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1.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 59(2): 269-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130989

RESUMO

Bisphosphonates (BP) are used to treat osteoporosis, although rare atypical femur fractures have occurred with long-term exposure, especially among Asians. Metatarsal fractures have also been reported with atypical femur fracture. We examined the epidemiology of metatarsal fractures among 48,390 females aged ≥50 years who initiated oral BP and were followed for a median 7.7 years, including 68 females who experienced an atypical femur fracture. Incident metatarsal fractures after BP initiation were identified by clinical diagnoses and validated by record review. The association of BP, clinical risk factors, race/ethnicity, and metatarsal fracture was examined by using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Among 1123 females with incident metatarsal fracture, 61.0% had an isolated fifth metatarsal fracture. The incidence of metatarsal fracture was 312 per 100,000 person-years of follow-up and was substantially lower for Asians. The adjusted relative rate for metatarsal fractures was 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 0.6) for Asians compared with whites. Younger age, prior fracture, other risk factors, and current BP were associated with an increased relative rate of metatarsal fracture, but BP duration was not. Females with atypical femur fracture were not more likely to experience metatarsal fracture (2.9% versus 2.3%, p = .7), but only 68 females had an atypical fracture and stress fracture of the metatarsals was not examined. Except for age, the demographic profile for metatarsal fracture after initiating BP was similar to that for osteoporotic fracture, with Asians at a much lower risk. Although metatarsal fractures were not associated with BP duration or atypical femur fracture, the subset of metatarsal stress fractures was not specifically examined.

2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(3): 581-589, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess fracture risk among women with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), oral contraceptive pill (OCP), and intrauterine device (IUD) use. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 308,876 women age 12-45 years who initiated DMPA, combined or progestin-only OCPs, and copper and levonorgestrel IUDs from 2005 to 2015. Cumulative DMPA, OCP, and IUD use was assessed. Time since last DMPA injection was quantified as recent (within 2 years) and past (more than 2 years ago). Crude fracture rate was estimated using a Poisson distribution. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of women used DMPA, 78.6% combined OCPs, 17.4% progestin-only OCPs, and 26.2% IUDs; 29.5% used more than one method. There were 7,659 fractures in 1,391,251 person-years (5.5/1,000 person-years [95% CI 5.4-5.6]). The fracture rate for women with any DMPA use was 6.6 (95% CI 6.1-7.2) and 7.8 (95% CI 6.0-10.0) for women with recent use and more than 2 years of cumulative use. Women who had recent use with 2 years or less, or more than 2 years of cumulative use had higher fracture risk compared with women who had no DMPA use and used other methods (adjusted HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01-1.31] and 1.42 [95% CI 1.10-1.83], respectively). Fracture risk was not increased in women with past DMPA use. Women who had more than 2 years cumulative use of combined OCPs and women with any progestin-only OCP use had lower fracture risk compared with women who did not use OCPs and used other methods (adjusted HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.76-0.96] and 0.88 [95% CI 0.80-0.97], respectively). CONCLUSION: Use of DMPA beyond 2 years should not be considered an absolute contraindication. Although DMPA use was associated with slightly increased fracture risk compared with other methods, the absolute risk of fracture was small and was not observed after discontinuation.

