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1.
Vaccine ; 39(1): 45-58, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children in Hong Kong (HK) with a high economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing rotavirus vaccination into the HK Government's Childhood Immunisation Programme (CIP) and to include the potential protective effect of the vaccine against seizures. METHODS: A decision-support model was customised to estimate the potential impact, cost-effectiveness and benefit-risk of rotavirus vaccination in children below 5 years over the period 2020-2029 in HK. Two doses of Rotarix® and three doses of RotaTeq® were each compared to no vaccination. Rotavirus treatment costs were calculated from a governmental health sector perspective (i.e., costs of public sector treatment) and an overall health sector perspective (both governmental and patient, i.e., costs of public sector treatment, private sector treatment, transport and diapers). We ran probabilistic and deterministic uncertainty analyses. RESULTS: Introduction of rotavirus vaccination in HK could prevent 49,000 (95% uncertainty interval: ~44,000-54,000) hospitalisations of rotavirus gastroenteritis and seizures and result in ~50 (95% uncertainty interval: ~25-85) intussusception hospitalisations, over the period 2020-2029 (a benefit-risk ratio of ~1000:1), compared to a scenario with no public or private sector vaccine use. The discounted vaccination cost would be US$51-57 million over the period 2020-2029 based on per-course prices of US$72 (Rotarix®) or US$78 (RotaTeq®), but this would be offset by discounted treatment cost savings of US$70 million (government) and US$127 million (governmental and patient health sector). There was a greater than 94% probability that the vaccine could be cost-saving irrespective of the vaccine product or perspective considered. All deterministic 'what-if' scenarios were cost-saving from an overall health sector perspective (governmental and patient). CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus vaccination is likely to be cost-saving and have a favourable benefit-risk profile in HK. Based on the assumptions made, our analysis supports its introduction into CIP.

3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare but serious condition. The natural history and outcomes remain poorly understood. In this clinical review, we aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of children diagnosed with BO in Hong Kong (HK). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients with BO under the care of six respiratory units in HK from January 1996 to December 2015. Information was retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were included with a male predominance (67.9%). The median age at diagnosis was 1.98 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.84-4.99 years). Postinfectious BO (PIBO) was the commonest cause (64.3%) followed by posthematopoietic stem-cell transplant (21.4%). Adenovirus (63.2%) was the commonest causative pathogen among PIBO. The median follow-up duration was 9.7 years (IQR: 2.9-14.3 years). Twenty-five patients (44.6%) could achieve symptom-free recovery at the time of follow-up. Five (8.9%) and three (5.4%) were oxygen or ventilator dependent, respectively. There were two deaths, both had posttransplant BO. Patients who developed BO after transplant had significantly worse lung function than those with PIBO. There were no risk factors significantly associated with worse clinical outcomes (oxygen/ventilator dependence or death) by logistic regression. Among patients with PIBO, coinfection at presentation was significantly associated with persistent symptoms at follow-up (p = .028). CONCLUSIONS: The most common cause of childhood BO in HK is postinfectious and coinfection at presentation was associated with persistent symptoms at follow-up. Further studies are needed to better elucidate disease progression, treatment options and long term outcomes.

4.
Sleep Med ; 76: 48-54, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sleep duration in a representative sample of preschoolers and examine the relationships between screen time and use of different electronic media devices with sleep duration and social jetlag. METHODS: 2903 preschoolers were included. Parent-completed questionnaire provided information on socioeconomic status, electronic media use of the children and sleep patterns of both parents and children. Preschoolers were divided according to whether they met the international screen time recommendations for their age. Comparisons between the two groups in various sleep measures and effects of different devices on sleep were evaluated. RESULTS: 40% of preschoolers in our cohort did not achieve the recommended sleep duration. Subjects who adhered to the screen time recommendations were from families of higher socioeconomic status, had longer sleep duration and better sleep habits. Each hour increase on portable electronic device use was associated with 11 (95%CI: -15 to -6) and 6 (95%CI: -10 to -2) minutes less of average daily sleep duration in boys and girls, respectively. Every additional hour of non-portable electronic devices use was associated with 3 min shift in social jetlag in boys. Presence of electronic devices in bedroom and their use at bedtime increased risk of social jetlag in boys with an OR of 1.40 (95%CI: 1.01 to 1.92) and 1.39 (95%CI: 1.00 to 1.95) respectively. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of preschoolers does not obtain the recommended amount of sleep. Screen time in preschoolers affects not only sleep duration but also leads to circadian discrepancy.

