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1.
Psych J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794205

RESUMO

This study showed a negative correlation between the glutamate level in the anterior cingulate cortex and cognitive theory of mind in individuals with high level of schizotypy but not in non-schizotypy individuals.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825295

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with cognitive dysfunctions, including mental time travel (MTT). However, findings on diminished MTT ability may be confounded by a number of factors, including the individuals' language ability, factors related to the MTT task and the demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis of MTT ability in people with ASD. The results showed significant overall reductions in MTT ability in people with ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the variables examined did not explain the reduction in MTT ability. These findings suggest that MTT ability is diminished in people with ASD and that the degree of this diminishment may not depend on the characteristics of measures or demographic variables of people with ASD.

3.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(8): 807-814, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843287

RESUMO

Prospection refers to the ability to mentally construct future events, which is closely related to motivation and anhedonia. The neural underpinning of impaired prospection in psychiatric populations remains unclear. We recruited 34 individuals with autistic traits (AT), 27 individuals with schizotypal traits (ST), 31 individuals with depressive symptoms (DS), and 35 controls. Participants completed a prospection task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We found that regions of the "default mode network" including the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the precuneus and the parahippocampus were activated; and regions of the "task-positive network" including the inferior parietal lobe, the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus were deactivated during prospection in controls. Compared with controls, AT, ST, and DS showed comparable behavioral performance on prospection. However, reduced activation in anterior cingulate cortex and frontal gyrus was found in AT individuals relative to controls during prospection. ST individuals showed hyperactivation in the caudate relative to controls when processing positive emotion, while DS individuals and controls showed similar neural responses during prospection. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626218

RESUMO

Hubs in the brain network are the regions with high centrality and are crucial in the network communication and information integration. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit wide range of abnormality in the hub regions and their connected functional connectivity (FC) at the whole-brain network level. Study of the hubs in the brain networks supporting complex social behavior (social brain network, SBN) would contribute to understand the social dysfunction in patients with SCZ. Forty-nine patients with SCZ and 27 healthy controls (HC) were recruited to undertake the resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scanning and completed a social network (SN) questionnaire. The resting-state SBN was constructed based on the automatic analysis results from the NeuroSynth. Our results showed that the left temporal lobe was the only hub of SBN, and its connected FCs strength was higher than the remaining FCs in both two groups. SCZ patients showed the lower association between the hub-connected FCs (compared to the FCs not connected to the hub regions) with the real-life SN characteristics. These results were replicated in another independent sample (30 SCZ and 28 HC). These preliminary findings suggested that the hub-connected FCs of SBN in SCZ patients exhibit the abnormality in predicting real-life SN characteristics.

5.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 317: 111390, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537603

RESUMO

Social anhedonia (SA) impairs social functioning in schizophrenia. Previous evidence suggested that certain brain regions predict longitudinal change of real-world social outcomes, yet previous study designs have failed to capture the corresponding functional connectivity among the brain regions involved. This study measured the real-world social network in 22 pairs of individuals with high and low levels of SA, and followed up them for 21 months. We further explored whether resting-state social brain network characteristics could predict the longitudinal variations of real-world social network. Our results showed that social brain network characteristics could predict the change of real-world social networks in both the high SA and low SA groups. However, the results differed between the two groups, i.e., the topological characteristics of the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the high SA group; whereas the functional connectivity within the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the low SA group. Principal component analysis and linear regression analysis on the entire sample showed that the functional connectivity component centered at the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus could best predict social network change. Our findings support the notion that social brain network characteristics could predict social network development.

