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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822728

RESUMO

Ruthenium (Ru)-based catalysts, with considerable performance and desirable cost, become highly concerned candidates to replace platinum (Pt) in alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The hydrogen binding at Ru sites (Ru-H) is an important factor limiting the HER activity. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) simulations show that the essence of Ru-H binding energy is the strong interaction between the 4dz 2 orbital of Ru and 1s orbital of H. The charge transfer between Ru sites and substrates (Co and Ni) causes the appropriate downward shift of the 4dz 2 -band center of Ru, which results in a Gibbs free energy of 0.022 eV for H* in RuCo system, much decrease compared to 0.133 eV in pure Ru system. This theoretical prediction has been experimentally confirmed using RuCo alloy nanosheets (RuCo ANSs). They were prepared via fast co-precipitation method followed with a mild electrochemical reduction. Structure characterizations reveal that the Ru atoms are embed into Co substrate as isolated active sites with the planar symmetric and Z-direction asymmetric coordination structure, obtaining an optimal 4dz 2 modulated electronic structure. Hydrogen sensor and temperature program desorption (TPD) tests demonstrate the enhanced Ru-H interactions in RuCo ANSs than pure Ru nanoparticles. As a result, the RuCo ANSs reach an ultra-low overpotential of 10 mV at 10 mA/cm 2 and a Tafel slope of 20.6 mV/dec in 1 M KOH, outperforming that of the commercial Pt/C. This holistic work provides a new insight to promote alkaline HER by optimizing metal-H binding energy of active sites.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127860, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823947

RESUMO

Organic matter (OM) amendments and plant colonization can accelerate mineral weathering and soil formation in metal mine tailings for ecological rehabilitation. However, the weathering effects may dissolve uranium (U)-bearing minerals (e.g., ianthinite) and increase U dissolution in porewater and seepages. The present study aimed to characterize the U solubility and distribution among different fractions and investigate if biochar (BC) could decrease soluble U levels and facilitate U immobilization in the OM-amended and plant-colonized tailings. A native plant species, Red Flinders grass (Iseilema vaginiflorum) was cultivated in the tailings for four weeks, which were amended with sugarcane residue (SR) with or without BC addition. The results showed that OM amendment and plant colonization increased porewater U concentrations by almost 10 folds from ~ 0.2 mg L-1 to > 2.0 mg L-1. The BC addition decreased porewater U concentrations by 40%. Further micro-spectroscopic analysis revealed that U was immobilized through adsorption onto BC porous surfaces, via possibly complexing with oxygen-rich organic groups. Besides, the BC amendment facilitated U sequestration by secondary Fe minerals in the tailings. These findings provide important information about U biogeochemistry in Cu-tailings mediated by BC, OM and rhizosphere interactions for mitigating potential pollution risks of tailings rehabilitation.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2105308, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610648

RESUMO

To improve the electroactivity and stability of electrocatalysts, various modulation strategies have been applied in nanocatalysts. Among different methods, heteroatom doping has been considered as an effective method, which modifies the local bonding environments and the electronic structures. Meanwhile, the design of novel two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures also offers new opportunities for achieving efficient electrocatalysts. In this work, Mn-doped ultrathin Ru nanosheet branches (RuMn NSBs), a newly reported 2D nanostructure, is synthesized. With the ultrathin and naturally abundant edges, the RuMn NSBs have exhibited bifunctionalities of hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction with high electroactivity and durability in different electrolytes. Experimental characterizations have revealed that RuO bonds are shortened due to Mn doping, which is the key factor that leads to improved electrochemical performances. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have confirmed that the introduction of Mn enables flexible modulations on the valence states of Ru sites. The inversed redox state evolutions of Ru and Mn sites not only improve the electroactivity for the water splitting but also the long-term stability due to the pinning effect of Ru sites. This work has provided important inspirations for the design of future advanced Ru-based electrocatalysts with high performances and durability.

