Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200176

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes, and DNA methylation might mediate these adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal BPA exposure on maternal and fetal DNA methylation levels and explore whether epigenetic changes are related to the associations between BPA and low birth weight. We collected urine and blood samples originating from 162 mother-infant pairs in a Taiwanese cohort study. We measured DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip in 34 maternal blood samples with high and low BPA levels based on the 75th percentile level (9.5 µg/g creatinine). Eighty-seven CpGs with the most differentially methylated probes possibly interacting with BPA exposure or birth weight were selected using two multiple regression models. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was utilized to narrow down 18 candidate CpGs related to disease categories, including developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, skeletal and muscular system development, metabolic diseases, and lipid metabolism. We then validated these genes by pyrosequencing, and 8 CpGs met the primer design score requirements in 82 cord blood samples. The associations among low birth weight, BPA exposure, and DNA methylation were analyzed. Exposure to BPA was associated with low birth weight. Analysis of the epigenome-wide findings did not show significant associations between BPA and DNA methylation in cord blood of the 8 CpGs. However, the adjusted odds ratio for the dehydrogenase/reductase member 9 (DHRS9) gene, at the 2nd CG site, in the hypermethylated group was significantly associated with low birth weight. These results support a role of BPA, and possibly DHRS9 methylation, in fetal growth. However, additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed in ~7% of school-aged children. The role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) and oxidative stress in ADHD etiology are not clear. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the associations between simultaneous exposure to multiple compounds and ADHD in children. METHODS: The case-control study included 76 clinically diagnosed ADHD cases and 98 controls, aged 4-15 years old. Concentrations quartiles of urinary metabolites of acrylamide, acrolein, nonylphenol, phthalates, and organophosphate pesticides and biomarkers of oxidative stress were used to fit logistic regressions for each compound and weighted quantiles sum (WQS) regression for the mixture. RESULTS: Positive dose-response relationships with ADHD were observed for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA) (odds ratio(OR)Q4 = 3.73, 95%CI [1.32, 11.04], ptrend = 0.003), dimethyl phosphate (DMP) (ORQ4 = 4.04, 95%CI [1.34, 12.94], ptrend = 0.014) and diethyl phosphate (ORQ4 = 2.61, 95%CI = [0.93, 7.66], ptrend = 0.030), and for the mixture of compounds (ORWQS = 3.82, 95%CI = [1.78, 8.19]) with the main contributions from HNE-MA (28.9%) and DMP (18.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The dose-response relationship suggests enhanced susceptibility to EDC burden in children even at lower levels, whereas the main risk is likely from organophosphate pesticides. HNE-MA is recommended as a sensitive biomarker of lipid peroxidation in the further elucidation of the oxidative stress role in ADHD etiology.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145604, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592467

RESUMO

This study will help to clarify the relationship between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress and paraoxonases (PON) polymorphisms to further characterize the gene-environment interaction. This case-control study enrolled 85 children with ADHD and 96 control subjects. Urinary OP levels were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidative stress biomarkers, such as 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2-Gua), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S) were calculated to evaluate the additive interactions between OP exposure and PON genetic polymorphism on ADHD. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to clarify the mediation effects of oxidative stress due to OP exposure on ADHD. Children with ADHD had significantly higher DMP (238.95 nmol/g cre. vs. 164.83 nmol/g cre., p value = 0.01) and HNE-MA (30.75 µg/g cre. vs. 18.41 µg/g cre., p value<0.01) concentrations than control children. Children who carried the PON1 GG genotype (rs705379) had low urinary DMP levels, and the level increased with increasing numbers of allele variants. The risk for developing ADHD reached 2.06-fold (OR = 2.06, 95% CI:1.23-3.44) and 1.43-fold (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.04-2.03) when the DMP and HNE-MA levels increased by 1 natural log of the concentration, respectively. The estimated AP value was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.17-1.15), indicating that 66% of ADHD cases in DMP-exposed children with the PON1 CT/TT (rs705381) genotype were due to gene-environment interactions. No significant mediation of HNE-MA was observed between DMP exposure and the risk of ADHD. The estimated proportion mediated was only 7.0% (95% CI: -0.08-0.46). This research suggests the role of OP exposure in the occurrence of ADHD after adjusting for covariates.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Polimorfismo Genético , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139833, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526583