6.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574154

RESUMO

In modern times, the majority of food intake is believed to be driven by hedonic processes, rather than homeostatic ones. Various factors have been found to influence the hedonic eating experience and thereby influence eating behaviour, and each factor can be regarded a piece that contributes to parts of the total picture of the hedonic response to food. As a result, the literature on the hedonic response to food-related experiences is comprehensive, but at the same time rather fragmented; and importantly, it is not clear how individuals/segments differ in key drivers of their hedonic experience and the extent to which food pleasure is perceived. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for the development of a scale (self-report questionnaire) to measure the qualitative and quantitative aspects of food-related pleasure, the Food Pleasure Scale. We introduce the concept of (an)hedonia and scales developed in the past for its measurement, identify the spectrum of characteristics influencing food-related pleasure and explain the relevance of developing such a scale. Based on this theoretical framework, a strategy for the development of the Food Pleasure Scale is proposed.

7.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 271(8): 1475-1485, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467451

RESUMO

Increased severity of neurological soft signs (NSS) in schizophrenia have been associated with abnormal brain morphology in cerebello-thalamo-cortical structures, but it is unclear whether similar structures underlie NSS prior to the onset of psychosis. The present study investigated the relationship between severity of NSS and grey matter volume (GMV) in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) stratified for later conversion to psychosis. Structural T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained from 56 antipsychotic-naïve UHR individuals and 35 healthy controls (HC). The UHR individuals had follow-up data (mean follow-up: 5.2 years) to ascertain clinical outcome. Using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, the relationship between NSS and GMV at baseline was assessed in UHR, HC, as well as individuals who later transitioned (UHR-P, n = 25) and did not transition (UHR-NP, n = 31) to psychosis. NSS total and subscale scores except motor coordination were significantly higher in UHR compared to HC. Higher signs were also found in UHR-P, but not UHR-NP. Total NSS was not associated with GMV in the whole sample or in each group. However, in UHR-P individuals, greater deficits in sensory integration was associated with lower GMV in the left cerebellum, right insula, and right middle frontal gyrus. In conclusion, NSS are present in UHR individuals, particularly those who later transitioned to a psychotic disorder. While these signs show little overall variation with GMV, the association of sensory integration deficits with lower GMV in UHR-P suggests that certain brain areas may be implicated in the development of specific neurological abnormalities in the psychosis prodrome.

8.
Psych J ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414691

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that altered gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) function may result in multisensory integration deficits in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether the GABA level is abnormal in individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits and how it would correlate with sensory integration ability in these individuals. This study aimed to compare the GABA level between individuals with high and low levels of negative schizotypy, and examine the relationship between GABA levels and sensory integration ability in each group. In vivo GABA+ and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the striatum were measured using proton magnetic resonance imaging in 19 participants with high levels of negative schizotypy and 21 participants with low levels of negative schizotypy. The Sensory Integration subscale of the abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was used. We examined the group differences in GABA+/NAA levels, and the correlation between striatal GABA+/NAA levels and sensory integration ability in each group. The two groups showed comparable levels of in-vivo GABA+/NAA. In-vivo GABA+/NAA levels were negatively correlated with sensory integration score in participants with low levels of negative schizotypy, but not in participants with high levels of negative schizotypy. Our findings indicate that the increased GABA level is correlated with better sensory integration ability in individuals with low levels of negative schizotypy, implicating the role of GABAergic function in multisensory integration. Unlike schizophrenia patients, individuals with high levels of schizotypy do not exhibit any abnormality in their GABAergic system and sensory integration ability.

9.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 316: 111344, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358964

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is characterized by both disrupted neurodevelopmental processes and abnormal brain connectivity. However, few studies have examined the atypical features of brain network topography associated with schizophrenia during childhood and adolescence. We used graph theory to compare the grey matter structural networks of individuals (aged 10-15 years) with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) (n = 25) and a typically-developing (TD) comparison group (n = 31). Compared with the TD group, EOS patients showed significantly increased clustering and local efficiency across a range of network densities (0.3 - 0.4). The network of EOS patients also had more modules (6 modules in EOS vs. 3 modules in controls), indicating a more segregated network at the cost of functional integration. Although our results were preliminary and failed to survive corrections for multiple comparisons, EOS patients might be characterized by altered nodal centrality in several higher-order associative regions including the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum. The EOS structural network also lacked the typical left-hemispheric-dominant hub distribution compared with the TD group. These findings suggest that brain structural network was not only globally but also regionally altered in EOS patients.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Schizophr Bull ; 47(6): 1524-1533, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420057