4.
JACS Au ; 1(7): 998-1013, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467346

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO), a pro-neurogenic and antineuroinflammatory gasotransmitter, features the potential to develop a translational medicine against neuropathological conditions. Despite the extensive efforts made on the controlled delivery of therapeutic NO, however, an orally active NO prodrug for a treatment of chronic neuropathy was not reported yet. Inspired by the natural dinitrosyl iron unit (DNIU) [Fe(NO)2], in this study, a reversible and dynamic interaction between the biomimetic [(NO)2Fe(µ-SCH2CH2OH)2Fe(NO)2] (DNIC-1) and serum albumin (or gastrointestinal mucin) was explored to discover endogenous proteins as a vehicle for an oral delivery of NO to the brain after an oral administration of DNIC-1. On the basis of the in vitro and in vivo study, a rapid binding of DNIC-1 toward gastrointestinal mucin yielding the mucin-bound dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC) discovers the mucoadhesive nature of DNIC-1. A reversible interconversion between mucin-bound DNIC and DNIC-1 facilitates the mucus-penetrating migration of DNIC-1 shielded in the gastrointestinal tract of the stomach and small intestine. Moreover, the NO-release reactivity of DNIC-1 induces the transient opening of the cellular tight junction and enhances its paracellular permeability across the intestinal epithelial barrier. During circulation in the bloodstream, a stoichiometric binding of DNIC-1 to the serum albumin, as another endogenous protein vehicle, stabilizes the DNIU [Fe(NO)2] for a subsequent transfer into the brain. With aging mice under a Western diet as a disease model for metabolic syndrome and cognitive impairment, an oral administration of DNIC-1 in a daily manner for 16 weeks activates the hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorates the impaired cognitive ability. Taken together, these findings disclose the synergy between biomimetic DNIC-1 and endogenous protein vehicles for an oral delivery of therapeutic NO to the brain against chronic neuropathy.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(19): 13045-13060, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565140

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in soil structure and biogeochemical function development, which are fundamental for the eco-engineering of tailings-soil formation to underpin sustainable tailings rehabilitation. In the present study, we have characterized the DOM composition and its molecular changes in an alkaline Fe ore tailing primed with organic matter (OM) amendment and plant colonization. The results demonstrated that microbial OM decomposition dramatically increased DOM richness and average molecular weight, as well as its degree of unsaturation, aromaticity, and oxidation in the tailings. Plant colonization drove molecular shifts of DOM by depleting the unsaturated compounds with a high value of nominal oxidation state of carbon (NOSC), such as tannin-like and carboxyl-rich polycyclic-like compounds. This may be partially related to their sequestration by secondary Fe-Si minerals formed from rhizosphere-driven mineral weathering. Furthermore, the molecular shifts of DOM may have also resulted from plant-regulated microbial community changes, which further influenced DOM molecules through microbial-DOM interactions. These findings contribute to the understanding of DOM biogeochemistry and ecofunctionality in the tailings during early pedogenesis driven by OM input and pioneer plant/microbial colonization, providing an important basis for the development of strategies and technologies toward the eco-engineering of tailings-soil formation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Minerais , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Nano Lett ; 21(16): 6907-6913, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369776

RESUMO

Electrochemical CO2 reduction provides a promising strategy to product value-added fuels and chemical feedstocks. However, it remains a grand challenge to further reduce the overpotentials and increase current density for large-scale applications. Here, spontaneously Sn doped Bi/BiOx nanowires (denoted as Bi/Bi(Sn)Ox NWs) with a core-shell structure were synthesized by an electrochemical dealloying strategy. The Bi/Bi(Sn)Ox NWs exhibit impressive formate selectivity over 92% from -0.5 to -0.9 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and achieve a current density of 301.4 mA cm-2 at -1.0 V vs RHE. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations reveal that the introduction of Sn atoms into BiOx species can promote the stabilization of the *OCHO intermediate on the Bi(Sn)Ox surface and suppress the competitive H2/CO production. This work provides effective in situ construction of the metal/metal oxide hybrid composites with heteroatom doping and new insights in promoting electrochemical CO2 conversion into formate for practical applications.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 8020-8034, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043324

RESUMO

The neutralization of strongly alkaline pH conditions and acceleration of mineral weathering in alkaline Fe ore tailings have been identified as key prerequisites for eco-engineering tailings-soil formation for sustainable mine site rehabilitation. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has great potential in neutralizing alkaline pH and accelerating primary mineral weathering in the tailings but little information is available. This study aimed to investigate the colonization of A. ferrooxidans in alkaline Fe ore tailings and its role in elemental sulfur (S0) oxidation, tailings neutralization, and Fe-bearing mineral weathering through a microcosm experiment. The effects of biological S0 oxidation on the weathering of alkaline Fe ore tailings were examined via various microspectroscopic analyses. It is found that (1) the A. ferrooxidans inoculum combined with the S0 amendment rapidly neutralized the alkaline Fe ore tailings; (2) A. ferrooxidans activities induced Fe-bearing primary mineral (e.g., biotite) weathering and secondary mineral (e.g., ferrihydrite and jarosite) formation; and (3) the association between bacterial cells and tailings minerals were likely facilitated by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The behavior and biogeochemical functionality of A. ferrooxidans in the tailings provide a fundamental basis for developing microbial-based technologies toward eco-engineering soil formation in Fe ore tailings.