RESUMO

The present study assessed the association between phthalate exposure and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLG) methylation along with the potential effect on the characteristics of body fat in children. A total of 152 children were enrolled. The urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat, and bisulfite-treated DNA was subjected to a pyrosequencing assay. In total, 17 CpG sites in the exon 2 region of POLG were included in the analysis. A multivariable regression model was applied to determine whether characteristics of body fat were associated with phthalate exposure and methylation of POLG. After adjustment for covariates, male children with a ten-fold increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) or mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations had significantly higher measurements for total body fat (MMP: ß = 6.47%; MBzP: ß = 3.54%), and trunk fat (MMP: ß = 6.67%; MBzP: ß = 3.90%). Male children who had hypermethylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG also had high measurements for BMI (ß = 1.66 kg/m2), waist (ß = 4.49 cm) and hip (ß = 4.81 cm) circumference, total body fat (ß = 5.48%), and trunk fat (ß = 6.21%). A dose-response relationship existed between methylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG and characteristics of body fat (p for trend<0.01). This study suggested that male children who are exposed to phthalic acid esters have high body weight, BMI, and body and trunk fat percentages. Methylation of the exon 2 region of POLG is a possible mechanism behind the causal effect of endocrine-disrupting substances.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 201, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease in which pathogenic infections trigger a series of inflammatory responses and redox regulation. The hypothesis of this study was that a host's redox regulation, as modified by genetic polymorphisms, may affect periodontal disease activities (including the plaque index (PlI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and pocket depth (PD)) during periodontal therapy. METHODS: In total, 175 patients diagnosed with periodontitis were recruited from the Department of Periodontology, Taipei Medical University Hospital. Both saliva samples and clinical measurements (PlI, BOP, and PD) were taken at the baseline and at 1 month after completing treatment. Salivary manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase, and corresponding genetic polymorphisms (MnSOD, T47C, rs4880 and Catalase, C-262 T, rs1001179) were determined. The extent of change (Δ) of MnSOD or catalase was calculated by subtracting the concentration after completing treatment from that at the baseline. RESULTS: Subjects who carried the Catalase CC genotype had significantly higher salivary MnSOD or catalase levels. The MnSOD genotype had a significant effect on the percentage of PDs of 4~9 mm (p = 0.02), and salivary ΔMnSOD had a significant effect on the PlI (p = 0.03). The Catalase genotype had a significant effect on the PlI (p = 0.01~0.04), but the effect was not found for the mean PlI or PD. There was a significant interaction between the MnSOD genotype and salivary ΔMnSOD on PDs of 4~9 mm. After adjusting for gender, years of schooling, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, subjects with ΔMnSOD of < 0 µg/ml or Δcatalase of < 0 µg/ml had significantly higher 5.58- or 5.17-fold responses to scaling and root planing treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The MnSOD T47C genotype interferes with the phenotype of salivary antioxidant level, alters MnSOD levels, and influences the PD recovery. MnSOD and catalase gene polymorphism associated with phenotype expression and susceptibility in periodontal root planing treatment responses.


Assuntos
Catalase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Raspagem Dentária , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 955-964, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248753

RESUMO

Parabens are a group of esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid and are utilized as antimicrobial preservatives in the majority of personal care products (PCPs). Epidemiological studies regarding the adverse effects of parabens on fetuses are still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the association between maternal paraben exposure and birth outcomes. One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women were enrolled, and maternal urine was collected in the third trimester. The urine concentrations of four parabens (methyl (MP), ethyl (EP), propyl (PP), and butyl (BP)) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and a multivariable regression model were employed to determine the association between paraben exposure levels and birth outcomes. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to determine the mediation effect of oxidative stress on birth outcomes. The geometric means of urinary MP, EP, PP, and BP were 51.79, 1.26, 4.21, and 1.25 µg/g cre., respectively. In the penalized regression splines, sex-specific associations between maternal MP levels and birth outcomes were observed; a downward curvature was observed between the MP level and birth weight, length, head circumference, and thoracic circumference among female newborns. Pregnant women in the group with MP levels above the third quartile had neonates with significantly lower body weight (ß = -215.98 g, p value = 0.02) compared to those in the group with MP levels lower than the third quartile. No significant mediation of oxidative stress was observed between maternal MP exposure and female birth weight. The estimated proportion mediated ranged from -6% to 15%. The negative association between maternal paraben exposure and female birth outcomes in relation to child development should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/urina , Tamanho Corporal , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna , Parabenos/análise , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
7.
Chemosphere ; 226: 290-297, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933738

