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1.
Lupus ; 30(1): 109-117, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether children with autoimmune cytopenias prior to or at diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE), differ phenotypically from other cSLE patients; and have a lower risk and severity of lupus nephritis (LN) as observed in prior adult studies. To assess the effect of prior immune therapy for autoimmune cytopenias on 2-year risk of LN. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of incident cSLE cases. We included patients aged less than 17 years at diagnosis. We excluded patients with LN at cSLE diagnosis. Our follow-up period was 2 years. We defined autoimmune cytopenias as either autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia or Evan's syndrome. RESULTS: Forty-three (33%) of the 130 patients had autoimmune cytopenias before or at cSLE diagnosis. Those with autoimmune cytopenias had significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms and higher mean ESR but less arthritis, malar rash and myositis versus those without autoimmune cytopenias. They had lower 2-year incidence proportion of LN compared to other cSLE patients (7% vs 15%). Of the 16 patients who developed LN, those with autoimmune cytopenias had mostly class V (2 of 3 patients) versus mostly class III and IV in those without autoimmune cytopenias (6 of 12 patients). None of the 13 patients pre-treated for autoimmune cytopenias developed LN. CONCLUSION: Patients with autoimmune cytopenias before or at cSLE diagnosis have intriguing differences from other cSLE patients. They may represent a unique sub-type of cSLE patients and should be further explored.

2.
Blood Adv ; 4(23): 6039-6050, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284946

RESUMO

Castleman disease (CD) includes a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders with characteristic lymph node histopathological abnormalities. CD can occur in a single lymph node station, which is referred to as unicentric CD (UCD). CD can also involve multicentric lymphadenopathy and inflammatory symptoms (multicentric CD [MCD]). MCD includes human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-associated MCD, POEMS-associated MCD, and HHV-8-/idiopathic MCD (iMCD). The first-ever diagnostic and treatment guidelines were recently developed for iMCD by an international expert consortium convened by the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network (CDCN). The focus of this report is to establish similar guidelines for the management of UCD. To this purpose, an international working group of 42 experts from 10 countries was convened to establish consensus recommendations based on review of treatment in published cases of UCD, the CDCN ACCELERATE registry, and expert opinion. Complete surgical resection is often curative and is therefore the preferred first-line therapy, if possible. The management of unresectable UCD is more challenging. Existing evidence supports that asymptomatic unresectable UCD may be observed. The anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody siltuximab should be considered for unresectable UCD patients with an inflammatory syndrome. Unresectable UCD that is symptomatic as a result of compression of vital neighboring structures may be rendered amenable to resection by medical therapy (eg, rituximab, steroids), radiotherapy, or embolization. Further research is needed in UCD patients with persisting constitutional symptoms despite complete excision and normal laboratory markers. We hope that these guidelines will improve outcomes in UCD and help treating physicians decide the best therapeutic approach for their patients.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A need exists for reduced toxicity conditioning regimens that offer less toxicity while maintaining myeloablation, especially for primary immune deficiencies where myeloablation or high donor myeloid chimerism is required to achieve cure. We adapted a busulfan and fludarabine regimen by Gungor et al. for children and young adults undergoing allogeneic HCT for non-CGD primary immune deficiencies requiring myeloablation or high donor myeloid chimerism, and herein report our experience. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 41 consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic HCT for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (n = 12), primary HLH/XLP (n = 10), CD40L deficiency (n = 7), or other (n = 12) primary immune deficiencies with a conditioning regimen containing pharmacokinetic-guided busulfan dosing which achieved a cumulative AUC between 57 and 74 mg/L × h (65-80% of conventional myeloablative exposure), along with fludarabine and alemtuzumab or anti-thymocyte globulin at 3 transplant centers between 2014 and 2019. RESULTS: Forty-one patients underwent a first (n = 33) or second (n = 8) allogeneic HCT. Median age was 2.3 years (range, 0.3 years-19.8 years). All but one patient (97.5%) achieved neutrophil recovery at a median of 14 days (range, 11-34 days). One patient developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and two patients developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Four patients developed grades II-IV acute GVHD. Three patients developed chronic GVHD. One-year overall survival was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81-99%) and event-free survival was 83% (95% CI 71-94%). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that a reduced toxicity busulfan-fludarabine regimen offers low toxicity, low incidence of grades 2-4 GVHD, durable myeloid engraftment, and excellent survival, and may be considered for a variety of primary immune deficiencies where myeloablative HCT is desired.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated lung injury and systemic hyperinflammation are characteristic of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults. Although the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections in pediatric populations result in minimal or mild COVID-19 in the acute phase of infection, a small subset of children develop severe and even critical disease in this phase with concomitant inflammation that may benefit from immunomodulation. Therefore, guidance is needed regarding immunomodulatory therapies in the setting of acute pediatric COVID-19. This document does not provide guidance regarding the recently emergent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of pediatric subspecialty physicians and pharmacists with expertise in infectious diseases, rheumatology, hematology/oncology, and critical care medicine was convened. Guidance statements were developed based on best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: The panel devised a framework for considering the use of immunomodulatory therapy based on an assessment of clinical disease severity and degree of multi-organ involvement combined with evidence of hyperinflammation. Additionally, the known rationale for consideration of each immunomodulatory approach and the associated risks and benefits was summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Immunomodulatory therapy is not recommended for the majority of pediatric patients, who typically develop mild or moderate COVID-19. For children with severe or critical illness, the use of immunomodulatory agents may be beneficial. The risks and benefits of such therapies are variable and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis with input from appropriate specialty services. When available, the panel strongly favors immunomodulatory agent use within the context of clinical trials. The framework presented herein offers an approach to decision-making regarding immunomodulatory therapy for severe or critical pediatric COVID-19 and is informed by currently available data, while awaiting results of placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials.