RESUMO

Amotivation is related to value representation. A comprehensive account of amotivation requires a mechanistic understanding of how the brain exploits external information to represent value. To achieve maximal value discriminability, brain valuation system will dynamically adapt its coding sensitivity to the range of values available in any given condition, so-called range adaptive coding. We administered an experimental task to 30 patients with chronic schizophrenia (C-SCZ), 30 first-episode schizophrenia (FE-SCZ), 34 individuals with high social anhedonia (HSoA), and their paired controls to assess range adaptation ability. C-SCZ patients exhibited over-adaptation and their performances were negatively correlated with avolition symptoms and positive symptoms and positively correlated with blunted-affect symptoms and self-reported consummatory interpersonal pleasure scores, though the results were non-significant. FE-SCZ patients exhibited reduced adaptation, which was significantly and negatively correlated with avolition symptoms and positively correlated with the overall proportion of choosing to exert more effort. Although HSoA participants exhibited comparable range adaptation to controls, their performances were significantly and negatively correlated with the proportion of choosing to exert more effort under the lowest value condition. Our results suggest that different stages of schizophrenia spectrum showed distinct range adaptation patterns. Range adaptation impairments may index a possible underlying mechanism for amotivation symptoms in FE-SCZ and more complicated and pervasive effects on clinical symptoms in C-SCZ.

11.
Conscious Cogn ; 94: 103175, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343787

RESUMO

Volition is the extent to which actions are generated as a result of internal states in contrast to responses to external conditions or dictated by external events. Delayed intentions about future action are stored in prospective memory until the intended action has to be formed at a later point in time. It is unknown how voluntary choice affects prospective memory. We compared the difference between freely chosen and fixed targets on the reaction times and task performance in the ongoing task and for the target stimuli in a prospective memory task. The task performance and the reaction time was modelled using a Bayesian hierarchical drift-diffusion model. The analysis showed no differences between self-chosen and fixed prospective memory cues on task responses. The result suggests that volition in choosing the cue to act upon or given a fixed cue does not make a difference for prospective memory task performance.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Teorema de Bayes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Intenção , Tempo de Reação , Volição
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282469

RESUMO

Empathy is the ability to generate emotional responses (i.e., cognitive empathy) and to make cognitive inferences (i.e., affective empathy) to other people's emotions. Empirical evidence suggests that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit impairment in cognitive empathy, but findings on affective empathy are inconsistent. Few studies have examined the neural mechanisms of cognitive and affective empathy in patients with BD. In this study, we examined the empathy-related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in BD patients. Thirty-seven patients with BD and 42 healthy controls completed the self-report Questionnaires of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE), the Yoni behavioural task, and resting-sate fMRI brain scans. Group comparison of empathic ability was conducted. The interactions between group and empathic ability on seed-based whole brain rsFC were examined. BD patients scored lower on the Online Simulation subscale of the QCAE and showed positive correlations between cognitive empathy and the rsFC of the dorsal Medial Prefrontal Cortex (dmPFC) with the lingual gyrus. The correlations between cognitive empathy and the rsFC of the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) with the fusiform gyrus, the cerebellum and the parahippocampus were weaker in BD patients than that in healthy controls. These findings highlight the underlying neural mechanisms of empathy impairments in BD patients.