RESUMO

This study determined whether maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure influences birth outcomes through oxidative stress and estimated the daily intake of BPA through breast milk for infants. One hundred and eighty-six pregnant women without pregnancy complications were enrolled and maternal urine was collected in the third trimester. Postnatal breast milk was collected in the first and third months after delivery. Concentrations of BPA were determined through ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and a multivariable regression model were employed to determine the effects of BPA exposure and oxidative stress levels on birth outcomes. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to clarify the mediation effects of oxidative stress due to maternal BPA exposure on birth outcomes. The daily intake of BPA in breast milk was calculated using probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means (geometric standard deviation) of BPA levels for maternal urine and first- and third-month breast milk were 2.19 (2.88) µg/g creatinine., 1.35 (3.53) ng/g, and 3.17 (2.97) ng/g, respectively. No significant mediation existed among maternal BPA exposure, oxidative stress level, and neonatal head circumference. Three percent of 1-monthold babies and 1% of 3-month-old babies exceeded the BPA tolerable daily intake of 4 µg/kg-bw/day proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. This study revealed the BPA exposure profile for pregnant women and infants in northern Taiwan. The marginally significant correlation between maternal BPA exposure and neonatal head circumference should be considered.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Leite Humano/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11055, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038248

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between cigarette use and five salivary oxidative stress biomarkers, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin-1 (TRX1), and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRX2), to assess the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational study,167 patients diagnosed with periodontitis were recruited. Both saliva samples and clinical measurements (plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and pocket depth (PD)) were taken at baseline and after completing non-surgical periodontal therapy. The Levels of salivary biomarkers were determined using a MILLIPLEX® MAP Human Oxidative Stress Magnetic Bead Panel kit. The overall reductions in PI and BOP were 31.56% and 42.16%, respectively. BOP reduction after treatment in female or male non-smokers was significantly higher than in male former smokers (p < 0.05). After completing non-surgical periodontal therapy, Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, catalase, and Prx2 significantly decreased. There was a significant interaction between smoking status and ΔCu/ZnSOD on PI and a significant interaction between smoking status and ΔCatalase on BOP. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking interferes with redox homeostasis in the body, alters antioxidants levels, and influences the periodontal disease activity.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Periodontais/induzido quimicamente
9.
Environ Res ; 160: 339-346, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the association between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 93 children with ADHD and 112 control children in north Taiwan. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OPs and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed. Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were identified. RESULTS: Children with ADHD had significantly higher dimethylphosphate (DMP, 236.69nmol/g cre. vs. 186.84nmol/g cre., p value = 0.01) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA, 28.95µg/g cre. vs. 16.55µg/g cre., p value<0.01) concentrations than control children. Children who carried DRD4 GA/AA genotypes (rs752306) were less likely than those who carried the DRD4 GG genotype to have ADHD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.84). The estimated value of the AP (attributable proportion due to interaction) was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.13-1.05), indicating that 59% of ADHD cases in DMP-exposed children with the DRD4 GG genotype were due to the gene-environment interaction. After adjustment for other covariates, children who carried the DRD4 GG genotype, had been exposed to high DMP levels (more than the median), and had high HNE-MA levels had a significantly increased risk for developing ADHD (OR = 11.74, 95% CI: 2.12-65.04). CONCLUSION: This study indicated a gene-environment interaction in the risk of ADHD in children. The association between DMP and ADHD in children might relate to the mechanism of lipid peroxidation. Dose-response relationships and the combined effects of OPs, oxidative stress, and genetic polymorphism on ADHD should not be neglected.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 635-644, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055577

