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1.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5582-5591, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795909

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluated operative mortalities following adult cardiac surgical operations to determine if this metric remains appropriate for the modern era. Methods: This was a retrospective review of Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) indexed adult cardiac operations that included coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), aortic valve replacement (AVR), CABG + AVR, mitral valve repair (MVr), CABG + MVr, mitral valve replacement (MVR) and CABG + MVR, performed at a single institution between 2011 and 2017. The primary outcome was the timing and relatedness of operation mortality, as defined by the STS as mortality within 30-day or during the index hospitalization, compared to the index operation. The secondary outcomes evaluated cause of death and the rates of postoperative complications. Results: A total of 11,190 index cardiac operations were performed during the study period and operative mortality occurred in 246 (2.2%) of patients. The distribution of operative mortalities included 83.7% (n=206) who expired within 30-day while an inpatient, 6.9% (n=17) died within 30-day as an outpatient, 11.2% (n=23) expired after 30-day. The most common causes of operative mortality were cardiac (38.7%, n=92), renal failure (15.6%, n=37), and strokes (13.9%, n=33). Furthermore, 98.4% (n=242) of deaths were attributable to the index operation. Postoperative complications occurred frequently in those with operative mortality, with blood transfusions (80.1%), reoperations (65.0%) and prolonged ventilation (62.2%) being most common. Conclusions: Most of the operative mortalities seemed to be attributable to the index cardiac operation. We believe that the current definition of mortality remains appropriate in the modern era.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to evaluate the experience of previous American Association for Thoracic Surgery Summer Intern Scholarship recipients. METHODS: A database of recipients of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery Summer Intern Scholarship in Cardiothoracic Surgery provided by the American Association for Thoracic Surgery was analyzed. A questionnaire was sent via email to recipients with 10 questions within the survey to assess the types of exposure during the internship, the impact of the internship on career choices, the current career setting, and any additional thoughts regarding the internship. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2017, there were 356 awardees of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery Summer Intern Scholarship. These awardees were from 41 different medical schools and went to 39 different sponsoring institutions. Ultimately, 55 (15.5%) medical students chose a career in cardiothoracic surgery, with 153 (43.0%) awardees deciding to pursue a surgical subspecialty. Of those who received our survey, 75 awardees responded (29.2%). A majority of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery Summer Interns were exposed to the sponsoring surgeon (98.7%, n = 74) and operating room (88.0%, n = 66) on at least a weekly basis during the 8-week internship. All of the respondents participated in basic science or clinical research at their sponsoring institution. Some 92.0% (n = 69) of the awardees highly recommended this scholarship to medical students interested in cardiothoracic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The awardees of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery Summer Intern Scholarship come from a variety of medical schools and visited a diverse group of sponsoring institutions. The 8-week program provides valuable early exposure for medical students to cardiothoracic surgeons, the operating room, and research opportunities. This experience was highly recommended by prior recipients to medical students interested in cardiothoracic surgery.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(1): e45-e47, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421386

RESUMO

Hyperammonemia after lung transplant is a severe complication that can result in cerebral herniation. It is associated with up to 70% mortality in patients who have had solid organ transplantation. We describe a rare case in which hyperammonemia was emergently and successfully treated with plasmapheresis in a re-do double lung transplant patient who developed shocked liver.


