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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266100, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417496

RESUMO

The Psyra Walker, 1860, is a typical Sino-Himalayan genus of the subfamily Ennominae, currently known by 18 species/4 subspecies globally and 9 species from India. This study aims to revise the taxonomy and ecology of Indian Psyra by providing a morphology-based diagnostic key, highlighting their altitudinal, habitat and seasonal preferences, and modelling their distribution based on current and future climatic scenarios. Here, we describe a new species, P. variabilis sp. nov. and document 4 species and 1 subspecies as new to India, viz. P. gracilis, P. szetschwana, P. dsagara, P. falcipennis and P. debilis debilis, thus updating the global species count to 19 with 14 species/1 subspecies from India. We also submitted partial mitochondrial COI sequences of P. crypta, P. similaria, P. spurcataria and P. gracilis as novel to the global genetic database and calculated the overall genetic divergence was 5.17% within the genus, suggesting strong monophyly. Being a typical montane genus, most of the species of Psyra were active within 2000-2280 m altitude, 10.55-15.7°C annual mean temperature, 1200-2300 mm annual precipitation and 168-179 NDVI. Psyra species were predominant in wet temperate, mixed coniferous and moist temperate deciduous forests, their abundance and richness being at peak during post-monsoon months of October-November. The major bioclimatic variables influencing the overall distribution of the genus were mean temperature of warmest quarter, temperature seasonality and precipitation of coldest/driest quarter. While two of the modelled species were predicted to lose area occupancy under future climatic scenarios, the narrow-specialist, Trans-Himalayan species P. debilis debilis was projected to gain up to 75% additional area in the years 2041-60. The results of this study will be helpful to identify sites with maximum area loss projection in ecologically fragile Indian Himalaya and initiating conservation management for such climatically vulnerable insect species groups.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Mariposas , Animais , Ecologia , Florestas , Temperatura
2.
Zootaxa ; 5092(2): 191-208, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391212

RESUMO

The present study discusses the systematic accounts of ten species of the family Notodontidae recorded here for the first time from India. The species were collected from different parts of Indian Himalaya, the majority being reported from the Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh. Among these ten species, we present two new combinations under subfamily Spataliinae, viz. Odnarda leechi comb. nov. and Torona lucida comb. nov. based on the affinities in male genitalia structure with these recently upgraded genera compared to the previously considered expanded concept of Biula and Bireta, respectively. Moreover, three genera under subfamily Notodontinae viz. Himalodontosia, Periphalera and Pseudosomera are newly added to the existing Indian Notodontidae fauna with respective species H. mahendra, P. albicauda and P. noctuiformis yunwu. Another five new records include one species of the subfamily Dudusinae - Tarsolepis taiwana, one species of the subfamily Spataliinae - Ogulina ochrocinerea, and three species of the subfamily Notodontinae - Syntypistis synechochlora, S. witoldi and Ptilodon amplius. Thus, the present study updates the Indian Notodontidae richness to a total of 257 species and 15 subspecies (272 species/subspecies including nominotypical subspecies) under 119 genera. Here, we provide species diagnoses with similar congeners along with habitus, genitalia images, information on the bionomy and distribution map for each of these newly recorded species.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Genitália , Índia , Masculino
3.
Zootaxa ; 5087(4): 558-570, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391270

RESUMO

This catalogue lists 46 valid species included in 7 genera and two subfamilies of the family Hydraenidae (Coleoptera), recorded from India. The subfamily Hydraeninae accommodates 24 species (5 genera), and Ochthebiinae 22 species (2 genera). We include synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and distribution of the species. The Himalayan region supports the maximum diversity (31 species), followed by Deccan Peninsula (5 species), Western-Ghats (5 species), Northeast (4 species), Gangetic Plains (4 species), Semi-Arid (2 species), and Islands (one species).