4.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(6): 719-723, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assigning drug exposure is a necessary first step in examining bisphosphonate (BP) treatment in observational studies using pharmacy data. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the choice of adherence level using the proportion of days covered (PDC) affected BP exposure assignment. METHODS: 10,381 female health plan members who initiated oral BP therapy between 2002 and 2010 and had received 5 consecutive years of treatment were identified and subsequently followed up to 5 additional years. In each 90-day interval of follow-up, a woman was considered "on treatment" if she received the drug for more than a predetermined PDC based on pharmacy days supply and "off treatment" if she received the drug for less than that PDC. Women who continued on therapy above the PDC threshold during follow-up were considered continuously on therapy. Women who were off treatment during the first 90-days of follow-up were classified as off therapy and were followed to determine if they remained continuously off treatment. This study evaluated the extent to which varying the PDC threshold (≥ 0.5, ≥ 0.6, and ≥ 0.7) affected the proportion of women classified as "continuously on" or "continuously off" BP during follow-up. RESULTS: Under PDC thresholds of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7, 48%, 43%, and 36% of women who remained on follow-up were categorized as continuously on treatment at year 2 of follow-up, and 18%, 14%, and 12% were categorized as continuously on treatment by the end of follow-up. Using these same PDC thresholds, 9%, 12%, and 15% of women were categorized as off therapy during the first quarter of follow-up and were highly likely to remain off therapy: 4%, 5%, and 5% were classified as continuously off therapy at year 2, and 4% of women were classified as such by the end of follow-up for all 3 thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: A PDC of 0.6 was chosen as a practical threshold for drug adherence. Varying the PDC to 0.5 or 0.7 resulted in modest changes in the proportions of women considered continuously on BP therapy. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Aging and National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (R01AG047230, S1). Lo has received previous research funding from Amgen and Sanofi, outside of the current study. Chandra has received previous research funding from Amgen outside of the current study. Adams has received previous research funding from Merck, Amgen, Otsuka, and Radius Health, outside of the current study. Ott previously attended a scientific advisory meeting for Amgen but declined the honorarium. Ettinger previously served as an expert witness for Teva Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
6.
Med Care ; 56(7): 577-582, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contraceptive nonadherence is an important contributor to unintended pregnancy in the United States. While the elimination of patient cost sharing has been cited as means to improve contraceptive access, little is known about the relationship between cost sharing and ongoing adherence and continuation of chosen methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between copayment amount and adherence to pharmacy-dispensed contraception in young women. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 39,142 women ages 19-29 with a new prescription for the contraceptive pill, patch, or ring at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2011-2014. We examined 12-month nonadherence as measured by timely prescription refills and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between copayment amount and the risk of nonadherence. RESULTS: Ninety-four percent of women used the pill, and 6% used the patch or ring. Forty percent of patients had no copayment and 25% had a copayment of ≥$30. Nearly 75% of women were nonadherent during the study period. In 2013 and 2014, women with a copayment had a 9% increased risk of nonadherence (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 1.14) compared with women with no copayment. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription copayments may serve as a barrier to adherence of pharmacy-dispensed contraception. Given recent changes to Affordable Care Act contraceptive coverage requirement, these findings can be used to support state-level and health system-level policies for no-cost contraception, and to determine the potential public health impact of this policy change.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , California , Anticoncepção/economia , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Estatísticos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Am J Manag Care ; 23(9): 560-564, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine temporal trends and racial/ethnic differences in hip fracture incidence and mortality outcome in older men. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We ascertained men 50 years or older with a hip fracture during 2000 to 2010 in a diverse northern California healthcare population. Age, comorbidity index, hip fracture incidence, and all-cause mortality up to 12 months post fracture were examined and compared by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: A total of 6247 men (aged 79.3 ± 9.8 years) experienced a hip fracture during 2000 to 2010: 81.4% were white, 7.5% Hispanic, 3.8% black, and 3.9% Asian. The age-adjusted annual incidence of hip fracture averaged 127 per 100,000, ranging from 116 to 139 per 100,000 during this period. In 2010, the age-adjusted incidence of hip fracture was highest among white men (137), followed by Hispanic (98) and black (80), and was lowest among Asian men (45 per 100,000). Mortality following hip fracture was 11.1%, 19.8%, 25.4%, and 32.9%, within 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, and increased with age. One-year mortality was similar for whites (33.7%), blacks (32.4%), and Hispanics (31.1%), but lower for Asians (23.1%; P <.05). Adjusting for age, comorbidity index, and calendar year, Asians remained at lower mortality risk compared with whites (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Although hip fracture rates were largely stable among older men, contemporary rates of hip fracture were highest for white and lowest for Asian men. One-year mortality was similar for white, black, and Hispanic men, but significantly lower for Asians. Future studies should investigate factors underlying observed ethnic differences in fracture outcome among US men.