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1.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245246

RESUMO

This study evaluated the modulation of gut microbiota, immune responses, and gut morphometry in C57BL/6 mice, upon oral administration of S. maxima-derived modified pectin (SmP, 7.5 mg/mL) and pectin nanoparticles (SmPNPs; 7.5 mg/mL). Metagenomics analysis was conducted using fecal samples, and mice duodenum and jejunum were used for analyzing the immune response and gut morphometry, respectively. The results of metagenomics analysis revealed that the abundance of Bacteroidetes in the gut increased in response to both modified SmP and SmPNPs (75%) as compared with that in the control group (66%), while that of Firmicutes decreased in (20%) as compared with that in the control group (30%). The mRNA levels of mucin, antimicrobial peptide, and antiviral and gut permeability-related genes in the duodenum were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated (> 2-fold) upon modified SmP and SmPNPs feeding. Protein level of intestinal alkaline phosphatase was increased (1.9-fold) in the duodenum of modified SmPNPs feeding, evidenced by significantly increased goblet cell density (0.5 ± 0.03 cells/1000 µm2) and villi height (352 ± 10 µm). Our results suggest that both modified SmP and SmPNPs have the potential to modulate gut microbial community, enhance the expression of immune related genes, and improve gut morphology.

2.
Biologicals ; 63: 14-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889622

RESUMO

Edwardsiella tarda phage (ETP-1) was isolated from marine fish farm water to characterize its effect against pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. tarda. According to transmission electron microscopy results, ETP-1 is classified as a member of the family Podoviridae. ETP-1 showed MOI dependent E. tarda growth inhibition, a latent period of 60 min, and burst size of 100 PFU per infected cells. In host range tests, five out of eight E. tarda strains were sensitive to ETP-1 which had efficiency of plating index in the range 1-1.28. ETP-1 was stable over a broad range of pH and temperature. The size of the ETP-1 genome was predicted to be approximately 40 kb. Zebrafish exposed to ETP-1 showed no adverse gene responses to the inflammatory mediator cytokines, il1-ß, tnf-α, il-6, and il-10, the chemokine, cxcl-8a, and reactive oxygen species, sod-1. When zebrafish were bath exposed to ETP-1 for 12 days and simultaneously challenged with E. tarda (1.08 × 105 CFU fish-1), the survival rate was higher in phage exposed fish (68%) compared to that of the control (18%) until 4 days post challenge. Our results suggest that ETP-1 can be used as a potential bio-therapeutic candidate to control multi-drug resistant E. tarda infection in aquaculture.

3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952292

RESUMO

: The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens makes an urgent need for discovering novel antimicrobial agents as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Towards this end, we designed and synthesized a synthetic peptide of 23 amino acids (AAs) (1GWLIRGAIHAGKAIHGLIHRRRH23) from a defense protein 3 cDNA sequence of Octopus minor. The sequence of the peptide, which was named Octominin, had characteristic features of known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as a positive charge (+5), high hydrophobic residue ratio (43%), and 1.86 kcal/mol of Boman index. Octominin was predicted to have an alpha-helix secondary structure. The synthesized Octominin was 2625.2 Da with 92.5% purity. The peptide showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 50 and 200 µg/mL, respectively, against Candida albicans. Field emission scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed that Octominin caused ultrastructural cell wall deformities in C. albicans. In addition, propidium iodide penetrated the Octominin-treated C. albicans cells, further demonstrating loss of cell membrane integrity that caused cell death at both MIC and MFC. Octominin treatment increased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. Cytotoxicity assays revealed no significant influence of Octominin on the viability of human embryonic kidney 293T cell line, with over 95% live cells in the Octominin-treated group observed up to 100 µg/mL. Moreover, we confirmed the antifungal action of Octominin in vivo using a zebrafish experimental infection model. Overall, our results demonstrate the Octominin is a lead compound for further studies, which exerts its effects by inducing cell wall damage, causing loss of cell membrane integrity, and elevating oxidative stress.