RESUMO

The contamination of a clouding agent with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a substitute emulsifier-containing compound used in a variety of foods was announced on May 23, 2011. The aims of this study were as follows (1) compare the urine phthalates (PAE) metabolites concentration and estimate the daily intake (DI) of PAEs in pregnant women before and after the tainted food scandal and (2) examine the effect of relatively high PAEs exposure on birth outcome. One-hundred twelve pregnant women in Northern Taiwan participated in this study from March to December 2010, i.e., before the tainted food scandal. After the tainted food scandal, we collected 69, 73, and 180 urine specimens (January 2013 to August 2014) from women whom were in their first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. We measure urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations to estimate the DI of DEHP and the hazard quotient (HQ) of subjects. This was the first study to assess the effects of DEHP-tainted food scandal exposure in pregnant women across the three trimesters of pregnancy. After the tainted food report, the concentrations of urine PAE metabolite were significantly decreased, especially those of DEHP metabolites. Based on different reference limit values, the percentages of pregnant women whose HQDEHP value exceeded the limit ranged from 0.53% to 8.93%. Despite this low frequency, the higher ΣPAE exposure during the second trimester may significantly increase the risk of relatively low birth height compared to the lower exposure group (ß=-0.63 (-1.20 to -0.06)). Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to relatively high concentrations of DEHP in pregnant Taiwanese women may have an adverse effect on birth outcomes. The percentage of subjects whose exposure level exceeded the exposure limit was low; however, high PAEs exposure appears to be significantly associated with birth outcomes. Therefore, we suggest that reference dose for PAEs should be revised.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taiwan
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 612: 1373-1379, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is a global health concern. Several studies have focused on chronic arsenic exposure in adults; however, limited data are available regarding the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure on fetuses and neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess which time point maternal arsenic exposure may influence the fetus during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHODS: In this study, total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in urine samples collected from 130 women with singleton pregnancies (22-45years old) in Taiwan from March to December of 2010. All fetal biometric measurements in each trimester period and birth outcomes at delivery were obtained. We applied a generalized estimating equation model and multivariate regression models to evaluate the associations between maternal urinary total arsenic (UtAs) exposure during pregnancy, fetal biometric measurements, and neonatal birth outcomes. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant correlations between maternal UtAs levels and the fetal biparietal diameter over all three trimesters (ß=-1.046mm, p<0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed a negative association between maternal UtAs levels and chest circumference in the first trimester (ß=-0.721cm, p<0.05), and second-trimester UtAs exposure was associated with decreases in birth weight (ß=-173.26g, p<0.01), head circumference (ß=-0.611cm, p<0.05), and chest circumference (ß=-0.654cm, p<0.05). Dose-response relationships were also observed for maternal UtAs exposure and birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a negative relationship between maternal UtAs levels during pregnancy, fetal development, and neonatal birth outcomes. These findings should be confirmed in future studies with large sample sizes.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 607-608: 1126-1135, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724251