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Insetos
4.
Zootaxa ; 5105(4): 593-599, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391284

RESUMO

A new species of longhorn beetle, Pelossus indicus sp. nov., is described from Chhattisgarh State, India. This is the first report of this genus from India and the sixth species of Pelossus from Asia. Images of the habitus and genitalia have been provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Genitália , Índia
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetics driven interventions if adopted in conservation breeding projects may enhance the overall success by prioritizing breeding among genetically most competent individuals and delaying or completely diminishing the ill effects of inbreeding. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated genetic make-up of 15 tigers housed at five different captive facilities of West Bengal in India and report the moderate level of genetic variation. We identified five tigers based on individual genetic attributes that may be prioritized for future breeding or animal exchange programmes. The occurrence of first and second order related individuals in captivity require management attention and they should be paired considering their immediate genetic background. CONCLUSION: Considering tiger as a case study, we highlight the use of genetic assessment and necessity to validate the studbook records in formulating adaptive management strategies for long-term conservation and management of species of interest.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 826: 154081, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218816

RESUMO

Trachypithecus geei Khajuria, 1956 or Golden langur are an endangered colobine primate species that are distributed in the transboundary region of Bhutan and India. The species is severely threatened because of increasing habitat fragmentation and isolation across its entire range, especially the populations in Assam, India. The distribution range of the species has not been updated for the last two decades, nor is there any proper evaluation of the habitat requirements for the species. Therefore, we mapped the habitat suitability for the species across its entire distribution and projected its habitat suitability on the simulated landscape for the future (2031). The results indicate that out of the total range extent (66,320 km2), only 12,265 km2 (18.49%) is suitable for the species at present, which will further be reduced to 8884 km2 by the year 2031, indicating major range contraction. These suitable habitats are largely scattered and fragmented in southern range of the species. Among the predictors used, the distance to evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest was the strongest predictor out of the 35 used for model building. Moreover, land use and land cover were found to be more informative than the climatic variables. Much of the suitable habitats of the species are located outside the protected area network in the landscape. Therefore, we identified landscape configurations and suitable habitat areas for the future conservation and monitoring of Golden Langur in the protected areas of its range.


Assuntos
Presbytini , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Primatas
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(2): 279-284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identifying asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 carriage is one of the crucial factors in controlling the COVID 19 pandemic. The relationship between the asymptomatic viral carriage and the rate of seroconversion needs better understanding. The present study was conducted to identify the asymptomatic COVID-19 infection and seropositivity in high-risk contacts in the southern district of Delhi, India. METHODS: Following the screening of 6961 subjects, a total of 407 asymptomatic high-risk subjects were selected. Demographic data, socioeconomic status, and history of COVID-19 related symptoms in the last 4 months were recorded. Blood samples and Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected for the detection of SARS-COV-2 RNA and anti-SARS-COV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: 55 asymptomatic high-risk subjects (13.5%) tested positive for SARS-COV-2 infection and among them, 70.9% remained asymptomatic throughout their course of infection. The seropositivity among the subjects was 28.9% (n â€‹= â€‹118) and was found significantly higher among lower-middle socioeconomic strata (p â€‹= â€‹0.01). The antibody levels were significantly higher (p â€‹= â€‹0.033) in individuals with a previous history of COVID-19 like symptoms as compared to the subjects, who had no such history. Asymptomatic healthcare workers showed a significantly increased rate of SARS-COV-2 infection (p â€‹= â€‹0.004) and seropositivity (p â€‹= â€‹0.005) as compared to the non-healthcare workers. Subjects, who were exposed to infection at their workplace (non-hospital setting) had the least RT-PCR positivity rate (p â€‹= â€‹0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of SARS-COV-2 infection remains completely asymptomatic. The rate of asymptomatic carriage and seropositivity is significantly higher in healthcare workers as compared to the general population. The level of SARS-COV-2 antibodies is directly related to the appearance of symptoms. These observations may contribute to redefining COVID 19 screening, infection control, and professional health practice strategies.