5.
Blood ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845957

RESUMO

IKAROS is a transcription factor forming homo/hetero-dimers and regulating lymphocyte development and function. Germline mutations affecting IKAROS N-terminal DNA binding domain, acting in a haploinsufficient or dominant negative manner, cause immunodeficiency. Herein we describe four germline heterozygous IKAROS variants affecting its C-terminal dimerization domain by haploinsufficiency, in four unrelated families. Index patients presented with hematologic disease consisting of cytopenias (thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutropenia)/Evans syndrome, and malignancies (T-ALL, Burkitt lymphoma). These mutations are partially or completely deficient to form homo- and hetero-dimers, but do not affect the wild type allele function. Moreover, they alter key mechanisms of IKAROS gene regulation including sumoylation, protein stability, and the recruitment of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex; none of them affected the N-terminal DNA binding. These C-terminal dimerization mutations are largely associated with hematologic disorders, display dimerization haploinsufficency, incomplete clinical penetrance, and differ from previously reported allelic variants in their mechanism of action. Dimerization mutants contribute to the growing spectrum of IKAROS-associated diseases displaying a genotype-phenotype correlation.

7.
Pediatrics ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-187893

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a worldwide pandemic. The severe morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 has mostly affected the elderly or those with underlying medical conditions. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with no past medical history who presented with fever, cough, and vomiting. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe thrombocytopenia and elevated markers of inflammation. The patient progressed to respiratory failure, and testing results for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 returned positive. Because of the severity of her thrombocytopenia, she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids with prompt improvement in platelets. The patient's severe acute respiratory distress syndrome was managed with mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and then airway pressure release ventilation. After azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were given without improvement, our patient received tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, and remdesivir, a broad antiviral agent, with significant clinical benefit soon afterward. Given that severe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 is rare, we hope to inform pediatric providers on the clinical course and management considerations as this pandemic continues to spread.

