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1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 91, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the enveloped RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from fecal samples, and active viral replication was reported in human intestinal cells. The human gut also harbors an enormous amount of resident viruses (collectively known as the virome) that play a role in regulating host immunity and disease pathophysiology. Understanding gut virome perturbation that underlies SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity is an unmet need. METHODS: We enrolled 98 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severity (3 asymptomatic, 53 mild, 34 moderate, 5 severe, 3 critical) and 78 non-COVID-19 controls matched for gender and co-morbidities. All subjects had fecal specimens sampled at inclusion. Blood specimens were collected for COVID-19 patients at admission to test for inflammatory markers and white cell counts. Among COVID-19 cases, 37 (38%) patients had serial fecal samples collected 2 to 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until after discharge. Using shotgun metagenomics sequencing, we sequenced and profiled the fecal RNA and DNA virome. We investigated alterations and longitudinal dynamics of the gut virome in association with disease severity and blood parameters. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 showed underrepresentation of Pepper mild mottle virus (RNA virus) and multiple bacteriophage lineages (DNA viruses) and enrichment of environment-derived eukaryotic DNA viruses in fecal samples, compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Such gut virome alterations persisted up to 30 days after disease resolution. Fecal virome in SARS-CoV-2 infection harbored more stress-, inflammation-, and virulence-associated gene encoding capacities including those pertaining to bacteriophage integration, DNA repair, and metabolism and virulence associated with their bacterial host. Baseline fecal abundance of 10 virus species (1 RNA virus, pepper chlorotic spot virus, and 9 DNA virus species) inversely correlated with disease COVID-19 severity. These viruses inversely correlated with blood levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, white cells, and neutrophils. Among the 10 COVID-19 severity-associated DNA virus species, 4 showed inverse correlation with age; 5 showed persistent lower abundance both during disease course and after disease resolution relative to non-COVID-19 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Both enteric RNA and DNA virome in COVID-19 patients were different from non-COVID-19 subjects, which persisted after disease resolution of COVID-19. Gut virome may calibrate host immunity and regulate severity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observation that gut viruses inversely correlated with both severity of COVID-19 and host age may partly explain that older subjects are prone to severe and worse COVID-19 outcomes. Altogether, our data highlight the importance of human gut virome in severity and potentially therapeutics of COVID-19. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pré-Escolar , DNA , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , RNA
2.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916601

RESUMO

Assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and identification of relevant influencing factors are the current priorities for optimizing vaccines to reduce the impacts of influenza. To date, how the difference between epidemic strains and vaccine strains at genetic scale affects age-specific vaccine performance remains ambiguous. This study investigated the association between genetic mismatch on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes and A(H1N1)pdm09 VE in different age groups with a novel computational approach. We found significant linear relationships between VE and genetic mismatch in children, young adults, and middle-aged adults. In the children's group, each 3-key amino acid mutation was associated with an average of 10% decrease in vaccine effectiveness in a given epidemic season, and genetic mismatch exerted no influence on VE for the elderly group. We demonstrated that present vaccines were most effective for children, while protection for the elderly was reduced and indifferent to vaccine component updates. Modeling such relationships is practical to inform timely evaluation of VE in different groups of populations during mass vaccination and may inform age-specific vaccination regimens.

3.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918060

RESUMO

As COVID-19 is posing a serious threat to global health, the emerging mutation in SARS-CoV-2 genomes, for example, N501Y substitution, is one of the major challenges against control of the pandemic. Characterizing the relationship between mutation activities and the risk of severe clinical outcomes is of public health importance for informing the healthcare decision-making process. Using a likelihood-based approach, we developed a statistical framework to reconstruct a time-varying and variant-specific case fatality ratio (CFR), and to estimate changes in CFR associated with a single mutation empirically. For illustration, the statistical framework is implemented to the COVID-19 surveillance data in the United Kingdom (UK). The reconstructed instantaneous CFR gradually increased from 1.0% in September to 2.2% in November 2020 and stabilized at this level thereafter, which monitors the mortality risk of COVID-19 on a real-time basis. We identified a link between the SARS-CoV-2 mutation activity at molecular scale and COVID-19 mortality risk at population scale, and found that the 501Y variants may slightly but not significantly increase 18% of fatality risk than the preceding 501N variants. We found no statistically significant evidence of change in COVID-19 mortality risk associated with 501Y variants, and highlighted the real-time estimating potentials of the modelling framework.