13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286394

RESUMO

Interoceptive accuracy has been widely measured using the Heartbeat Tracking Test (HTT). We devised the novel paradigm of Interoception-Exteroception Synchronicity Judgement (IESJ) task to assess participants' interoceptive accuracy, exteroceptive accuracy, and the balancing score which reflected the ability to allocate attentions between interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. This study administered the behavioural paradigms of the HTT and the IESJ as well as other self-report scales to 119 typically-developing youths. Individuals with lower autistic traits (n = 30) showed comparable interoceptive accuracy, exteroceptive accuracy, and balancing scores as their higher autistic traits counterparts (n = 33). Taken together, the high autistic traits subgroup exhibited higher levels of alexithymia but not empathy or interoception than the low autistic traits subgroup.

14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264487

RESUMO

Interoception is believed to underlie socio-cognitive functions which are often impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, Experiment 1 examined in a sample of 114 neurotypical college students the associations among autistic traits, alexithymia, and interoceptive accuracy (IA), which was assessed by a novel paradigm "Eye-tracking Interoceptive Accuracy Task (EIAT). In Experiment 2, EIAT and the Autism Spectrum Quotient were administered to 52 preschool children, 50 adolescents, and 50 adults. Experiment 1 supported the association between autistic traits and alexithymia, but failed to support their association with multidimensional interoception. Experiment 2 strongly supported the association between age and IA. We conclude that cardiac IA differs between neurotypical age groups, but shows limited relationship with autistic traits.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 607-614, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004397

RESUMO

Schizophrenia patients exhibit subtle and non-localizing neurological abnormalities, known as neurological soft signs (NSS). Life-span evidence suggests that NSS vary along the course of schizophrenia. An association between NSS and treatment response has been proposed, suggesting that NSS reflect the underlying neuropathology development in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between NSS and treatment resistance in first-episode schizophrenia patients. We conducted a longitudinal study on 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients, who were assessed at baseline, the sixth month, and the fifth year using the abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. The trajectories of NSS between 29 treatment-responsive patients (with full symptomatic remission) and 23 treatment-resistant patients (who received clozapine) were compared using mixed model ANOVA. We also controlled for the effect of age and estimated IQ, using a mixed ANCOVA model. Although the two schizophrenia groups had comparable NSS at the baseline, their trajectories of NSS differed significantly. Compared with their treatment-responsive counterparts, treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients had worsening of NSS over time. Our findings support the potential utility of NSS in identifying treatment resistance in first-episode schizophrenia. Progressive worsening of NSS in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients may reflect the development of underlying neuropathology. Further studies using large samples of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Indução de Remissão , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Schizophr Res ; 232: 77-84, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044349

RESUMO

Social behaviour requires the brain to efficiently integrate multiple social processes, but it is not clear what neural substrates underlie general social behaviour. While psychosis patients and individuals with subclinical symptoms are characterized by social dysfunction, the neural mechanisms underlying social dysfunctions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. We first constructed a general social brain network (SBN) using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with regions of interest based on the automatic meta-analysis results from NeuroSynth. We then examined the general SBN and its relationship with social network (SN) characteristics in 30 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 33 individuals with social anhedonia (SA). We found that patients with SCZ exhibited deficits in their SN, while SA individuals did not. SCZ patients showed decreased segregation and functional connectivity in their SBN, while SA individuals showed a reversed pattern with increased segregation and functional connectivity of their SBN. Sparse canonical correlation analysis showed that both SCZ patients and SA individuals exhibited reduced correlation between SBN and SN characteristics compared with their corresponding healthy control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that both SCZ and SA participants exhibit abnormality in segregation and functional connectivity within the general SBN and reduced correlation with SN characteristics. These findings could guide the development of non-pharmacological interventions for social dysfunction in SCZ spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Social
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 61: 102671, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984618