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to phenols, phthalates (PAEs), and organophosphate (OP) pesticides may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes. However, many previous studies have examined exposure to a limited number of chemical classes or exposure profiles limited to a specific stage of pregnancy. This study aims to characterize the concurrent exposure scenario throughout pregnancy by simultaneously monitoring internal doses of several endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including 2 phenols (nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA)), 9 PAEs, and 6 OP pesticide metabolites and to assess the relationships between concurrent exposure to EDCs and infant birth weight, length, and head and chest circumference. One hundred and sixty two women provided three spot urine samples at approximately 11 and 26weeks gestation and at delivery. We applied multivariable linear regression and ridge regression models to estimate the effects of separate and correlated exposures. Multivariable linear regression models revealed that women with short birth-length infants had significantly higher urinary second-trimester NP levels (50th percentile, 5.03µg/g creatinine) (ß=-0.47cm; 95% CI=-0.93 to -0.01). Similarly significant relationships were observed between second-trimester mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure and short birth length, second-trimester ΣPAEs and short birth length, second-trimester ΣPAEs exposure and reduced head and chest circumference, second-trimester diethylphosphate (DEP) exposure and reduced birth weight and length, and second-trimester ΣDEPs exposure and short birth length. Women with urinary BPA above the 75th percentile or ΣPAEs levels above the 50th percentile in the third trimester had infants with significantly reduced head circumference. These observations suggest that the second trimester may be the critical stage of susceptibility for fetal development. In ridge regression models, for which women with fewer measures for exposure to NP, BPA, MMP, ΣPAEs, DEP and ΣDEPs simultaneously were available, no relationships were found with infant size at birth. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Taiwan
13.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151605, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships among periodontal conditions, salivary antioxidant levels, and patients' satisfaction with their prostheses. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital. The periodontal condition of patients was based on an assessment of the plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI). The pH value, flow rate, and buffer capacity of the saliva were estimated. The salivary total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level were also determined. Patients' satisfaction with prosthetic treatments was evaluated using the Chinese version of the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14C). A multivariate regression model was used to determine whether patients' satisfaction with prosthetic treatment was affected by their oral health status. RESULTS: In total, 35 edentulous patients were recruited. In the Spearman correlation analysis, salivary pH (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and the buffer ability (r = -0.48, p<0.01) were associated with OHIP-14C scores. In the multivariate analysis, patients who had a higher GI also had a higher score of physical disabilities (ß = 1.38, p = 0.04). Levels of SOD increased with the scores of psychological discomfort (ß = 0.33 U/g protein, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that both the GI and SOD levels were associated with patients' satisfaction with prosthetic treatments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the relationship between OHIP scores and salivary oxidative markers in edentulous patients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Prótese Total/psicologia , Boca Edêntula/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Saliva/química , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca Edêntula/terapia , Índice Periodontal , Projetos Piloto , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0138145, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is an important marker for prenatal screening; however, studies focusing on the correlation between maternal trace element levels and NT thickness are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal trace element levels during the first trimester and to investigate the association between maternal trace element levels and fetal NT thickness. METHODS: In total, 113 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women. Maternal plasma samples were collected in the first trimester of gestation. Plasma trace element levels were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nuchal translucency thickness was measured using ultrasonography at 10-14 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: We found that maternal plasma potassium (K) levels had a significant negative correlation with both NT (r = -0.230, p < 0.05) and NT Multiples of the Median (NT MoM) (r = -0.206, p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, log-transformed maternal plasma potassium levels in the first trimester were significantly associated with fetal NT (NT MoM: ß = -0.68, p < 0.05; NT: ß = -1.20, p < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, the As, Hg and Pb levels in maternal plasma were positively correlated with NT, and the Mg, Cu, Zn, Na and Ca levels were negatively correlated with NT. CONCLUSION: Maternal plasma K levels during the first trimester appeared to be associated with NT thickness. The essential elements tended to decrease NT thickness, and non-essential elements tended to increase it.


Assuntos
Medição da Translucência Nucal , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
15.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 218(7): 603-15, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. METHODS: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. RESULTS: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 µg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 µg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/efeitos adversos , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/urina , Obesidade Pediátrica/urina , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
16.
Environ Res ; 137: 215-21, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575372