4.
Theor Biol Med Model ; 18(1): 10, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a serious threat to global health, and pathogenic mutations are a major challenge to disease control. We developed a statistical framework to explore the association between molecular-level mutation activity of SARS-CoV-2 and population-level disease transmissibility of COVID-19. METHODS: We estimated the instantaneous transmissibility of COVID-19 by using the time-varying reproduction number (Rt). The mutation activity in SARS-CoV-2 is quantified empirically depending on (i) the prevalence of emerged amino acid substitutions and (ii) the frequency of these substitutions in the whole sequence. Using the likelihood-based approach, a statistical framework is developed to examine the association between mutation activity and Rt. We adopted the COVID-19 surveillance data in California as an example for demonstration. RESULTS: We found a significant positive association between population-level COVID-19 transmissibility and the D614G substitution on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We estimate that a per 0.01 increase in the prevalence of glycine (G) on codon 614 is positively associated with a 0.49% (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.59) increase in Rt, which explains 61% of the Rt variation after accounting for the control measures. We remark that the modeling framework can be extended to study other infectious pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a link between the molecular-level mutation activity of SARS-CoV-2 and population-level transmission of COVID-19 to provide further evidence for a positive association between the D614G substitution and Rt. Future studies exploring the mechanism between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and COVID-19 infectivity are warranted.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Pandemias
5.
Gut ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The impact of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on microbiota engraftment in patients with metabolic syndrome is uncertain. We aimed to study whether combining FMT with lifestyle modification could enhance the engraftment of favourable microbiota in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, 61 obese subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to three parallel groups: FMT plus lifestyle intervention (LSI), FMT alone, or sham transplantation plus LSI every 4 weeks for up to week 12. FMT solution was prepared from six healthy lean donors. Faecal metagenomic sequencing was performed at baseline, weeks 4, 16 and 24. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects acquiring ≥20% of microbiota from lean donors at week 24. RESULTS: Proportions of subjects acquiring ≥20% of lean-associated microbiota at week 24 were 100%, 88.2% and 22% in the FMT plus LSI, FMT alone, and sham plus LSI groups, respectively (p<0.0001). Repeated FMTs significantly increased the engraftment of lean-associated microbiota (p<0.05). FMT with or without LSI increased butyrate-producing bacteria. Combining LSI and FMT led to increase in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus compared with FMT alone (p<0.05). FMT plus LSI group had reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and liver stiffness at week 24 compared with baseline (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Repeated FMTs enhance the level and duration of microbiota engraftment in obese patients with T2DM. Combining lifestyle intervention with FMT led to more favourable changes in recipients' microbiota and improvement in lipid profile and liver stiffness. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03127696.

