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Tuvalu, Morocco, Senegal, Kiribati, and Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents living in LMIC, males had on average two-fold higher odds of drinking alcohol and experiencing adverse consequences. Growing affluence and improvements in sex equality in societies may increase the future prevalence of hazardous drinking in females in LMICs.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Pobreza/economia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/economia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(2): 247-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use in adolescence predicts future alcohol misuse. However, the extent to which different patterns of adolescent use present risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how adolescent trajectories of alcohol consumption during the school years predict alcohol misuse at age 19 years. METHODS: Data were drawn from 707 students from Victoria, Australia, longitudinally followed for 7 years. Five alcohol use trajectories were identified based on the frequency of alcohol use from Grade 6 (age 12 years) to Grade 11 (age 17 years). At age 19 years, participants completed measures indicating Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED), dependency - Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and social harms. RESULTS: At 19 years of age, 64% of participants reported HED, 42% high AUDIT scores (8+), and 23% social harms. Participants belonging to a steep escalator trajectory during adolescence had twice the odds at 19 years of age of high AUDIT scores and social harms, and three times greater odds of HED than participants whose alcohol use slowly increased. Stable moderate consumption was also associated with an increased risk of HED compared to slowly increasing use. Abstinence predicted a reduced likelihood of all forms of misuse at 19 years of age compared to slowly increased alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of drinking frequency during adolescence predict alcohol misuse at age 19 years. Although rapid increasing use presents the greatest risk, even slowly increasing drinking predicts increased risk compared to abstinence. The findings indicate that alcohol policies should recommend nonuse and reduced frequency of use during adolescence.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 121-127, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the longitudinal patterns of amphetamine use over twenty years from adolescence to the mid-thirties; and identify adolescent antecedents of future problematic patterns of use. DESIGN: Ten-wave longitudinal study following participants from age 15 to age 35 in Victoria, Australia. Participants (N = 1755; 47% males) first enrolled in the Victoria Adolescent Health Cohort Study in 1992. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome: Self-reported frequency of amphetamine use. PREDICTORS: Gender, depression and anxiety, peer alcohol and tobacco use; self-reported alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior. FINDINGS: Three different longitudinal patterns were identified: Non-user (83.7%); Occasional user (14.5%); Regular user (1.8%). Among the two user patterns, amphetamine use was commonly initiated in late teenage years or early 20s, peaked at mid-20s, and declined substantially by mid-30s. Participants who used cannabis and had smoking peers during adolescence were at significantly more likely to become an occasional or regular user (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Regular cannabis use and peer tobacco use during adolescence were the two strongest predictors of a longitudinal pattern of regular amphetamine use in the mid-30s. This suggests that prevention programs could be implemented around or before mid-adolescence and interventions to reduce amphetamine harms focus on high-risk individuals in their 20s when amphetamine use was at its peak.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/tendências , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Addict Behav ; 84: 178-185, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723800

RESUMO

AIMS: This study estimated the extent of familial alcohol supply in 45 low and middle income countries (LMIC), and examined the country-level effects of familial alcohol supply on adolescents' alcohol use. METHOD: We used data from 45 LMICs that participated in the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2003 and 2013 (n = 139,840). The weighted prevalence of familial alcohol supply in each country was estimated. Multilevel binary and ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to examine the country-level effect of familial alcohol supply on early onset of alcohol use (first alcohol before 12), past 30-day alcohol use, lifetime drunkenness and alcohol-related social problems. RESULTS: There were large variations between LMICs in the prevalence of familial alcohol supply and pattern of adolescent alcohol use. The prevalence of familial supply ranged from 0.1% in Tajikistan to 23.8% in St Lucia. It was estimated that a one percentage change in prevalence of familial alcohol supply was associated with 10%, 12% and 12% change in the odds of lifetime drunkenness (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = [1.04, 1.16]), early onset of alcohol use (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [1.07, 1.08]) and more frequent drinking in the past month (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [1.04, 1.20]). CONCLUSION: There were large variations in the prevalence of familial alcohol supply and adolescent alcohol use among LMICs. Adolescents in countries with higher prevalence of familial alcohol supply were more likely to start using alcohol at an earlier age, to have used alcohol in the past 30 days and experience intoxication.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribuição , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Família , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Idade de Início , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência
18.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(13): 2125-2131, 2018 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess gender differences in the relationship between eating and weight loss attitudes (EWAs), and 30-day tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents, while controlling for potential confounds (age, country of birth, psychological distress, pubertal development, peer alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity). METHODS: School students aged between 11 and 17 years (N = 10,273) from high schools in the State of Victoria (Australia) completed surveys in class under conditions of anonymity and confidentiality. RESULTS: The interaction between EWAs and gender was significant for tobacco use but not for alcohol use, indicating that the effect of EWAs on tobacco use, but not alcohol use, vary by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use was related to EWAs in adolescent females but not males, and this is consistent with the possibility that females use tobacco in an instrumental fashion to control weight. Implications and Contribution: Female adolescents high in eating and weight loss attitudes were more likely to engage in tobacco use. In contrast, eating and weight loss attitudes were not related to male tobacco use. These results point to the potential importance of developing gender-specific approaches towards addressing problematic behaviors in adolescent populations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Ingestão de Alimentos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Puberdade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória , Perda de Peso
20.
Addiction ; 113(3): 454-461, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833738

RESUMO

AIM: To test if the degree of change in cannabis use between 2001 and 2013 differed according to socio-economic status. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional household surveys that were nationally representative. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adult samples from the 2001 and 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (n = 23 642 in 2001 and n = 21 353 in 2013), the largest nationally representative survey on drug use in Australia. MEASUREMENTS: Frequency of cannabis use coded as daily use, weekly use, less than weekly use and non-current use; socio-economic status (SES) as measured by personal income and educational level. FINDING: There were significant differences in changes to levels of cannabis use between SES groups. Among participants who completed high school, the probability of daily use decreased from 0.014 to 0.009 (P < 0.001), and the probability of weekly use decreased from 0.025 to 0.017 (P < 0.001). These probabilities remained stable for participants who did not complete high school. The probability of weekly cannabis use decreased from 0.032 to 0.023 among participants with middle level income (P = 0.004), and from 0.021 to 0.013 among those with high income (P = 0.005). There were no significant changes in these probabilities among those with low income (0.026 in 2001 and 0.032 in 2013; P = 0.203). CONCLUSION: The decline in cannabis use in Australia from 2001 to 2013 occurred largely among higher socio-economic status groups. For people with lower income and/or lower education, rates of frequent cannabis use remained unchanged.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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