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 23(4): 503-512, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examining drug exposure is essential to pharmacovigilance, especially for bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in 4 measures of oral BP exposure: treatment discontinuation, adherence, persistence, and nonpersistence. METHODS: Among women aged ≥ 50 years who initiated oral BP therapy during 2002-2007 with at least 3 years of health plan membership follow-up, discontinuation was defined by evidence of no further treatment during the study observation period. Among those with at least 2 filled BP prescriptions during the study period, adherence was calculated for each year of follow-up using the (modified) proportion of days covered (mPDC) metric that allows for stockpiling of prescription/refills overlap ≤ 30 days supply. Persistence was quantified by treatment duration, allowing a gap of up to 60 days between prescription/refill days covered. Nonpersistence was quantified by the periods without drugs outside this allowable gap. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare age and race groups and the relationships of early adherence (adherence during the first year) with subsequent adherence. RESULTS: Among 48,390 women initiating oral BP therapy and followed for 3 years, 26.7% discontinued in year 1, and 14.7% of the remaining 35,456 women discontinued in year 2. Discontinuation rates were slightly higher (29.4%, P < 0.001) for women aged ≥ 75 years and somewhat lower (21.1%, P < 0.001) for Asian women. During the first year, 60.4% of the women achieved an mPDC of ≥ 75%, with demographic differences in adherence similar to that seen for treatment discontinuation. Over the 3 years, the median mPDC levels for BP therapy were 86%, 84%, and 85% in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively, for those receiving treatment. Cumulative persistence was 2.3 years (median, IQR = 1.0-3.0) overall and slightly greater for Asian versus white women and lower for older women. There were 18,174 (42.9%) women with at least 1 period of nonpersistence during 3 years follow-up in excess of the 60-day allowable gap between prescription/refills (median cumulative nonpersistence = 0.65, IQR = 0.30-1.25 years). Women with mPDC ≥ 75% during the first year had a 12-fold and 6-fold increased odds of mPDC ≥ 75% during year 2 and year 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BP discontinuation rates are highest for women during the first year. Among those continuing treatment in subsequent years, adherence rates were relatively stable. Persistence and adherence varied slightly by age and was somewhat higher in Asians, contributing to differences in cumulative BP exposure. We also found evidence that optimal adherence in the first year was highly predictive of optimal adherence in the subsequent 1-2 years. Hence, subgroups of patients receiving oral BP drugs may require different levels of support and monitoring to maximize treatment benefit, especially based on early patterns of use. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by grants from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Community Benefit Program and the National Institutes of Health, 1R01AG047230-01A1. The opinions expressed in this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of Kaiser Permanente or the National Institutes of Health. Hui, Yi, and Chandra have received past research funding from Amgen not related to the current study. Adams has received research funding from Amgen, Merck, and Otsuka not related to the current study. Niu has received research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb not related to the current study. Ettinger has received past legal fees in litigation involving Fosamax. Lo has received past research funding from Amgen and current research funding from Sanofi not related to the current study. The data from this study were presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 19-22, 2016; San Francisco, California. Study concept and design were contributed primarily by Hui and Lo, along with Adams, Niu, Yi, and Ettinger. Hui took the lead in data collection, along with Chandra, and data interpretation was performed by Niu, Yi, and Lo, along with the other authors. The manuscript was written by Hui, Adams, and Lo, along with Niu, Yi, and Ettinger, and revised by Ettinger, Hui, Lo, and Niu, along with the other authors.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Americanos Asiáticos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Heart ; 102(15): 1177-82, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27030599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) is a novel biomarker of myocardial injury and ischaemia. Our objective was to ascertain correlates of hs-cTnI and its incremental prognostic utility for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among older asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: We performed a cohort study among 1135 asymptomatic control participants in the ADVANCE (Atherosclerotic Disease, VAscular FunctioN and GenetiC Epidemiology) study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Stanford University, with follow-up through 31 December 2014. Hs-cTnI was measured in stored baseline (2002-2004) serum samples. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.3 years, 164 CHD events were documented. The most significant correlates of hs-cTnI were black race, body mass index, hypertension, LDL cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (R(2)=0.16) After adjustment for race/ethnicity, education level, diabetes status, ATP-III Framingham risk score (FRS), C reactive protein and eGFR, each 1 SD increment of log-transformed Hs-cTnI was associated with 1.11 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.23, p=0.04) increased hazard of CHD. The c-statistic increased to 0.70 from 0.68 (p=0.16) and the category-based net reclassification index was 18% (95% CI 8% to 30%) after adding hs-cTnI to the model containing the ATP-III FRS. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-cTnI conveys incremental prognostic information for incident CHD among asymptomatic older adults.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/sangue , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
11.