8.
Autoimmunity ; 53(5): 253-260, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370568

RESUMO

Introduction: Immune mediated liver diseases entail a broad category which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality amongst the paediatric population. Programmed Death 1 (PD1) is an inhibitory receptor mainly expressed by T cells, and when activated shed into plasma as soluble PD1(sPD1). The AIM of this study was to evaluate sPD1 levels in plasma of paediatric patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH), Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC), AIH and PSC overlap, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) alone, and concurrent PSC/IBD and AIH/IBD in order to identify a biomarker to response or predict relapse verses remission.Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 41 paediatric patients. AIH patients were further categorized into active, incomplete responders and responders, based on response to standard therapy. sPD1 levels were measured and compared between PSC, PSC/AIH, IBD alone, PSC/IBD and AIH/IBD patients and between active AIH, incomplete responders and responders. Flow cytometry was performed to further analyze CD45RA+, CD3CD4, CD8, CCR7, CXCR3, CD38 and PD1.Results: In the AIH group, those with active disease demonstrated a significantly higher sPD1 levels in comparison to responders (*p > .001). However, the incomplete responders didn't show a reduction in sPD1 in comparison to active AIH and patients with IBD alone. Interestingly, patients with PSC showed significantly lower level of sPD1 compared to active AIH (*p < .002), whereas, patients with PSC in conjunction with AIH (*p < .006) or IBD (*p < .02) demonstrated a significant increase in sPD1. In addition, we have observed increased levels of circulating CD4 and CD8 bound PD1 in active AIH but not in PSC or responders suggesting T cells activation. CD4+ PD1 double positive cells demonstrated increased expression of CXCR3. Thus, suggesting the activation of PD1 + T cells is mediating through CXCR3 in Autoimmune hepatitis.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that sPD1 levels correlate with active disease state of AIH and IBD. sPD1 levels did not correlate with PSC. However, PSC in conjunction with AIH or IBD showed higher levels of sPD1. This suggests that T cell activation plays a critical role in active AIH and IBD but not in PSC. Soluble PDI levels could be used as a clinical biomarker to assess response in patients with AIH and for prospectively monitoring PSC patients for development of IBD or AIH.

9.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366611

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a worldwide pandemic. The severe morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 has mostly affected the elderly or those with underlying medical conditions. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with no past medical history who presented with fever, cough, and vomiting. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe thrombocytopenia and elevated markers of inflammation. The patient progressed to respiratory failure, and testing results for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 returned positive. Because of the severity of her thrombocytopenia, she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids with prompt improvement in platelets. The patient's severe acute respiratory distress syndrome was managed with mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and then airway pressure release ventilation. After azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were given without improvement, our patient received tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, and remdesivir, a broad antiviral agent, with significant clinical benefit soon afterward. Given that severe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 is rare, we hope to inform pediatric providers on the clinical course and management considerations as this pandemic continues to spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/terapia
10.
Blood ; 135(23): 2094-2105, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268350

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the WAS gene, leading to thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the primary curative approach, with the goal of correcting the underlying immunodeficiency and thrombocytopenia. HCT outcomes have improved over time, particularly for patients with HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donors. We report the outcomes of 129 patients with WAS who underwent HCT at 29 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers from 2005 through 2015. Median age at HCT was 1.2 years. Most patients (65%) received myeloablative busulfan-based conditioning. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 91%. Superior 5-year OS was observed in patients <5 vs ≥5 years of age at the time of HCT (94% vs 66%; overall P = .0008). OS was excellent regardless of donor type, even in cord blood recipients (90%). Conditioning intensity did not affect OS, but was associated with donor T-cell and myeloid engraftment after HCT. Specifically, patients who received fludarabine/melphalan-based reduced-intensity regimens were more likely to have donor myeloid chimerism <50% early after HCT. In addition, higher platelet counts were observed among recipients who achieved full (>95%) vs low-level (5%-49%) donor myeloid engraftment. In summary, HCT outcomes for WAS have improved since 2005, compared with prior reports. HCT at a younger age continues to be associated with superior outcomes supporting the recommendation for early HCT. High-level donor myeloid engraftment is important for platelet reconstitution after either myeloablative or busulfan-containing reduced intensity conditioning. (This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02064933.).