Assuntos
Acidithiobacillus , Ferro , Bactérias , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Minerais , Oxirredução , Enxofre
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1687, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727537

RESUMO

Maximizing the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts is vital for the application of single-atom catalysts in industrial water-alkali electrolyzers, yet the modulation of the catalytic properties of single-atom catalysts remains challenging. Here, we construct strain-tunable sulphur vacancies around single-atom Ru sites for accelerating the alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction of single-atom Ru sites based on a nanoporous MoS2-based Ru single-atom catalyst. By altering the strain of this system, the synergistic effect between sulphur vacancies and Ru sites is amplified, thus changing the catalytic behavior of active sites, namely, the increased reactant density in strained sulphur vacancies and the accelerated hydrogen evolution reaction process on Ru sites. The resulting catalyst delivers an overpotential of 30 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2, a Tafel slope of 31 mV dec-1, and a long catalytic lifetime. This work provides an effective strategy to improve the activities of single-atom modified transition metal dichalcogenides catalysts by precise strain engineering.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(6): 7355-7369, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534550

RESUMO

Ni-rich high-energy-density lithium ion batteries pose great risks to safety due to internal short circuits and overcharging; they also have poor performance because of cation mixing and disordering problems. For Ni-rich layered cathodes, these factors cause gas evolution, the formation of side products, and life cycle decay. In this study, a new cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) for Ni2+ self-oxidation is developed. By using a branched oligomer electrode additive, the new CEI is formed and prevents the reduction of Ni3+ to Ni2+ on the surface of Ni-rich layered cathode; this maintains the layered structure and the cation mixing during cycling. In addition, this new CEI ensures the stability of Ni4+ that is formed at 100% state of charge in the crystal lattice at high temperature (660 K); this prevents the rock-salt formation and the over-reduction of Ni4+ to Ni2+. These findings are obtained using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, operando X-ray diffraction, operando gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the new CEI has an elliptical shape on the material surface, which is approximately 100 nm in length and 50 nm in width, and covers selected particle surfaces. After the new CEI was formed on the surface, the Ni2+ self-oxidation gradually affects from the surface to the bulk of the material. It found that the bond energy and bond length of the Ni-O are stabilized, which dramatically inhibit gas evolution. The new CEI is successfully applied in a Ni-rich layered compound, and the 18650- and the punch-type full cells are fabricated. The energy density of the designed cells is up to 300 Wh/kg. Internal short circuit and overcharging safety tests are passed when using the standard regulations of commercial evaluation. This new CEI technology is ready and planned for future applications in electric vehicle and energy storage.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 124988, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472156

RESUMO

The development of hardpan caps has great potential in rehabilitating sulfidic and metallic tailings, which may be accelerated by using exogenous Acidithiobacillus species. The present study aims to establish a bioaugmentation process with exogenous Acidithiobacillus species for accelerating the weathering of sulfidic minerals and formation of secondary mineral gels as precursors for hardpan structure development in a microcosm experiment. Exogenous Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (ATCC 19377) and A. ferrooxidans (DSM 14882) were inoculated in a sulfidic Pb-Zn tailing containing negligible indigenous Acidithiobacillus species for accelerating the weathering of pyrite and metal sulfides. Microspectroscopic analysis revealed that the weathering of pyrite and biotite-like minerals was rapidly accelerated by exogenous Acidithiobacillus species, leading to the formation of secondary jarosite-like mineral gels and cemented profile in the tailings. Meanwhile, approximately 28% Zn liberated from Zn-rich minerals undergoing weathering was observed to be re-immobilized by Fe-rich secondary minerals such as jarosite-like mineral. Moreover, Pb-bearing minerals mostly remained undissolved, but approximately 30% Pb was immobilized by secondary Fe-rich minerals. The present findings revealed the critical role of exogenous Acidithiobacillus species in accelerating the precursory process of mineral weathering and secondary mineral formation for hardpan structure development in sulfidic Pb-Zn tailings.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115453, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254714

RESUMO

The biodegradable S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) is a promising chelant for chelant-assisted phytoextraction of trace metals in polluted soil. The interactions between EDDS and trace metals/major elements in the soil affect the metal bioavailability and their subsequent phytoextraction efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the macroscopic and molecular-level interactions of EDDS with Cu in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere of a Cu-polluted agricultural soil. A multi-interlayer rhizobox planted with ryegrass was used to simulate the transport of EDDS and Cu from the non-rhizosphere to rhizosphere soils. The results showed that EDDS (5 mM kg-1) significantly dissociated Cu (285-690 fold), Fe (by 3.47-60.2 fold), and Al (2.43-5.31 fold) from the soil in comparison with a control group. A combination of micro-X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and sequential extraction analysis revealed that EDDS primarily chelated the adsorbed fraction of Cu by facilitating the dissolution of goethite. Moreover, as facilitated by ryegrass transpiration, CuEDDS was moved from the non-rhizosphere to rhizosphere and accumulated in ryegrass. In situ processes of Cu extraction and transport by EDDS in the rhizosphere were further elucidated with chemical speciation analysis and geochemical modeling methods.