J Obes ; 2016: 4287976, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26885385

RESUMO

Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3-5, 44.2% were 6-11, and 41.6% were 12-17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Bone ; 85: 142-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several epidemiologic studies suggest that compared to white women, Asians have a greater propensity to suffer an atypical femur fracture (AFF) while taking bisphosphonate therapy. This study examines the relative risk of AFF following bisphosphonate initiation for Asian compared to white women. METHODS: Using data from a large integrated northern California healthcare delivery system, we examined diaphyseal femur fracture outcomes among women age≥50years old who initiated oral bisphosphonate therapy during 2002-2007. An AFF was defined by the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force criteria. The risk of radiographically-confirmed AFF was examined for Asian compared to white women, adjusting for differences in bisphosphonate exposure and other potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 48,390 women (65.3% white, 17.1% Asian) who newly initiated bisphosphonate therapy and were followed for a median of 7.7years, 68 women experienced an AFF. The rate of AFF was 18.7 per 100,000 person-years overall and eight-fold higher among Asian compared to white women (64.2 versus 7.6 per 100,000 person-years). Asians were also more likely to have longer bisphosphonate treatment duration compared to whites (median 3.8 versus 2.7years). The age-adjusted relative hazard for AFF was 8.5 (95% confidence interval 4.9-14.9) comparing Asian to white women, and was only modestly reduced to 6.6 (3.7-11.5) after adjusting for bisphosphonate duration and current use. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms marked racial disparity in AFF risk that should be further investigated, particularly the mechanisms accounting for this difference. These findings also underscore the need to further examine the association of bisphosphonate duration and AFF in women of Asian race, as well as differential risk across Asian subgroups. In the interim, counseling of Asian women about osteoporosis drug continuation should include consideration of their potentially higher AFF risk.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos , Fraturas do Fêmur/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Manag Care ; 21(3): e206-14, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26014308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine contemporary trends in mortality following hip fracture among older postmenopausal women in an integrated healthcare delivery system. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 13,550 women aged ≥65 years with hip fracture during 2000 to 2010. METHODS: Demographic factors, comorbidity index score, fracture history, early rehospitalization, and all-cause mortality within 1 year following hip fracture were examined using health plan databases and records. Temporal trends, risk factors, and the association of race/ethnicity and mortality within 1 year post fracture were examined using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 13,550 women with hip fracture, 84.6% were aged ≥75 years: 83.6% were white, 2.8% black, 5.6% Hispanic, 4.5% Asian, and 3.5% of other/unknown race. Following hip fracture, 2.4% died during the index hospitalization, while 12.3% were rehospitalized within 30 days of discharge. Infection, pneumonia, and cardiovascular conditions were the most common nonorthopedic indications for readmission. Mortality rates at 6 months (17%) and 1 year (22.8%) following hip fracture were high and increased with age. Greater comorbidity and early rehospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, while Asian and Hispanic race/ethnicity were associated with lower mortality risk (vs white). Temporal trends demonstrated a small but significant reduction in mortality risk during 2004 to 2010. CONCLUSIONS: While hip fracture morbidity and mortality remain high, temporal trends suggest recent declines in mortality risk, with risk of death following hip fracture lower for Asian and Hispanic women. Future studies should examine potential benefits of targeted interventions within integrated healthcare settings and factors contributing to observed racial/ethnic differences in post fracture survival.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Thyroid ; 25(6): 698-705, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25747892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has focused on the prevalence and outcomes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, given concerns for hepatotoxicity and embryopathy associated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs). METHODS: In an integrated health care delivery system, we examined the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis and gestational ATD use (propylthiouracil [PTU] or methimazole [MMI]) in women with delivered pregnancies from 1996 to 2010. Birth outcomes were compared among all infants and those born to mothers with diagnosed thyrotoxicosis or ATD therapy during gestation, with examination of ATD-associated hepatotoxicity and congenital malformations in the latter subgroups. RESULTS: Among 453,586 mother-infant pairs (maternal age 29.7±6.0 