Assuntos
Hiperamonemia/terapia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Plasmaferese/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/etiologia , Masculino
4.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 187-192, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on adult lung transplants and report practice changes in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a public dataset from the United Network for Organ Sharing was performed regarding adult lung transplantation (January 19, 2020-June 30, 2020). Data were stratified into 3 periods: pre-COVID-19 (January 19, 2020-March 14, 2020), first COVID-19 era (March 15, 2020-May 8, 2020), and second COVID-19 era (May 9, 2020-June 30, 2020). Weekly changes in waitlist inactivations (COVID-19 precautions or not), waitlist additions, transplant volume, and donor recovery were examined across eras and changes across era were correlated. RESULTS: During the first COVID-19 era, 301 patients were added to the waitlist, representing a 40% decrease when compared to the prior 8-week period. This was followed by a significant increase in listing during the second COVID-19 era (t = 2.16, P = 0.032). Waitlist inactivations decreased in the second COVID-19 era from the first COVID-19 era (t = 3.60, P < 0.001). There was no difference in waitlist inactivations between the pre-COVID era and the second COVID-19 era (P = 0.10). Weekly volume was not associated with trends in COVID-19 cases across any era, but was negatively associated with waitlist inactivations due to COVID-19 precautions entering the first COVID-19 era (r = -0.73, P = 0.04) and second COVID-19 era (r = -0.89, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States experienced a decrease in lung transplant volume. While overall volume has returned to normal, additional studies are needed to identify areas of improvement to better prepare for future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transplante de Pulmão/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
5.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(5): 1639-1648.e2, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that segmentectomy is associated with similar recurrence-free and overall survival when compared with lobectomy in the setting of patients with clinical T1cN0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; >2-3 cm), as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition staging system. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective study identifying patients undergoing segmentectomy (90) versus lobectomy (279) for T1c NSCLC from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2016. Univariate, multivariable, and propensity score-weighted analyses were performed to analyze the following endpoints: freedom from recurrence, overall survival, and time to recurrence. RESULTS: Patients undergoing segmentectomy were older than patients undergoing lobectomy (71.5 vs 68.8, respectively, P = .02). There were no differences in incidence of major complications (12.4% vs 11.7%, P = .85), hospital length of stay (6.2 vs 7 days, P = .19), and mortality at 30 (1.1% vs 1.7%, P = 1) and 90 days (2.2% vs 2.3%, P = 1). In addition, there were no statistical differences in locoregional (12.2% vs 8.6%, P = .408), distant (11.1% vs 13.9%, P = .716), or overall recurrence (23.3% vs 22.5%, P = 1), as well as 5-year freedom from recurrence (68.6% vs 75.8%, P = .5) or 5-year survival (57.8% vs 61.0%, P = .9). Propensity score-matched analysis found no differences in overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.034; P = .764), recurrence-free survival (HR, 1.168; P = .1391), or time to recurrence (HR, 1.053; P = .7462). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of clinical T1cN0M0 NSCLC, anatomic segmentectomy was not associated with significant differences in recurrence-free or overall survival at 5 years. Further prospective randomized trials are needed to corroborate the expansion of the role of anatomic segmentectomy to all American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition Stage 1A NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumonectomia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Perfusion ; 36(7): 672-676, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650703

RESUMO

The ethical concerns of refusing lifesaving treatments after receiving an already limited resource such as a solid organ transplantation in a Jehovah's Witness patient have been discussed in the literature. Many of these studies have concluded that with a multidisciplinary approach, solid organ transplantation is possible in the setting of Jehovah's Witness patients. To date, there are no reported cases of bilateral sequential lung transplantation in the literature. We report two successful cases of bilateral sequential lung transplantation in Jehovah's Witness patients with excellent long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Testemunhas de Jeová , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos
7.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2794-2797, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720393

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technology that has allowed further cardiopulmonary support in the setting of respiratory failure refractory to mechanical ventilation. While it has evolved since its first description, one area of improvement continues to be its implementation. With advancements in cannulation techniques, in recent years, there has been a plethora of new cannulas that has been introduced in the market. For urgent venous-venous cannulation, the right internal jugular vein along with either femoral veins remain the most utilized strategy due to minimal need for imaging support. This allows for safe bedside cannulation. However, as the number of days of ECMO support continue to increase, transitioning to a cannulation strategy that is easier to ambulate with and more comfortable is preferred. Therefore, we describe a method for transitioning from right jugular-femoral cannulation to left subclavian placement of the Crescent Dual-Lumen catheter without interrupting ECMO support.


Assuntos
Cânula , Cateterismo/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Veia Femoral/cirurgia , Veias Jugulares/cirurgia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Veia Subclávia/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(27): eaba4526, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656339

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory gastric reflux alters the esophageal microenvironment and induces metaplastic transformation of the epithelium, a precancerous condition termed Barrett's esophagus (BE). The microenvironmental niche, which includes the extracellular matrix (ECM), substantially influences cell phenotype. ECM harvested from normal porcine esophageal mucosa (eECM) was formulated as a mucoadhesive hydrogel, and shown to largely retain basement membrane and matrix-cell adhesion proteins. Dogs with BE were treated orally with eECM hydrogel and omeprazole (n = 6) or omeprazole alone (n = 2) for 30 days. eECM treatment resolved esophagitis, reverted metaplasia to a normal, squamous epithelium in four of six animals, and downregulated the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α+ cell infiltrate compared to control animals. The metaplastic tissue in control animals (n = 2) did not regress. The results suggest that in vivo alteration of the microenvironment with a site-appropriate, mucoadhesive ECM hydrogel can mitigate the inflammatory and metaplastic response in a dog model of BE.