Assuntos
Cobre , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre/análise , Etilenodiaminas , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Succinatos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5657, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168812

RESUMO

The state-of-the-art active HER catalysts in acid media (e.g., Pt) generally lose considerable catalytic performance in alkaline media mainly due to the additional water dissociation step. To address this issue, synergistic hybrid catalysts are always designed by coupling them with metal (hydro)oxides. However, such hybrid systems usually suffer from long reaction path, high cost and complex preparation methods. Here, we discover a single-phase HER catalyst, SrTi0.7Ru0.3O3-δ (STRO) perovskite oxide highlighted with an unusual super-exchange effect, which exhibits excellent HER performance in alkaline media via atomic-scale synergistic active centers. With insights from first-principles calculations, the intrinsically synergistic interplays between multiple active centers in STRO are uncovered to accurately catalyze different elementary steps of alkaline HER; namely, the Ti sites facilitates nearly-barrierless water dissociation, Ru sites function favorably for OH* desorption, and non-metal oxygen sites (i.e., oxygen vacancies/lattice oxygen) promotes optimal H* adsorption and H2 desorption.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5889, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208730

RESUMO

The space charge layer (SCL) is generally considered one of the origins of the sluggish interfacial lithium-ion transport in all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLIBs). However, in-situ visualization of the SCL effect on the interfacial lithium-ion transport in sulfide-based ASSLIBs is still a great challenge. Here, we directly observe the electrode/electrolyte interface lithium-ion accumulation resulting from the SCL by investigating the net-charge-density distribution across the high-voltage LiCoO2/argyrodite Li6PS5Cl interface using the in-situ differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (DPC-STEM) technique. Moreover, we further demonstrate a built-in electric field and chemical potential coupling strategy to reduce the SCL formation and boost lithium-ion transport across the electrode/electrolyte interface by the in-situ DPC-STEM technique and finite element method simulations. Our findings will strikingly advance the fundamental scientific understanding of the SCL mechanism in ASSLIBs and shed light on rational electrode/electrolyte interface design for high-rate performance ASSLIBs.

14.
Science ; 370(6513): 192-197, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033214

RESUMO

High-rate lithium (Li) ion batteries that can be charged in minutes and store enough energy for a 350-mile driving range are highly desired for all-electric vehicles. A high charging rate usually leads to sacrifices in capacity and cycling stability. We report use of black phosphorus (BP) as the active anode for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage. The formation of covalent bonds with graphitic carbon restrains edge reconstruction in layered BP particles to ensure open edges for fast Li+ entry; the coating of the covalently bonded BP-graphite particles with electrolyte-swollen polyaniline yields a stable solid-electrolyte interphase and inhibits the continuous growth of poorly conducting Li fluorides and carbonates to ensure efficient Li+ transport. The resultant composite anode demonstrates an excellent combination of capacity, rate, and cycling endurance.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(39): 43665-43673, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876426

RESUMO

Sodium layered transition-metal oxides have attracted great attention for advanced Na-ion batteries (NIBs) because of their rich structural diversity and superior specific capacity provided by not only cation redox reactions but also possible oxygen-related anionic redox reactions. However, they usually undergo severe electrochemical performance fading, especially the voltage retention during the cationic and anionic redox processes. Herein, we design and synthesize a couple of novel sodium lithium magnesium aluminum manganese oxides (Na0.75Li0.2Mg0.05Al0.05Mn0.7O2) with the same Na+ coordination environment but different oxide layer stacking sequences, namely, P2-NLMAMO and P3-NLMAMO. We systematically investigate and compare the voltage decay phenomenon and the cationic/anionic redox processes under different electrochemical cycling windows combined with ex situ hard and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. The results clearly indicate that the P2-NLMAMO electrode with a lower extent of Mn redox is prone to deliver a superior capacity retention and rate performance, more importantly, a higher average voltage in contrast to the P3-type counterpart. In addition, negligible change is detected for the average discharge voltage upon extended cycling when increasing the discharge cutoff voltage to 2.5 V for both P2-NLMAMO and P3-NLMAMO. This unique feature work provides an effective strategy for developing high-capacity P-type layered cathodes based on both cationic and anionic redox chemistry under controlled crystal structure arrangement, which could lead to a deeper understanding of the correlation between crystal structure and electrochemical performance for NIBs.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4173, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820168