years, 57.1% nonwhite), 3.77 per 1000 women had diagnosed thyrotoxicosis and 1.29 per 1000 had gestational ATD exposure (86.5% PTU, 5.1% MMI, 8.4% both). Maternal PTU-associated hepatotoxicity occurred with a frequency of 1.80 per 1000 pregnancies. Infants of mothers with diagnosed thyrotoxicosis (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI 1.05-1.55]) or gestational ATD use (OR 1.31 [1.00-1.72]) had an increased risk of preterm birth compared to those born to mothers without thyrotoxicosis or ATD. The risk of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission was also higher with maternal thyrotoxicosis (OR 1.30 [1.07-1.59]) and ATD exposure (OR 1.64 [CI 1.26-2.13]), adjusting for prematurity. Congenital malformation rates were low and similar among infants born to mothers with thyrotoxicosis or ATD exposure (30-44 per 1000 infants). CONCLUSIONS: Gestational ATD exposure occurred in 1.29 per 1000 mother-infant pairs while a much larger number had maternal diagnosed thyrotoxicosis but no drug exposure during pregnancy. Infants of mothers with gestational ATD use or diagnosed thyrotoxicosis were more likely to be preterm and admitted to the NICU. The rates of congenital malformation were low for mothers diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and did not differ by ATD use. Among women with gestational PTU therapy, the frequency of PTU-associated hepatotoxicity was 1.8 per 1000 delivered pregnancies. These findings from a large, population-based cohort provide generalizable estimates of maternal and infant risks associated with maternal thyrotoxicosis and related pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Antitireóideos/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Tireotoxicose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Metimazol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Propiltiouracila/efeitos adversos , Propiltiouracila/uso terapêutico , Tireotoxicose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e111477, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354083

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI) users before breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001). Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 7(5): 718-26, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25160839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9 to 11 years and 17 to 21 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides (age, 10-19 years). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with body mass index, particularly for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese when compared with that in normal weight children). CONCLUSIONS: Lipid screening was uncommon in 9- to 11-year olds and was performed in a minority of 17- to 19-year olds during 2007 to 2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Pediatr Endocrinol ; 2014(1): 3, 2014 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24580759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newer approaches for classifying gradations of pediatric obesity by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th percentile have recently been recommended in the management and tracking of obese children. Examining the prevalence and persistence of severe obesity using such methods along with the associations with other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is important for characterizing the clinical significance of severe obesity classification methods. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in an integrated healthcare delivery system to characterize obesity and obesity severity in children and adolescents by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th BMI percentile, to examine tracking of obesity status over 2-3 years, and to examine associations with blood pressure. Moderate obesity was defined by BMI 100-119% of the 95th percentile and severe obesity by BMI ≥120% × 95th percentile. Hypertension was defined by 3 consecutive blood pressures ≥95th percentile (for age, sex and height) on separate days and was examined in association with obesity severity. RESULTS: Among 117,618 children aged 6-17 years with measured blood pressure and BMI at a well-child visit during 2007-2010, the prevalence of obesity was 17.9% overall and was highest among Hispanics (28.9%) and blacks (20.5%) for boys, and blacks (23.3%) and Hispanics (21.5%) for girls. Severe obesity prevalence was 5.6% overall and was highest in 12-17 year old Hispanic boys (10.6%) and black girls (9.5%). Subsequent BMI obtained 2-3 years later also demonstrated strong tracking of severe obesity. Stratification of BMI by percentage above the 95th BMI percentile was associated with a graded increase in the risk of hypertension, with severe obesity contributing to a 2.7-fold greater odds of hypertension compared to moderate obesity. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity was found in 5.6% of this community-based pediatric population, varied by gender and race/ethnicity (highest among Hispanics and blacks) and showed strong evidence for persistence over several years. Increasing gradation of obesity was associated with higher risk for hypertension, with a nearly three-fold increased risk when comparing severe to moderate obesity, underscoring the heightened health risk associated with severe obesity in children and adolescents.