6.
J Virol Methods ; 290: 114095, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545197
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant replacement in association with containment capacity and changes in case fatality at country level. METHODS: Altogether, 69 571 full SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected globally within the first 6 months of the pandemic were examined. The correlation between variant replacement and containment capacity was examined by logistic regression models using the WHO International Health Regulation (IHR) score, the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) and the vulnerability index INFORM as proxies, while correlation with changes in monthly crude case fatality ratios was examined by a mixed effect model. RESULTS: At the global level, variant lineage G∗, characterized by the S-D614G mutation, replaced the older lineages L and S in March 2020. European countries-including Finland, France and Italy-were the first to reach a 50% increment of G∗, whereas only Singapore and South Korea had non-G∗ persisting throughout the first 6 months. Countries with higher IHR scores (ß-coefficient -0.001, 95%CI -0.016, -0.001; p 0.034) and higher stringency indexes (OxCGRT) (ß-coefficient -0.011, 95%CI -0.020, -0.001; p 0.035) were associated with lower levels of G∗ replacement, whereas higher vulnerability indexes (INFORM) (ß-coefficient 0.049, 95%CI 0.001, 0.097; p 0.044) were associated with higher replacement levels. Crude case fatality ratio showed a positive correlation with G∗ replacement (ß-coefficient: 0.034, 95%CI 0.011, 0.058; p 0.004), even after adjusting for testing capacity and other country-specific characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variant lineage G∗ (S-D614G) replaced older lineages more efficiently in countries with lower containment capacity, and its possible association with increased disease severity deserves further investigation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is very critical in controlling COVID-19. This study mainly aimed to (1) investigate behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination under various specific scenarios, and (2) associated factors of the afore-mentioned vaccination intentions. METHODS: A random anonymous telephone survey interviewed 450 Chinese adults from September 16-30, 2020 in Hong Kong, China. Nine scenarios of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccinations were measured combining effectiveness (80% versus 50%), safety (rare versus common mild side effect), and cost (free versus HK$ 500). RESULTS: The prevalence of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination under the 9 specific scenarios was very low and varied greatly (4.2% to 38.0%). The prospective countries of manufacture also influenced vaccination intention (eg, Japan: 55.8% vs China: 31.1%). Only 13.1% intended to take up COVID-19 vaccination at the soonest upon its availability. The attributes of effectiveness and side effect influenced vaccination intention most. Positively associated factors of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination included trust/satisfaction toward the government, exposure to positive social media information about COVID-19 vaccines, descriptive norms, perceived impact on the pandemic, perceived duration of protectiveness, and life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Intention of COVID-19 vaccination was low in the Hong Kong general population, especially among younger people, females, and single people. Health promotion is warranted to enhance the intention. The significant factors identified in this study may be considered when designing such health promotion. Future research is required to confirm the findings in other countries. Such studies should pay attention to the specific context of cost, safety, and effectiveness, which would lead to different responses in the level of behavioral intention of COVID-19 vaccination (BICV).

9.
Vaccine ; 39(7): 1030-1034, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483214

RESUMO

The effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines varies with the matching of vaccine strains to circulating strains. Based on the genetic distance of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene of the influenza viruses to vaccine strains, we statistically quantified the relationship between the genetic mismatch and vaccine effectiveness (VE) for influenza A/H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2 and B. We also proposed a systematic approach to integrate multiple genes and influenza types for overall VE estimation. Evident linear relationships were identified and validated in independent data. The modelling framework may enable in silico prediction for VE on a real-time basis and inform the influenza vaccine selection strategy.

11.
Vaccine ; 39(7): 1148-1156, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccines for COVID-19 are anticipated to be available by 2021. Vaccine uptake rate is a crucial determinant for herd immunity. We examined factors associated with acceptance of vaccine based on (1). constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), (2). trust in the healthcare system, new vaccine platforms and manufacturers, and (3). self-reported health outcomes. METHODS: A population-based, random telephone survey was performed during the peak of the third wave of COVID-19 outbreak (27/07/2020 to 27/08/2020) in Hong Kong. All adults aged ≥ 18 years were eligible. The survey included sociodemographic details; self-report health conditions; trust scales; and self-reported health outcomes. Multivariable regression analyses were applied to examine independent associations. The primary outcome is the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: We conducted 1200 successful telephone interviews (response rate 55%). The overall vaccine acceptance rate after adjustment for population distribution was 37.2% (95% C.I. 34.5-39.9%). The projected acceptance rates exhibited a "J-shaped" pattern with age, with higher rates among young adults (18-24 years), then increased linearly with age. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that perceived severity, perceived benefits of the vaccine, cues to action, self-reported health outcomes, and trust in healthcare system or vaccine manufacturers were positive correlates of acceptance; whilst perceived access barriers and harm were negative correlates. Remarkably, perceived susceptibility to infection carried no significant association, whereas recommendation from Government (aOR = 10.2, 95% C.I. 6.54 to 15.9, p < 0.001) was as the strongest driving factor for acceptance. Other key obstacles of acceptance included lack of confidence on newer vaccine platforms (43.4%) and manufacturers without track record (52.2%), which are of particular relevance to the current context. CONCLUSIONS: Governmental recommendation is an important driver, whereas perceived susceptibility is not associated with acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. These HBM constructs and independent predictors inform evidence-based formulation and implementation of vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 65, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397897