9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 811-816, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is one of the largest deer distributed across diverse habitats of India and threatened due to habitat loss, changes in the land-use patterns, illegal poaching, and anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we report the first population genetics account of sambar deer from the Western Himalayas. METHODS AND RESULTS: We observed relatively compromised genetic diversity (π = 0.0008 ± 0.0006 at mtDNA and Ho = 0.499 ± 0.056 at nDNA). We identified 60 unique individuals using a select panel of seven loci (PID sib cum 1.60E-03). Bayesian skyline plot showed a stable demographic history since the past 8 kyr with a decline in recent years. The population lacked genetic structuring, likely due to the contiguous distribution and large dispersal patterns of sambar. CONCLUSION: The preliminary findings are valuable in exploring the utility of genetic diversity in monitoring the sambar population, estimating density following capture-recapture analysis, and aid to the conservation planning of sambar in large landscapes.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cervos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Fezes/química , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(2): 1573-1579, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), which persists in most of its historic range, is experiencing steady population decline due to habitat loss, anthrophonic disturbances, illegal poaching for their body parts, and retaliatory killings in response to the leopard-human conflicts. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 143 scats samples and identified 32 unique leopards following a selected panel of seven loci with cumulative PID sibs 5.30E-04. We observed moderate genetic diversity at nuclear (Ho = 0.600 ± 0.06) and mitochondrial markers (Hd = 0.569 ± 0.009; π = 0.001 ± 0.0002) and found sub-structuring in the leopard population at Uttarkashi, Western Himalayas. CONCLUSIONS: The present study exhibits the utility of non-invasive genetics in monitoring the leopard population and paves the path to investigate population genetic parameters in further studies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Panthera/genética , Animais , Ásia , Crime/tendências , Ecossistema , Fezes/química , Variação Genética/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21926, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754005

RESUMO

Exploring the gut microbiome is an emerging tool for monitoring wildlife health and physiological conditions which often sustained under the variety of stresses and challenges. We analyzed gut microbiome of Arunachal macaque (Macaca munzala) of two disjunct populations from Arunachal Pradesh, India, to validate whether the geography or the feeding habits plays a principal role in shaping the gut microbiome in natural populations. We observed geography has a mere effect but feeding habits (i.e. feeding upon the leftover food and crop-raiding) significantly influenced the gut microbiome composition. The phylum Proteobacteria found to be enriched in leftover feeding group while phylum Bacteroidetes was differentially abundant in crop-raiding group. We observed predominant phyla Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with the dominant classes represented by the Clostridia. Interestingly, one individual with known diarrheal/metabolic disorder exhibited complete dominance of the order Bacillales and showed 100% sequence similarity with genus Solibacillus. We raise concern that shift in diet of macaques may compel them to expose for various human diseases as two macaques feeding upon the leftover food exhibited dysbiotic gut microbiome. The present study provides the pragmatic evidences of how the alteration of food resources can harm the physiological condition of the macaques in wild and raises alarm to the forest officials/managers in strategise planting of natural food resources and monitor anthropogenic activities in the distribution of Arunachal macaques.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Macaca/microbiologia , Macaca/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Zootaxa ; 5020(1): 81-100, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810419

RESUMO

This catalogue of the Indian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is based primarily on an extensive survey of published data. A total of 67 species of Alysiinae including 13 genera and 60 species in the tribe Alysiini and five genera and seven species in Dacnusini are reported from India. Taxonomic history with details of synonyms, along with type localities, type depositories, and distribution in different states of India and biogeographic zones are provided. Two new combinations are proposed: Dinotrema viructae (Fischer, 1993) comb. nov. and Dinotrema matherana (Fischer, 1993) comb. nov. and one species is considered as an unavailable name. The Himalaya Biogeographic Zone supports the maximum diversity (45 species), followed by the Gangetic Plains (12 species), North-East (4 species), Western Ghats (4 species), Deccan Peninsula (4 species) and Semi-Arid (3 species).


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais
14.
Zootaxa ; 5068(3): 355-377, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810704

RESUMO

The present paper adds to the knowledge of the family Mantispidae from India. Herein we describe two new Euclimacia species: E. similis sp. nov. from Madhya Pradesh and E. nicobarica sp. nov. from Andaman Nicobar Islands. A new combination is also proposed: Mantispilla coorgensis (Ohl, 2004a) comb. nov. With these additions, the family is now represented in India by 22 species in eight genera.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Índia , Insetos
15.
Zootaxa ; 5004(4): 501-520, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811292

RESUMO

A new species, Pieris tadokoroi, sp. nov. is described from Himachal Pradesh, India. The new species is closely similar to those of the Pieris napi group and can be diagnosed by its smaller size and a broad apical forewing patch. Based on the recently collected material, the Pieris napi group from India is reviewed. The male and female genitalia are analyzed and illustrated, including the first description of the female genitalia of Pieris extensa bhutya Talbot, 1939. Androconia of all the related species are studied and described.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Índia , Masculino
16.
Zootaxa ; 5004(2): 311-342, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811305