RESUMO

Iron phthalocyanine (FePc) is a promising non-precious catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Unfortunately, FePc with plane-symmetric FeN4 site usually exhibits an unsatisfactory ORR activity due to its poor O2 adsorption and activation. Here, we report an axial Fe-O coordination induced electronic localization strategy to improve its O2 adsorption, activation and thus the ORR performance. Theoretical calculations indicate that the Fe-O coordination evokes the electronic localization among the axial direction of O-FeN4 sites to enhance O2 adsorption and activation. To realize this speculation, FePc is coordinated with an oxidized carbon. Synchrotron X-ray absorption and Mössbauer spectra validate Fe-O coordination between FePc and carbon. The obtained catalyst exhibits fast kinetics for O2 adsorption and activation with an ultralow Tafel slope of 27.5 mV dec-1 and a remarkable half-wave potential of 0.90 V. This work offers a new strategy to regulate catalytic sites for better performance.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(49): 21885-21889, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822086

RESUMO

A general graphene quantum dot-tethering design strategy to synthesize single-atom catalysts (SACs) is presented. The strategy is applicable to different metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) and supports (0D carbon nanosphere, 1D carbon nanotube, 2D graphene nanosheet, and 3D graphite foam) with the metal loading of 3.0-4.5 wt %. The direct transmission electron microscopy imaging and X-ray absorption spectra analyses confirm the atomic dispersed metal in carbon supports. Our study reveals that the abundant oxygenated groups for complexing metal ions and the rich defective sites for incorporating nitrogen are essential to realize the synthesis of SACs. Furthermore, the carbon nanotube supported Ni SACs exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction with nearly 100 % CO selectivity. This universal strategy is expected to open up new research avenues to produce SACs for diverse electrocatalytic applications.

18.
Nanoscale ; 12(35): 18013-18021, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856664

RESUMO

Unraveling the reaction mechanism behind the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) is a crucial step for advancing the development of efficient and selective electrocatalysts to yield valuable chemicals. To understand the mechanism of zinc electrocatalysts toward the CO2RR, a series of thermally oxidized zinc foils is prepared to achieve a direct correlation between the chemical state of the electrocatalyst and product selectivity. The evidence provided by in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction significantly demonstrates that the Zn(ii) and Zn(0) species on the surface are responsible for the production of carbon monoxide (CO) and formate, respectively. Specifically, the destruction of a dense oxide layer on the surface of zinc foil through a thermal oxidation process results in a 4-fold improvement of faradaic efficiency (FE) of formate toward the CO2RR. The results from in situ measurements reveal that the chemical state of zinc electrocatalysts could dominate the product profile for the CO2RR, which provides a promising approach for tuning the product selectivity of zinc electrocatalysts.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2701, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483164

RESUMO

Designing efficient single-atom catalysts (SACs) for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical for water-splitting. However, the self-reconstruction of isolated active sites during OER not only influences the catalytic activity, but also limits the understanding of structure-property relationships. Here, we utilize a self-reconstruction strategy to prepare a SAC with isolated iridium anchored on oxyhydroxides, which exhibits high catalytic OER performance with low overpotential and small Tafel slope, superior to the IrO2. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in combination with theory calculations indicate that the isolated iridium sites undergo a deprotonation process to form the multiple active sites during OER, promoting the O-O coupling. The isolated iridium sites are revealed to remain dispersed due to the support effect during OER. This work not only affords the rational design strategy of OER SACs at the atomic scale, but also provides the fundamental insights of the operando OER mechanism for highly active OER SACs.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(58): 8071-8074, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542250

RESUMO

We demonstrated that the electronic-band structure holds the key to electrocatalytic durability towards the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER). Density functional theory (DFT) revealed the characteristic of Ni-Ni bonding interactions within Ni5P4, Ni5P2 and Ni3P were different and could influence their phase stabilities during the OER. Ni5P2 and Ni3P exhibited very robust OER performances at high current density (>350 mA cm-2) over 12 h whereas, for Ni5P4, obvious deterioration was observed. In situ/ex situ X-ray near-edge structure, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the phase stability of Ni5P4, Ni5P2 and Ni3P behaved differently during the OER. These materials transformed to Ni oxyhydroxide but the process for Ni5P2 and Ni3P was much slower even under high anodic potential 1.6 V (V vs. RHE). These results supported the theoretical prediction and provide a refreshing viewpoint for designing reliable electrocatalysts for the OER.

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