12.
Hum Gene Ther ; 31(11-12): 626-638, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253931

RESUMO

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3) is a rare disease caused by mutations to the UNC13D gene and the subsequent absence or decreased activity of the Munc13-4 protein. Munc13-4 is essential for the exocytosis of perforin and granzyme containing granules from cytotoxic cells. Without it, these cells are able to recognize an immunological insult but are unable to execute their cytotoxic functions. The result is a hyperinflammatory state that, if left untreated, is fatal. At present, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but eligibility and response to this treatment are largely dependent on the ability to control inflammation before HSCT. In this study, we describe an optimized lentiviral vector that can restore Munc13-4 expression and degranulation capacity in both transduced FHL3 patient T cells and transduced hematopoietic stem cells from the FHL3 (Jinx) disease model.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153572

RESUMO

Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRD) are an expanding group of diseases caused by gene defects in several different immune pathways, such as regulatory T cell function. Patients with PIRD develop clinical manifestations associated with diminished and exaggerated immune responses. Management of these patients is complicated; oftentimes immunosuppressive therapies are insufficient, and patients may require hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for treatment. Analysis of HCT data in PIRD patients have previously focused on a single gene defect. This study surveyed transplanted patients with a phenotypic clinical picture consistent with PIRD treated in 33 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers and European centers. Our data showed that PIRD patients often had immunodeficient and autoimmune features affecting multiple organ systems. Transplantation resulted in resolution of disease manifestations in more than half of the patients with an overall 5-years survival of 67%. This study, the first to encompass disorders across the PIRD spectrum, highlights the need for further research in PIRD management.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

16.
Blood Adv ; 3(15): 2250-2263, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345792

RESUMO

The clinical utility of monitoring immune reconstitution after allotransplant was evaluated using data from Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network BMT CTN 0201 (NCT00075816), a multicenter randomized study of unrelated donor bone marrow (BM) vs granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized blood stem cell (G-PB) grafts. Among 410 patients with posttransplant flow cytometry measurements of immune cell subsets, recipients of G-PB grafts had faster T-cell reconstitution than BM recipients, including more naive CD4+ T cells and T-cell receptor excision circle-positive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 3 months, consistent with better thymic function. Faster reconstitution of CD4+ T cells and naive CD4+ T cells at 1 month and CD8+ T cells at 3 months predicted more chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) but better survival in G-PB recipients, but consistent associations of T-cell amounts with GVHD or survival were not seen in BM recipients. In contrast, a higher number of classical dendritic cells (cDCs) in blood samples at 3 months predicted better survival in BM recipients. Functional T-cell immunity measured in vitro by cytokine secretion in response to stimulation with cytomegalovirus peptides was similar when comparing blood samples from BM and G-PB recipients, but the degree to which acute GVHD suppressed immune reconstitution varied according to graft source. BM, but not G-PB, recipients with a history of grades 2-4 acute GVHD had lower numbers of B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and cDCs at 3 months. Thus, early measurements of T-cell reconstitution are predictive cellular biomarkers for long-term survival and response to GVHD therapy in G-PB recipients, whereas more robust DC reconstitution predicted better survival in BM recipients.

17.
J Pediatr ; 210: 220-225, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027832

RESUMO

A 4-year-old boy presented with perianal abscess and granulomatous colitis, which led the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. He became refractory to all available therapies and required colectomy. Targeted sequencing revealed a deleterious variant in NCF4, causing severe neutrophil dysfunction. He underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with an excellent outcome.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mutação , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(5): e27619, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697957

RESUMO

An array of monogenic immune defects marked by autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and hyperinflammation rather than infections have been described. Primary immune regulatory disorders pose a challenge to pediatric hematologists and oncologists. This paper focuses on primary immune regulatory disorders including autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and ALPS-like syndromes, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) and IPEX-like disorders, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), CVID-like, and late-onset combined immunodeficiency (CID) disorders. Hyperinflammatory disorders and those associated with increased susceptibility to lymphoid malignancies are also discussed. Using a case-based approach, a review of clinical pearls germane to the clinical and laboratory evaluation as well as the treatment of these disorders is provided.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico
19.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 39(1): 113-128, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466768

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs) is being increasingly used as a curative option. Understanding the critical components, such as disease's nature and activity and pre-HSCT and post-HSCT patient care is key to a successful outcome. HSCT should be tailored to the underlying PIDD, as different PIDDs, such as severe combined immune deficiency, Treg dysfunction, and phagocytic disorders, have different transplant approaches. Therefore, successful HSCT in patients with PIDDs requires teamwork between immunologists and transplant physicians. In this article, the authors elaborate on various aspects of PIDD-HSCT and highlight recent advances.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Infecções/etiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/etiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
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