5.
Tob Induc Dis ; 18: 02, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31966027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young children are especially vulnerable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. This study was carried out to determine whether household ETS exposure was associated with respiratory symptoms and medical service utilisation among Hong Kong healthy children in their first eighteen months of age. METHODS: A secondary analysis was done on the data obtained from our previous cross-sectional territory-wide pneumococcal carriage surveillance study in Hong Kong in 2013-2014. All measures were reported by caregivers. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the associations between ETS exposure and outcome measures. Covariates included children's sex, age, body mass index z score, history of breastfeeding, gestational age at birth, birthweight, maternal age, living region, overcrowding of living area, household income, child care attendance, and presence of siblings. Additional adjustment for season and households' respiratory symptoms were made to ascertain the association between ETS and children's respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: The analysis included 1541 children (mean age: 11.2 ± 6.4 months; males: 50.7%). Current household ETS exposure (AOR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.00- 1.66; p=0.050) and postnatal maternal smoking (AOR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.06-4.64; p=0.035) were independently and significantly associated with all-cause doctor consultation in the past 3 months. Children living with more than one household smoker were more likely to have all-cause doctor consultation compared with the non-exposed children (AOR=1.70; 95% CI: 1.04-2.77, p=0.028). Postnatal maternal smoking was associated with all-cause hospitalisation in the past 3 months (AOR=2.48; 95% CI: 1.05-5.86; p=0.039). Children living in a household, where the daily consumption by household smokers was more than 20 cigarettes, were more likely to have respiratory symptoms compared with non-exposed children (AOR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.12-3.52; p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Household ETS exposure in young children was associated with respiratory symptoms and all-cause outpatient or inpatient medical service utilisation. The associations were potentially dose-dependent.

6.
Chest ; 156(1): 120-130, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the natural history of childhood OSA can help to determine disease prognosis and to guide risk stratification and management strategies. METHODS: To evaluate the natural history of childhood OSA and factors associated with spontaneous remission and persistent and incident OSA from childhood to late adolescence/early adulthood, a longitudinal analysis of a prospective community-based cohort was designed. Subjects from a cohort established for an OSA prevalence study were invited to participate in this 10-year follow-up study. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-three participants (59% male) took part, and their mean age was 9.8 (SD, ± 1.8) and 20.2 (SD, ± 1.9) years at baseline and follow-up, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 10.4 (SD, ± 1.1) years. Associations between baseline and follow-up log-transformed obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) differed by age; a significant positive association was observed only among participants aged 10 years or older at baseline. Overall polysomnographic remission rate (with OAHI < 1 event/h at follow-up) of childhood OSA was 30%, and 69% had an OAHI < 5 events/h at follow-up. Complete remission of OSA was associated with female sex. Incidence of adolescent/adult OSA with an OAHI ≥ 5 events/h at follow-up was 22%. Male sex and higher baseline BMI z score were associated with incident OSA. CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of children with OSA, particularly female children, had complete resolution during transition to late adolescence or early adulthood. Childhood and adolescent OSA are distinct entities, with the latter more likely to persist into adulthood. Obesity and male sex are consistent key risk factors for incident OSA.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Polissonografia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Remissão Espontânea , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
World J Pediatr ; 14(5): 482-491, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a significant chronic health problem worldwide. Management aims at disease control by reducing functional impairment and exacerbations and improving quality of life (QoL). We report a multi-center study to survey asthma control and QoL in four cities in the Pearl River Delta. METHODS: The conjoint survey involved ten Hong Kong pediatric hospitals/units, two Shenzhen hospitals, two Macau hospitals, and two Guangzhou hospitals on asthma control (using Asthma Control Test) and QoL (Pediatric Allergic Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, PADQLQ). Acceptability of a treatment is graded as very good/good/fair/poor. RESULTS: Good asthma control was only reported in 80% subjects in Hong Kong, but higher in sister cities (85-94%, P < 0.001). Allergic rhinitis, "incense burning", and "smoker in family" were prevalent among the four cities. Logistic regression showed better control of asthma was associated with better PADQLQ (B = - 0.029, P < 0.001), better acceptability of bronchodilator (B = - 1.488, P = 0.025), negatively with "smoker in family" (B = - 0.83, P = 0.015) and various PADQLQ domains. Conversely, worse PADQLQ was associated with allergic rhinitis severity (B = 4.77, P < 0.001), poor control of asthma (B = 7.56, P < 0.001), increased frequency of traditional Chinese medicine use (B = 1.7, P < 0.05), increased frequency of bronchodilator usage (B = 1.05, P < 0.05), "smoker in family" (B = 4.05, P < 0.05), and incense burning at home (B = 3.9, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There are some clinical and cultural differences among the four southern Chinese cities within the Guangdong province. This study identifies potentially modifiable environmental and treatment factors associated with poor asthma control and QoL for health-care interventions. Having a smoker in the family is independently associated with poor asthma control and QoL.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/terapia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Asma/psicologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pediatria , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , População Urbana
8.
Sleep ; 39(8): 1563-70, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091537