9.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 24(1): 34-44, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036756

RESUMO

End-stage lung disease is ultimately treated with lung transplantation. However, there is a paucity of organs with an increasing number of patients being diagnosed with end-stage lung disease. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a potential tool to assess the quality and to recondition marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation with the goal of increasing the donor pool. This technology has shown promise with similar results compared with the conventional technique of cold static preservation in terms of primary graft dysfunction and overall outcomes. This review provides an update on the results and uses of this technology. The review will also summarize clinical studies and techniques in reconditioning and assessing lungs on ex vivo lung perfusion. Last, we discuss how this technology can be applied to fields outside of transplantation such as thoracic oncology and bioengineering.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/cirurgia , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribuição
10.
J Card Surg ; 35(3): 549-556, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of obesity on outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with particular attention to cases using bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMAs). METHODS: Patients undergoing isolated CABG from 2011 to 2017 at a single institution were categorized by body mass index (BMI): 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 , 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 , 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 , and ≥35 kg/m2 , respectively. The primary outcomes were mortality and readmission. Subgroup analysis was performed on CABGs using BIMAs. Adjusted Cox model curves were used for survival analyses and cumulative incidence function for readmissions. RESULTS: A total of 4980 patients underwent CABG with BMIs of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 (17.8%; n = 884), 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 (35.0%; n = 1745), 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 (27.5%; n = 1368), and ≥35 kg/m2 (19.7%; n = 983), respectively. Patients with BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 had a higher overall Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality. Adjusted survival was similar across BMI groups, and readmission risk was highest in those with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 (P = .01). Increasing BMI was associated with higher rates of postoperative deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). CABG was performed with BIMA in 820 (16%). In patients undergoing CABG with BIMA use, there were no differences in survival, readmissions, or DSWI rates between BMI groups. CONCLUSIONS: CABG, including with the use of BIMA, can be performed in obese patients without an increased risk of mortality or hospital readmission out to 5 years. Although rates of postoperative DSWI increase with increasing BMI, this finding did not appear to be magnified in patients with BIMA, although the sample size was limited in this subanalysis. These data support the notion that BIMA use should not be precluded in the obese.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Obesidade , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Card Surg ; 35(2): 470-472, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765012

RESUMO

Concomitant cardiac surgery at the time of lung transplantation while uncommon has been shown to have acceptable morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 66-year-old man with a history of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis with end-stage lung disease who presented with moderate aortic stenosis and severe aortic regurgitation. He underwent a bioprosthetic surgical aortic valve replacement at the time of bilateral orthotopic lung transplant and recovered without any major complications.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Fibrose Pulmonar/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(5): 1996-2005, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285893

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of bioprosthetic versus mechanical valves in patients on dialysis. Methods: All patients who underwent aortic (AVR) or mitral valve replacement (MVR) at a single institution from 2011-2017 were reviewed. Primary stratification was bioprosthetic versus mechanical valves. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital readmission, valve reoperation rates and bleeding events. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for risk-adjustment. Results: During the study period, 3,969 patients underwent AVR or MVR, of which 97 (2.4%) were on dialysis. In dialysis patients, unadjusted 30-day mortality was comparable between bioprosthetic (12.7%) versus mechanical (5.9%) valves (P=0.31). However, the bioprosthetic group had higher rates of 1-year (40.3% versus 15.2%; P=0.03) and 5-year mortality (67.9% versus 60.7%; P=0.02). Most patients were readmitted within 5 years with no differences between the groups (bioprosthetic 80.3% versus mechanical 100%; P=0.57). There were no valve reoperations in either group at 5 years. The 5-year readmission rate was higher in the mechanical cohort (10.5% versus 53.8%; P=0.05). Risk-adjusted analysis confirmed these findings, where mechanical valves were independently associated with reduced mortality at 1-year and 5-years. Conclusions: Despite the limited life expectancy of patients on dialysis, mechanical valves have an intermediate term mortality benefit compared to bioprosthetic valves. This comes at the expense of a higher rate of readmission for bleeding. Although valve choice should consider multiple factors, these data suggest that mechanical valve usage in dialysis patients is reasonable.