4.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(1): 409-416, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691176

RESUMO

To develop an alternative bio-control measure for multi-drug resistant pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila, which causes motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish, novel virulent phage (AHP-1) was isolated from carp tissues. Morphological analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed that AHP-1 belongs to Myoviridae family. AHP-1 displayed 81% of moderate adsorption by 25 min, and latent period of 40 min with burst size of 97 PFU mL-1 at an optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) 0.1. AHP-1 was stable over a broad range of pH (4-11), temperature (4-50 °C), and salinity (0.1-3.5%). Both time and MOI dependent in vitro A. hydrophila growth inhibition was observed with AHP-1. AHP-1 (10 MOI) showed higher growth inhibition against A. hydrophila than chloramphenicol (5 µg mL-1), and combined treatment was more promising than individuals. Immune gene expression analysis of zebrafish upon continuous bath exposure to AHP-1 resulted significantly higher (il-6 and sod-1) or slight induction (tnf-α, il1-ß, il-10, and cxcl-8a) than controls at beginning of the phage exposure, but those lowered to basal level by day 12 post-phage exposure. It suggests no adverse immune responses have occurred for the AHP-1 dose that used, and have potential for the phage therapy. Further detailed in vivo studies are needed to confirm the protective efficacy of newly isolated AHP-1 against A. hydrophila infection.

5.
Indian J Microbiol ; 59(2): 161-170, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031430

RESUMO

In this study, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was isolated, identified by 16S RNA sequencing and its potential lytic phage (ASP-1) was isolated and characterized. The bacterium was positive for virulence genes (ascV, fla, ahyB, gcaT, lip, alt and act) and phenotypic parameters (haemolysis, slime production, lipase activity, DNase test, gelatinase activity and protease activity) were tested. The bacterium was resistant to 27%, intermediate resistant to 14% and susceptible to 59% of tested common antibiotics. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that lytic ASP-1 belongs to the Myoviridae family. The isolated phage was more specific against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (efficiency of plating index = 1), but also had infectivity to A. hydrophila lab strain 1. The bacteriolytic effect of ASP-1 was tested at early exponential phase culture of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and bacteria growth was apparently decreased with time and MOI dependent manner. One-step growth of ASP-1 showed approximately 30 min of latent period, 16 PFU/infected cells of burst size and 40 min of rise period. The adsorption rate was determined as 3.61 × 108 PFU mL-1 min-1 for 3 min, and rate decreased with time. The ASP-1 genome size was estimated to be approximately 55-60 kD. The phage was stable over wide-range of temperatures, pH and salinity, thus could withstand at severe environmental conditions, indicating that ASP-1 has a potential to develop as an alternative antibiotic to use in ornamental and aquaculture industry.

6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 80: 573-581, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964197

RESUMO

Fish can be potentially co-infected by two or more bacterial strains, which can make synergistic influence on the virulence of infection. In this study, two opportunistic and multidrug resistant Aeromonas strains were isolated from wounds of morbid zebrafish with typical deep skin lesions similar to Motile Aeromonas Septicemia. Isolates were genetically identified as A. hydrophila and A. veronii by 16 S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Both isolates were positive for virulent genes (aerA, lip, ser, exu gcaT) and selected phenotypic tests (DNase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, biofilm production and ß-haemolysis). A. hydrophila and A. veronii had strong antibiotic resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Histopathological studies revealed that co-infection causes severe necrosis and hypertrophy in the muscles, kidney and liver of zebrafish. Naturally co-infected zebrafish showed highly induced tnf-α, il-1ß, il-6, il-12, ifn, ifn-γ, cxcl18 b and ccl34a.4 at transcription level compared to healthy fish, suggesting virulence factors may activate immune and inflammatory responses of zebrafish. Experimentally infected zebrafish showed significantly higher mortality under co-infection with A. hydrohila and A. veronii (87%), followed by individual challenge of A. hydrophila (72%) or A. veronii (67%) suggesting that virulence of A. hydrophila have greater pathogenicity than A. veronii during co-infection.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Coinfecção , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Peixe-Zebra , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas/genética , Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coinfecção/genética , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Citocinas/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Músculos/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Virulência/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia
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