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the moderation of pubertal status on the onset of sex differences in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and their health correlates. METHODS: A total of 7,507 children and adolescents (weighted percentage of female: 48.5%) aged between 6-17 y were recruited from thirty-one primary and secondary schools. Participants with difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and/or early morning awakening (EMA) ≥ 3 times/week in the past month were considered as having insomnia symptoms. The severity of insomnia was measured by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). RESULTS: The prevalence of insomnia symptoms increased from 3.4% to 12.2% in girls (3.6-fold) and from 4.3% to 9.1% in boys (2.1-fold) from Tanner stage 1 to 5. There was a significant interaction between sex and Tanner stage in the prevalence of insomnia (P < 0.001) with an emergence of female preponderance at Tanner stage 4 even after controlling for age, family income, and school start time. Similar sex-Tanner stage interactions were found in DIS, DMS, and ISI total score but not EMA. Insomnia symptoms were strongly associated with behavioral problems, poor mental health, and poor general health in both sexes. Boys with insomnia would report more maladaptive lifestyles (smoking, alcohol, and energy drinks) whereas girls with insomnia were more susceptible to emotional and relationship difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal maturation was associated with a progressive increase in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms with the emergence of female preponderance in both the prevalence and severity of insomnia symptoms at late puberty. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, http://www.chictr.org.cn, ID: ChiCTR-TRC-12002798.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Maturidade Sexual , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0139055, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26413809

RESUMO

Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years) and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years). A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32-0.44 (p < 0.05). Regionally, the OSAs showed a tendency of decreased betweenness centrality in the left angular gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part) gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected). We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Área Sob a Curva , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cognição , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
10.
Chest ; 147(1): 132-139, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between childhood OSA and endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and its response to OSA treatment are uncertain. The objective of this study was to compare FMD in children with OSA with nonsnoring control subjects and to examine its response to treatment. METHODS: Index cases were children aged 6 to 18 years with habitual snoring and polysomnography (PSG)-confirmed OSA (obstructive apnea hypopnea index [OAHI] > 1 events/h). Each case was paired with an age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsnoring control subject recruited from our previous community growth survey. All subjects underwent FMD measurement in the morning after overnight PSG. Adenotonsillectomy (AT) was offered to subjects who satisfied predefined AT operation criteria. All cases underwent repeat PSG and FMD assessment 6 months later. RESULTS: A total of 63 case-control pairs were recruited. The OSA group had a significantly higher OAHI (median, 5.3 events/h [interquartile range (IQR), 2.6-11.7] vs 0.2 events/h [IQR, 0-0.5], P < .001) and lower FMD (mean ± SD, 7.9% ± 1.3% vs 8.3% ± 0.8%; P = .04) than the control group. Thirty-two case subjects underwent AT. A significant reduction in OAHI was documented in the AT group (-8.8 events/h [IQR, -13.7 to -4.7]; P < .001) accompanied by a significant increase in FMD (+0.6% [IQR, 0.4-1.4]; P < .001), which was not observed in subjects who did not undergo AT. CONCLUSIONS: Children with OSA had reduced FMD, which was reversible with treatment.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Tonsilectomia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia
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