15.
J Surg Educ ; 75(5): 1395-1402, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transitioning from medical school and general surgery training to cardiothoracic (CT) surgical training poses unique challenges for trainees and patient care. We hypothesized that participation in technology-enhanced simulation modules that provided early exposure to urgent/emergent CT patient problems would improve cognitive skills and readiness to manage common urgencies/emergencies. DESIGN: Traditional and integrated cardiothoracic residents at our institution participated in a technology-enhanced simulation curriculum. The course comprised of didactics, hands-on simulation, virtual models, and mock oral examinations. Residents also were given a validated pretest and post-test to evaluate knowledge retention and integration. Resident performance was graded using a previously validated objective structured clinical examination. Resident perception of course usefulness and relevance was determined through the completion of a perception survey. SETTING: This study occurred at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine with the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery. The facility used was the Peter Winter Institute for Simulation, Education and Research. PARTICIPANTS: From 2013 to 2015, 25 traditional and integrated cardiothoracic residents participated in these training modules who have completed all portions of the simulation were used for analysis. RESULTS: For our participants, knowledge base significantly increased by 7.9% (pretest = 76.0% vs. post-test = 83.9%, p < 0.01). According to trained-rater evaluation, 93.6% of responses to the 11 objective structured clinical examination competencies were deemed adequate. Postcourse perception survey demonstrated 92% of participants scoring the sessions as important or very important toward development and confidence in managing the cardiothoracic scenarios. These findings were present despite historical assumption that these learners were prepared for complex patient care. CONCLUSIONS: After completing a technology-enhanced course combining didactics, simulation, and real-time assessment, residents demonstrated objective improvements in cognitive skills and readiness in managing CT patients. Resident postcourse feedback indicated enhanced confidence, suggesting increased preparedness transitioning to CT surgery. This has strong implications for improved patient safety during these potentially labile transition periods.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Tecnologia Educacional , Melhoria de Qualidade , Treinamento por Simulação , Cirurgia Torácica/educação , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 151(6): 1718-1728.e5, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26979916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) commonly dilate asymmetrically compared with patients with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). This discrepancy in aneurysm geometry led us to hypothesize that microarchitectural differences underlie the observed asymmetric dilatation pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microarchitectural distinctions of the extracellular matrix of the 2 phenotypes with a focus on the proportion of radially oriented elastin and collagen fibers in different circumferential aortic regions. METHODS: Aortic tissue rings were obtained just distal to the sinotubular junction from patients with BAV or TAV undergoing elective aneurysm repair. They were sectioned into three circumferentially based regions according to adjacent aortic sinus segment (left coronary sinus [L], right coronary sinus [R], or noncoronary sinus [N]). Multiphoton microscopy was used to quantify and characterize the number of radially oriented elastin and collagen fibers. RESULTS: There were fewer radially oriented fibers in medial region N and medial-intimal region R of BAV-ATAAs when compared with TAV-ATAAs (medial region N, amplitude of angular undulation of elastin = 10.67° ± 1.35° vs 15.58° ± 1.91°; P = .041; medial-intimal region R, amplitude of angular undulation of elastin = 9.83° ± 0.83° vs 14.72° ± 1.64°; P = .015). Conversely, fibers became more radially oriented in the medial-intimal region L of BAV-ATAA when compared with TAV-ATAA (amplitude of angular undulation of collagen = 18.67° ± 0.95° vs 14.56° ± 1.37°; P = .041). CONCLUSIONS: The differential pattern of fiber orientation noted between L and N-R regions help explain the unique pattern of greater curvature dilatation of BAV-ATAA. The distinctions noted in matrix microarchitecture may form the basis of differing aneurysm geometries and aortic wall integrities in ATAAs arising in these different valve morphologies.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/etiologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Elasticidade , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Multimed Man Cardiothorac Surg ; 2014: mmt020, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24435097

RESUMO

Rheumatic mitral valve disease often manifests with leaflet fibrosis, commissural fusion and early calcific degeneration. The thickening and fibrosis of the valvular and subvalvular apparatus has made prosthetic mitral replacement the traditional surgical solution. However, favourable valve morphology in some patients may permit a durable mitral repair rather than replacement. There is growing interest in reparative techniques that durably improve the mitral orifice while preserving the subvalvular apparatus. Many of these techniques are technically challenging and require complex resections with intricate chordal adjustments, which may have limited their global acceptance. In this report, we outline a three-step technique that does not require significant resection or involve the use of neochords. This offers a potentially simplified approach to the repair of rheumatic mitral stenosis.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/métodos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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