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a potential treatment for severe colitis associated with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Bacterial engraftment from FMT donor to recipient has been reported, however the fate of fungi and viruses after FMT remains unclear. Here we report longitudinal dynamics of the gut bacteriome, mycobiome and virome in a teenager with GvHD after receiving four doses of FMT at weekly interval. After serial FMTs, the gut bacteriome, mycobiome and virome of the patient differ from compositions before FMT with variable temporal dynamics. Diversity of the gut bacterial community increases after each FMT. Gut fungal community initially shows expansion of several species followed by a decrease in diversity after multiple FMTs. In contrast, gut virome community varies substantially over time with a stable rise in diversity. The bacterium, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Torque teno viruses, decrease after FMTs in parallel with an increase in the relative abundance of Caudovirales bacteriophages. Collectively, FMT may simultaneously impact on the various components of the gut microbiome with distinct effects.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/microbiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/virologia , Micobioma , Adolescente , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota
13.
J Virol Methods ; : 114032, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290786

RESUMO

Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV). Although phylogenetic analyses have indicated ancient origin of human coronaviruses from animal relatives, their evolutionary history remains to be established. Using phylogenetics and "high order genomic structures" including trimer spectrums, codon usage and dinucleotide suppression, we observed distinct clustering of all human coronaviruses that formed phylogenetic clades with their closest animal relatives, indicating they have encompassed long evolutionary histories within specific ecological niches before jumping species barrier to infect humans. The close relationships between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 imply similar evolutionary origin. However, a lower Effective Codon Number (ENC) pattern and CpG dinucleotide suppression in SARS-CoV-2 genomes compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV may imply a better host fitness, and thus their success in sustaining a pandemic. Characterization of coronavirus heterogeneity via complementary approaches enriches our understanding on the evolution and virus-host interaction of these emerging human pathogens while the underlying mechanistic basis in pathogenicity warrants further investigation.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218162

RESUMO

The role of oral microbiota in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is poorly understood. Here we sought to evaluate the association of the bacterial microbiome with host gene methylation and patient outcomes, and to explore its potential as a biomarker for early detection or intervention. Here we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in sixty-eight HNSCC patients across both tissue and oral rinse samples to identify oral bacteria with differential abundance between HNSCC and controls. A subset of thirty-one pairs of HNSCC tumor tissues and the adjacent normal tissues were characterized for host gene methylation profile using bisulfite capture sequencing. We observed significant enrichments of Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus in HNSCC tumor tissues when compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and in HNSCC oral rinses when compared to healthy subjects, while ten other bacterial genera were largely depleted. These HNSCC-related bacteria were discriminative for HNSCC and controls with area under the receiver operating curves (AUCs) of 0.84 and 0.86 in tissue and oral rinse samples, respectively. Moreover, Fusobacterium nucleatum abundance in HNSCC cases was strongly associated with non-smokers, lower tumor stage, lower rate of recurrence, and improved disease-specific survival. An integrative analysis identified that enrichment of F. nucleatum was associated with host gene promoter methylation, including hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes LXN and SMARCA2, for which gene expressions were downregulated in the HNSCC cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas. In conclusion, we identified a taxonomically defined microbial consortium associated with HNSCC that may have clinical potential regarding biomarkers for early detection or intervention. Host-microbe interactions between F. nucleatum enrichment and clinical outcomes or host gene methylation imply a potential role of F. nucleatum as a pro-inflammatory driver in initiating HNSCC without traditional risk factors, which warrants further investigation for the underlying mechanisms.