RESUMO

Schizotypy is the latent personality reflecting the liability to schizophrenia. The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) is a newly developed questionnaire to measure the levels of schizotypy. The Chinese version of MSS has been developed and previous findings supported its structure validity. The present study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the MSS by correlating it with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). A total of 1359 university students completed the MSS and the SPQ online. The results of 1027 valid participants demonstrated that all MSS dimensions showed good internal consistency. The MSS positive dimension is strongly correlated with SPQ cognitive-perceptual factor, the MSS negative dimension with the SPQ interpersonal factor, and the MSS disorganized dimension with the SPQ disorganized factor. Taken together, our study provides evidence for construct validity of the Chinese version of the MSS.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , China , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 61: 102680, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Negative symptoms are associated with poor outcomes and functioning. Latent structure of negative symptoms is important for identifying potential intervention targets for novel treatments. Self-report instruments have been developed to measure negative symptoms. Previous findings on latent structure of negative symptoms are inconsistently and mainly rely on clinician-rated instruments. METHOD: We aimed to explore the latent structure of the Self-Evaluation of Negative Symptoms Scale (SNS) in 204 clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare the competing models (i.e., one-factor, two-factor and five-factor models), and estimated goodness-of-fit indexes. Other clinician-rated scales for psychopathology and medication side-effects were also collected. RESULTS: The CFA found the five-factor model performing best, with a comparative fit index (CFI) of > 0.95, a Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) of > 0.95, and a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of < 0.06. The robust chi-square difference test for the weighted least squares with mean and variance adjusted estimation (WLSMV) also indicated a significant better fit for the five-factor model. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary findings support a five-factor latent structure of self-report negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Further research in this area should utilize multiple clinician-rated and self-report measures, and recruit large and homogeneous samples with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Autorrelato
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987711

RESUMO

Altered interoception has been consistently found in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and this impairment may contribute to social cognitive dysfunctions. However, little is known regarding the intercorrelations between interoceptive sensibility, autistic, alexithymic, empathic, and self-related traits. We recruited 1360 non-clinical college students and adults to investigate the complex inter-relationship between these variables using network analysis. The resultant network revealed patterns connecting autistic traits to interoceptive sensibility, empathy, alexithymia, and self-awareness, with reasonable stability and test-retest consistency. The node of alexithymia exhibited the highest centrality and expected influence. As revealed by the network comparison test, networks constructed in high- and low-autistic subgroups were comparable in global strength and structure. Our findings suggested that alexithymia serves as an important node, bridging interoceptive deficits, self-awareness, and empathic impairments of autism spectrum disorder. The co-morbidity of alexithymia should be considered carefully in future studies of interoceptive impairments and social deficits in ASD.

20.
Appetite ; 164: 105264, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865905

RESUMO

Food choice is a multifaceted construct that is not solely guided by our internal incentives. In fact, sensory scientist, consumer psychologists, and marketers have demonstrated that external ambient cues, including background music, can influence myriads of subconscious consumer behaviors, effectively leading to increased sales of food and beverages. However, the vast majority of literature in on this topic has thus far been confined to monocultural field studies in which the underlying mechanisms of food choice are unexplored. We therefore studied the explicit and implicit effects of custom-composed soundtracks on food choices and eye-movements in consumers from both 'East' and 'West'. Firstly, based on the results from a pre-study (N = 396), we composed a 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' soundtrack. Subsequently, we recruited 215 participants from China (n = 114) and Denmark (n = 101) respectively for in an in-laboratory eye-tracking food choice paradigm. For each culture, half of the participants listened to the 'healthy' soundtrack and the other half to the 'unhealthy' soundtrack during the experiment. Chi-square tests of independence revealed that across cultures, the healthy (vs. unhealthy) soundtrack led to more healthy food choices. Similarly, the generalized linear mixed models showed that the healthy soundtrack induced more and longer fixations on healthy (vs. unhealthy) food. Finally, a multiple mediation analysis signified a partial mediation effect of sound on food choice through the mediators of fixation duration, fixation count, and revisit count. Our results indicate that, with strategically chosen soundscapes, it is possible to influence consumers' decision-making processes and guide their attention towards healthier foods, providing valuable knowledge for local as well as global food business.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , China , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos
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