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure and the health effects of that exposure have been intensively studied for a variety of environmental pollutants and trace elements. However, few studies have compared susceptibilities among the three trimesters of gestation. Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring and abundant trace element in the environment. Although the effects of Mn on animals are well documented, knowledge of the effects of Mn exposure on pregnant women and fetuses remains limited. A longitudinal study was conducted by collecting blood samples during all three trimesters, and Mn exposure was completely characterized during gestation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of maternal Mn exposure on neonatal birth outcomes and to explore the critical stage of these effects. In total, 38, 76 and 76 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women in their first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The cohort of pregnant women was selected at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Erythrocyte samples were collected during the first, second and third trimesters of gestation. Erythrocyte Mn concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Neonatal birth outcomes were evaluated immediately after delivery. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the associations between maternal Mn levels in erythrocytes in each trimester and neonatal birth outcomes. The geometric mean concentrations of Mn were 2.93 µg/dL, 3.96 µg/dL and 4.41 µg/dL in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, a consistently negative association was found between maternal Mn levels throughout the three trimesters and birth outcomes. Log-transformed Mn levels in maternal erythrocytes in the second trimester were significantly associated with neonatal birth weight, head and chest circumferences, respectively (ß=-556.98 g, p=0.038; ß=-1.87 cm, p=0.045; ß=-2.74 cm, p=0.024). Despite the limited sample size in the first trimester, negative effects of maternal Mn levels on birth weight (ß=-1108.95 g, p<0.01) and chest circumference (ß=-4.40 cm, p=0.019) were also observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feto/metabolismo , Manganês/sangue , Exposição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Apgar , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Technol Health Care ; 22(6): 915-21, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25159998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic imbalance is common in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Vestibular rehabilitation is effective in improving upright balance control. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises, such as Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, include simple repetitive movements and have limited feedback and adaptive training protocols. Interactive systems based on virtual reality (VR) technology may improve vestibular rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional VR system for vestibular rehabilitation. METHODS: In 49 subjects with vestibular dysfunction, VR rehabilitation exercises were performed in 6 sessions. Before and after rehabilitation, subjects were evaluated for performance of the training exercises; the center of pressure was measured for 20 seconds and balance indices were determined. RESULTS: Five training scores (total 6) showed a significant improvement. For balance indices in condition of non-stimulation, all of them (total 5) showed a trend of improvement, in which there was a significant improvement in mean mediolateral. For balance indices in condition of post-stimulation, there was a significant improvement in statokinesigram and maximum mediolateral. CONCLUSIONS: The VR rehabilitation exercises were effective in improving upright balance control in patients with vestibular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Doenças Vestibulares/reabilitação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Vestibular
18.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104245, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (ß = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/urina , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
19.
Chemosphere ; 93(6): 1145-52, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23871597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the association between NP exposure and parity and their effect on neonatal birth weight. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women was established in a medical center in North Taiwan. Urinary NP concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection and adjusted using creatinine. A multivariable regression model was fit to determine the association between the maternal NP level in each trimester and neonatal birth weight. The odds ratios (ORs) of infant birth weight below the 10th, 25th, and 50th percentiles, comparing pregnant women with the different NP exposure levels, was estimated using a logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 162 pregnant women in the study, 99 were multiparas and 63 were primiparas. After adjusting for other covariates, the NP level in the second trimester had a significant association with birth weight in the primiparas (ß = -182.49 g, p value = 0.02). The OR of low infant birth weight, comparing pregnant women with different NP levels, was increased by decreasing the cutoff percentile for birth weight (OR = 1.18 for the 50th percentile, 2.12 for the 25th percentile, and 7.81 for the 10th percentile). The odds of primiparas with high NP level having a low neonatal birth weight increased to 3.87, 11.77, and 9.40 for the three different percentiles (p value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Maternal NP exposure level is associated with an increased risk of low neonatal weight. Primiparas are especially at risk, and the second trimester of pregnancy may be the critical stage of exposure.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Paridade , Fenóis/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Taiwan
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 458-460: 367-73, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23680990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental hormone with proven estrogenic effects. Although its adverse effects on animals are well documented, the effects of NP exposure on humans remain unclear, and those on the human foetus are completely unknown. This study explores the effects of intrauterine NP exposure on neonates. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women was established in a medical centre in northern Taiwan. Urine samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated immediately after delivery. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation was applied to assess the association between gestational age, maternal body weight, and maternal NP concentration throughout the three trimesters. A multivariable regression model was used to determine the association between maternal NP level in urine in each trimester and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27 µg/g, 4.21 µg/g, and 4.10 µg/g in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Pregnant women whose urinary NP concentrations were above the median in the second trimester had low maternal weight gain (ß=-1.55 kg, p=0.02) and short neonatal body length (ß=-0.47 cm, p=0.04). Women with an above-median urinary NP concentration had an odds ratio of having a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate of 7.81 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that maternal high NP exposure in the second trimester is associated with SGA, decreased foetal body length at birth, and low maternal weight gain. The effects of this endocrine-disrupting substance on pregnant women and foetuses should be a concern during gestation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Tamanho Corporal , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenóis/urina , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...