17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An international city, Hong Kong, in proximity to the first epicentre of COVID- 19, experienced two epidemic waves with different importation pressure. We compared the epidemiological features of patients with COVID-19 in the context of containment policies between the first and second waves. METHODS: We retrieved information on the first 1038 cases detected in Hong Kong (23 January to 25 April 2020) to analyse the epidemiological characteristics including age/gender-specific incidence, clustering, reproduction number (Rt ) and containment delay; in relation to the containment measures implemented. Factors associated with containment delay were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis with age, gender, epidemic wave and infection source as covariates. A time series of 5-day moving average was plotted to examine the changes across the two epidemic waves. RESULTS: The incidence and mortality (135.5 and 0.5 per 1 000 000 population) was among the lowest in the world. Aggressive escalation of border control correlated with reductions in Rt from 1.35 to 0.57 and 0.92 to 0.18, and aversions of 450 and 1650 local infections during the first and second waves, respectively. Implementing COVID-19 tests for overseas returners correlated with an upsurge of asymptomatic case detection, and shortened containment delay in the second wave. Medium-sized cluster events in the first wave were family gatherings, whereas those in the second wave were leisure activities among youngsters. Containment delay was associated with older age (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p=0.040), male gender (AOR=1.41, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.96, p=0.039) and local cases (AOR=11.18, 95% CI 7.43 to 16.83, p<0.001), and with significant improvement in the second wave compared with the first wave (average: 6.8 vs 3.7 days). A higher incidence rate was observed for males, raising possibility of gender predilection in susceptibility of developing symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prompt and stringent all-round containment strategies represent successful measures in pandemic control. These findings could inform formulation and implementation of pandemic mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 3076-3078, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089772

RESUMO

In March 2020, mild signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease developed in a healthy 33-year-old man in Hong Kong. His first infection did not produce virus neutralizing antibodies. In August, he had asymptomatic reinfection, suggesting that persons without a robust neutralizing antibody response might be at risk for reinfection.

19.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Beyond bacteria, the human gastrointestinal tract is host to a vast diversity of fungi, collectively known as the gut mycobiome. Little is known of the impact of geography, ethnicity, and urbanization on the gut mycobiome at a large population level. We aim to delineate the variation of human gut mycobiome and its association with host factors, environmental factors, and diets. METHODS: Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we profiled and compared the fecal mycobiome of 942 healthy individuals across different geographic regions in China (Hong Kong and Yunnan), spanning 6 ethnicities: Han, Zang, Bai, Hani, Dai, and Miao (including both urban and rural residents of each ethnicity). In parallel to fecal sampling, we collected participant metadata (environmental exposure, bowel habits, anthropometrics, and medication), diet, and clinical blood measurement results (a total of 118 variables) and investigated their impact on the gut mycobiome variation in humans. RESULTS: The human gut mycobiome was highly variable across populations. Urbanization-related factors had the strongest impact on gut mycobiome variation, followed by geography, dietary habit, and ethnicity. The Hong Kong population (highly urbanized) had a significantly lower fungal richness compared with Yunnan population. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was highly enriched in urban compared with rural populations and showed significant inverse correlations with liver pathology-associated blood parameters, including aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and direct bilirubin. Candida dubliniensis, which was decreased in urban relative to rural populations, showed correlations with host metabolism-related parameters in blood, including a positive correlation with fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and a negative correlation with fasting glucose levels. The fungal-blood parameter correlations were highly geography- and ethnicity-specific. Food choices had differential influences on gut mycobiome and bacterial microbiome, where taxa from the same genus tended to be coregulated by food and thereby cobloom. Ethnicity-specific fungal signatures were associated with distinct habitual foods in each ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight, for the first time to our knowledge, that geography, urbanization, ethnicity, and habitual diet play an important role in shaping the gut mycobiome composition. Gut fungal configurations in combination with population characteristics (such as residing region, ethnicity, diet, lifestyle) influence host metabolism and health.

20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(5): 741-751.e4, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910902

RESUMO

The human-gut-DNA virome is highly diverse and individual specific, but little is known of its variation at a population level. Here, we report the fecal DNA virome of 930 healthy adult subjects from two regions in China (Hong Kong and Yunnan) spanning six ethnicities (Han, Zang, Miao, Bai, Dai, and Hani), and including urban and rural residents for each ethnicity. Twenty host factors were found to significantly correlate with the human-gut virome variation, with geography carrying the strongest impact and ethnicity-distinct diets associating with certain viral species. Urbanization enhances interindividual dissimilarities between gut viromes, with the duration of urban residence associating with multiple bacteriophages, including Lactobacillus phage and Lactococcus phage. Overall, the gut virome presents more heterogeneity relative to the bacterial microbiome across the examined Chinese populations. This study highlights population-based variations and the importance of host and environmental factors in shaping the DNA virome in the human gut.

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