RESUMO

The Genus Phlogophora Treitschke, 1825 (Noctuidae: Xyleninae), widely distributed in Palaearctic and Oriental realms, is especially diverse within Indian Himalaya with 12 known species till now. Current communication reports three species new to India viz. P. meticulodina (Draudt, 1950), P. nobilis Hreblay Ronkay, 1998 and P. szecsenyii Hreblay Ronkay, 1998 and a new species P. similis Bandyopadhyay, Mallick, Sanyal Chandra sp. nov., thus bringing the species number to 16 for the country, along with taxonomic key with morphology and genitalia-based diagnosis for all the Indian/Himalayan species. Out of those species, partial mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) sequences were generated for 6 species, of which 5 were novel to the NCBI GenBank. The genus had maximum species richness and abundance in Eastern Himalayan Temperate Forest spanning 18002500 m in Central Himalayan landscape of Darjeeling-Sikkim and Nepal. Current Habitat suitability model of six Phlogophora species indicated that temperature dependent variables like Temperature Annual Range, Temperature Seasonality and Elevation are the most contributing factors for their predicted distribution range. The genus comprising of both Polycyclic and Monocyclic species became most abundant during Post-monsoon, in cold (911 C) and humid (8791%) nights, in areas with Annual Mean Temperature ranging within 4.619.9 C and Annual Precipitation of 10002800 mm.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Genitália , Temperatura
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(11): 7609-7615, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral), solitary cliff-dwelling species and are distributed throughout the Indian Himalayan region. Its populations across the range are facing severe threats due to habitat loss, fragmentation and changes in the land-use patterns by various anthropogenic activities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out genetic analyses of Himalayan goral using the mitochondrial control regions and microsatellite loci (n = 10) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. We reported a moderate genetic diversity at nuclear (Ho 0.602 ± 0.057) and mitochondrial markers (Hd-0.6931 ± 0.053; π-0.0048 ± 001). Bayesian skyline plot indicates a sharp decline in the goral population in the last 100 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the population of Himalayan goral in Uttarkashi is under panmictic condition, plausibly due to long-ranging behaviour. The present study laid the foundation for future non-invasive genetics monitoring and detailed population genetic assessment of goral from the entire range in the Western Himalayas.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Ruminantes/genética , Animais , Genética Populacional , Índia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351983

RESUMO

The present study aims to explore the mammalian diversity of Darjeeling district using camera traps along with questionnaire survey in protected area (PA) and non- protected area (Non-PA). We also attempted to understand the influence of habitat variables on mammalian species richness using the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). A total of 30 mammal species were recorded of which 21 species were detected through camera trapping with the most abundant records of barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and least of the elusive Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Additionally, melanistic forms of four mammals were also recorded. The mammalian species richness, their capture rate and naïve occupancy did not differ significantly among the PA and Non-PA. The GLMM revealed that the proportions of oak and bamboo in the forest, percentage canopy cover and camera trap operational days (wAICc = 0.145, wBIC = 0.603) were significant predictors of species richness in the study. We suggest Non-PA forest of Darjeeling should be given equal conservation importance as to the PA. Landscape based conservation planning will be imperative for achieving long term conservation goals in the study area.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Geografia , Modelos Lineares , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(5): 1586-1591, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212080

RESUMO

The Pegu Rice Frog, Microhyla berdmorei is distributed across ten Asian countries. However, the DNA barcoding information (COI gene) is restricted to only Southeast Asian countries. Here, we sampled a specimen of M. berdmorei in Mizoram state, northeast India to allow the genetic diversity of the species across its range. We generated both COI and 16S ribosomal RNA sequences of the studied species to check the population genetic diversity. The Bayesian analyses clearly discriminate M. berdmorei from its sister species Microhyla pulchra. The present datasets of M. berdmorei also revealed 11 and 19 haplotypes with high uncorrected pairwise genetic distances in COI (3.8-11.8%) and 16S rRNA (0-4.6%) gene, respectively. Owing to the high intra-species genetic distances and different haplotypes with sufficient mutational steps in both mitochondrial genes, this study affirms the existence of M. berdmorei species complex or cryptic diversity within its range distribution in South and Southeast Asia.

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