19.
J Bone Oncol ; 3(2): 49-53, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk for femur fracture. Contributing factors include estrogen deficiency, cancer-related therapies, or direct bone involvement. This study examines fracture subtypes in women with prior breast cancer experiencing a femur fracture. METHODS: Women age ≥50 years old with a history of invasive breast cancer who experienced a femur fracture were identified during 2005-2012. Fracture site was classified by hospital diagnosis (for hip) and/or radiologic findings (for femoral diaphysis), with subtype classification as pathologic, atypical or fragility fracture. Clinical characteristics were ascertained using health plan databases and disease registries. RESULTS: There were 802 women with prior breast cancer who experienced a femur fracture. The mean age at fracture was 80.5±9.6 years, with most fractures (93.8%) occurring in the hip and only 6.2% in the femoral diaphysis. However, diaphyseal fractures accounted for 23.6% of fractures in younger women (age ≤65 years). Pathologic fractures comprised 9.6% of total fractures (56.0% of diaphyseal fractures) and accounted for half the fractures in younger women. An atypical fracture pattern was seen in 1% of all femur fractures and 16.0% of diaphyseal fractures, with prior bisphosphonate exposure in all atypical fracture cases. CONCLUSION: Most femur fractures in women with prior breast cancer occurred in the hip. Among younger women and those experiencing diaphyseal fractures, a larger proportion were pathologic and some were found to be atypical. Further studies should examine risk factors for femur fracture in women with breast cancer with specific attention to fracture subtype and pharmacologic exposures.

20.
Pediatrics ; 132(2): e349-55, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23821694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Screening for hypertension in children occurs during routine care. When blood pressure (BP) is elevated in the hypertensive range, a repeat measurement within 1 to 2 weeks is recommended. The objective was to assess patterns of care after an incident elevated BP, including timing of repeat BP measurement and likelihood of persistently elevated BP. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in 3 health care organizations. All children aged 3 through 17 years with an incident elevated BP at an outpatient visit during 2007 through 2010 were identified. Within this group, we assessed the proportion who had a repeat BP measured within 1 month of their incident elevated BP and the proportion who subsequently met the definition of hypertension. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with follow-up BP within 1 month of initial elevated BP. RESULTS: Among 72,625 children and adolescents in the population, 6108 (8.4%) had an incident elevated BP during the study period. Among 6108 with an incident elevated BP, 20.9% had a repeat BP measured within 1 month. In multivariate analyses, having a follow-up BP within 1 month was not significantly more likely among individuals with obesity or stage 2 systolic elevation. Among 6108 individuals with an incident elevated BP, 84 (1.4%) had a second and third consecutive elevated BP within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas >8% of children and adolescents had an incident elevated BP, the great majority of BPs were not repeated within 1 month. However, relatively few individuals subsequently met the definition of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Padrões de Prática Médica , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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